Lets start with a quotation….
It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the
most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.
What is “CHANGE MANAGEMENT” ?
Change management is an
approach to shifting or
transitioning individuals, teams,
and organizations from their
existing state to a desired future
Levels of change
Changes can happen and/or impact, within an organization, on four different levels (see
graphic below.) There can be one or several levels affected by a Change. It is important to
understand the levels a change impacts, as they are the base for appropriate measures and
Individual Level change
At the individual level, change is reflected in such developments as changes
in job assignment ,physical move to a different location, or the change in the
maturity of a person which occurs over time.
It is said that changes at the individual level will seldom have significant
implications for the total organization. This is not true because a significant
change at the individual level will have its repercussions on the group ,which
in turn, might influence the wider organization.
Group level change
• Most organization changes have their major effects at the group level. This
is because most activities in organizations are organized on a group basis
the group could be departments or informal work groups. Changes at the
group level can affect work flows, job design , social organization,
influence and status systems, and communication patterns.
• Changes at this level involve major programs that affect both individuals
and groups. Decision regarding this change changes are generally made by
senior management and are seldom implemented by only a single
manager . Frequently ,they occur over long period of time and require
considerable planning for implementation.
• Example of these changes would be reorganization of the organizational
structure and responsibilities, revamping of employee remuneration
system or major shifts in an organization’s objectives.
• Change at the organizational level is generally referred to as ‘organization
RESISTENCE TO CHANGE
Resistance to change is the action taken by
individuals and groups when they perceive that a
change that is occurring as a threat to them.
SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
• INDIVIDUAL SOURCES
Fear of the unknown
Selective information processing
• ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCES
Limited focus of change
Threat to expertise
Threat to established power relationships
Overcoming resistance to change
• There are 8 tactics that can help change agents deal with resistance to change :
1) Education and communication
3) Building support and commitment
4) Develop positive relationships
5) Implementing change fairly
6) Manipulation and cooptation
7) Selecting people who accept change
The 6 stage change
Follwing up on the
Recognizing the need
Becoming aware for
the pressure for
Kotter’s 8 step model for implementing change
• Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change
• Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change.
• Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the
• Communicate the vision throughout the organization.
• Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and
encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving.
• Plan for create and reward short term “wins” that move the organization
toward the new vision.
• Consolidate improvements , reassess changes, and make necessary
adjustments in the new program.
• Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new
behaviors and organizational success.
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