,,From Belgrade to the DJerdap I hydropower plant,,
The name Kalemegdan comes from two words, "kale", which means fortress and "megdan", which
Kalemegdan is one of the best fortresses at the confluence of two European rivers, the Sava and the
Danube. The first fortification was built by the Romans in the 1st century AD. That is why Belgrade is
one of the oldest cities in Europe. Historical figures Attila, Justinian, Hungarian King Solomon, Bela
the Third, Turkish Sultan Murat, Suleiman the Magnificent, Germans, French, Huns, Avars, Goths,
Gepids, Bulgarians, Austougarians, Turks fought for this fortress.
Kalemegdan had a defensive significance for Belgrade against invaders. Today there is a park here,
the "Pobednik" monument, a symbol of Belgrade, the Zidan Gate which was once a dungeon, a
Roman well, the Church of Saint Petka, the "Nebojisa" tower, the Cathedral.
Kalemegdan has the best strategic location in Europe because it is the border of the Austro-Hungarian
and Ottoman empires.
Vinca is an archaeological site on the right bank of the Danube. It originates from the Neolithic
era. It is 7000 years old. Vinca is the first permanent settlement in Europe. Vinca was not a
village but the first city. They were grain and fish merchants, they never fought, because they did
not have or make weapons. They were constantly attacked and set on fire 3 times. Today, it is a
site for visitors. There is also a museum. The Vincennes culture spread from Macedonia to
Hungary and to Sofia in Bulgaria. People were engaged in pottery here. They had comfortable
houses to live in. They traded with people from the Aegean Sea. So they fished and changed
products for 15 days. At the beginning of the metal age, they were attacked and conquered by
warrior tribes from the north.
The Smederevo fortress is located on the right bank of the Danube, it has 25 towers, which is why
it is the largest in Serbia. It is located at the confluence of two rivers, the Danube and the Jezava.
The Smederevo fortress was built by Despot Djuradj Brankovic in the 15th century. Throughout
history, she has defended the large city of Smederevo, which today has 100,000 inhabitants and
its surroundings. The fortress defended itself in the form of a pentagon and was surrounded by the
water of the Danube river. Smederevo is an old medieval town that was also the capital of Serbia.
The Turks conquered it in 1459. Today, there are cultural manifestations "Smederevo Autumn"
and "Grape Harvest".
Kostolac is a small settlement on the right bank of the Danube. It is located at the confluence of
two rivers Malva and Danube. Poynat is based on hard coal and the thermal power plant that
supplies Belgrade with electricity. You will see chimneys on the right. This coal is mined on the
surface as a surface mine. The Roman city "Viminacium" was discovered here. When we talk
about the Danube, it is interesting here that the Danube has its own backwater, which is called
"Dunavac" here, as a bay of the Danube. There is a beach for swimming 14 kilometers long. The
Silver Lake for swimming is nearby. Around the Danube, there is the "Ramsko / Golubacka"
sandbank, which was created by the blowing of sand from the Danube 600,000 years ago. From
here you can see the Carpathians in Romania.
The Ram fortress dates back to the 15th century. It has 5 towers. It is located on a rock, on an
elevation. At this fortress, 4 rivers, Nera and Karas from Romania, and Mlava and Velika Morava
- the Serbian national river, flow into the Danube. The fortress has the shape of a pentagon, it is
34 meters wide. It was conquered by the Turks in the 16th century. Reconstructed and open for
The Djerdap National Park begins from the Golubacka Fortress and the largest gorge in Europe,
the Djerdapa Gorge, begins.
Djerdap National Park was declared a park in 1974. It was also declared a geopark by UNESCO.
There are 1100 species of flora and fauna under protection.
Djerdap Gorge is 100 kilometers long. This is the composition of the Danube river from 4 basins
(Ljupkovska, Donjomilanovacka, Oršava basin and Wallachia-Pontic lowland) and 4 gorges
(Golubačka, Gospodgin vir, Kazan and Sipska klisura). Through the Djerdap Gorge, the
Pannonian Sea swelled towards today's Black Sea. This is how the Danube was born. This means
that the Danube was created by the withdrawal of the Pannonian Sea to the east. The Danube
leads all the rivers to the Black Sea and we call it the Black Sea basin. The mountains around the
Djerdap gorge are the Carpathians from the north and Stara planina Balkan from the south. To the
west is the Pannonian basin in Hungary and Austria, and to the east is the Vlach Pontic lowland in
Golubac fortress and the town of Golubac. Here, the Danube looks like a bay, it is 6.5 kilometers
wide. Here, the Danube is the widest in its course through Europe. The Golubac fortress was built
in the 14th century, it has 10 towers, the ruler was Despot Stefan Lazarevic. It was conquered by
the Turks. It was renovated in 2014 by the investment of Turkey. The main road passes through
the Golubacka fortress, through a tunnel. It faces the castle.
The Danube is the deepest in the towns of Veliki and Mali Kazan, 93 meters, in all of Europe.
On the Romanian left is the Marconia Monastery, a Romanian nunnery built in the 15th century,
here the Danube is 93 meters deep.
On the right side of the Danube is the famous archeological site from the Neolithic Lepenski Vir.
Lepenski vir is 8000 years old. People from this culture ate healthily, gathered forest fruits and
Across Duvav from the Romanian side is the Treskavac rock, which has the shape of a triangle.
People in Lepenski vir looked at that rock every day and built trapezoidal or triangular houses
towards that rock. They thought that rock was a deity. The location is arranged for visits. There
are 11 famous sculptures from the Neolithic period. They were discovered by Professor Dragoslav
Srejovic with students.
The Djerdap gorge is said to be the Iron Gate of the Balkans because the narrowest part of the
Danube is only 150 meters long.
Lepenski vir belongs to the municipality of Donji Milanovac, which is a small town with 3,000
inhabitants. It is a port on the Danube and a tourist destination. It was named after the Serbian
prince Milan Obrenovic.
From the Romanian side of the Danube. The head of Decebal is 40 meters high. King
Decebal was the last Dacan king in Romania. He ruled in the 1st century AD. He was
overthrown when the Roman emperor Trajan came. Trajan called Dacia, a large
Romanian region, then a Roman province.
When leaving the small cauldron, you can see Trajan's tablet. Trajan was the Roman emperor
who established the borders of Upper Moesia. Trajan's panel is 1 by 3 meters. The board weighs
300 tons. It was moved when the "Djerdap" hydropower plant was being built, because a new
water line was built.
The Djerdap I hydropower plant is shared by Romania and Serbia. Construction began in 1964.
The hydropower plant was created by creating an artificial lake on the Danube. Then the water
level rose and many archaeological sites were submerged. The hydropower plant has 12 turbines.
We will see Djerdap I, and Djerdap II is downstream, it was built in 1984. It has 10 turbines.
Kladovo is a small municipality 240 km from Belgrade, Kladovo is a port. It has 10,000
inhabitants. It is known for its wines, fish processing and chemical industry. The population is
mixed because Serbs, Vlachs, Romanians, Cincars, and Bulgarians live there. This is a very old
settlement and goods have always been exchanged there. There is an archaeological site here and
the fortress "Diana", the first level of protection, dates back to the 1st century AD, and had 4
gates. Downstream from here there is another Roman fortress, Fetislam.
Opposite Kladovo, on the other side of the Danube, is the city of Turin Severin in Romania.
Famous for building ships.
The Danube is 2885 kilometers long, navigable and is called Corridor 7. It has exceptional traffic
importance because it connects the North Sea and the Black Sea, through the Rhine Main Danube
Thank you for your attention.
Students of the Sixth Belgrade High School