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Training of UF design with WAVE Software

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New WAVE (Water Application Value Engine) modeling software from Dow integrates three leading technologies ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange into one comprehensive tool.
Its robust range of features and powerful calculation engine let you model more efficiently and accurately, designing better performing multi-technology systems, faster.

Technologies under one common and user friendly interface Improved and consistent algorithms
Harmonized data for all products and processes

Powerful improvements for modeling efficiency. WAVE upgrades the best features of the Dow

ROSA, UFLOW, IXCALC and CADIX

programs, while bringing key technologies together in one common, user-friendly, time saving interface.

Publicada em: Engenharia
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Training of UF design with WAVE Software

  1. 1. DOW™ WAVE Design Software By : Amirreza Arashi 1
  2. 2. WAVE Water Application Value Engine 2
  3. 3. New WAVE (Water Application Value Engine) modeling software from Dow integrates three leading technologies ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange into one comprehensive tool. Its robust range of features and powerful calculation engine let you model more efficiently and accurately, designing better performing multi-technology systems, faster. Technologies under one common and user friendly interface Improved and consistent algorithms Harmonized data for all products and processes Powerful improvements for modeling efficiency. WAVE upgrades the best features of the Dow ROSA, UFLOW, IXCALC and CADIX programs, while bringing key technologies together in one common, user-friendly, time saving interface. AmirrezaArashi 3
  4. 4. Ultrafiltration (UF) Features: • Includes the latest Dow UF products: DOW IntegraFlux™ and DOW IntegraPac™ UF Modules with XP Fiber • Discriminates between drinking vs. non drinking products • Updated design guidelines and pressure rating curves • Membrane integrity testing capabilities • Ability to specify pH of chemical enhanced backwash (CEB) and clean in place (CIP), introduce trans-membrane pressure (TMP) slopes for BW/CEB/CIP, design for constant flux vs. constant output and use RO concentrate for cleaning AmirrezaArashi 4
  5. 5. Reverse Osmosis (RO) Features: • Offers the latest Dow RO products data base with calculation improvements, including DOW FILMTEC™ FORTILIFE™ and FILMTEC™ ECO Elements • Improved ISD capability – each element in a pressure vessel can now be uniquely defined • Split permeate available with ISD • Bypass, pass and stage level concentrate recycle loops • New system level hydraulic flow calculator • Batch modeling with the possibility of simultaneous batch case creation • Design warnings by element position • Addition of pressure drop in reports AmirrezaArashi 5
  6. 6. Ion Exchange (IX) Features: • Includes the full Dow IX product line • Harmonized data for all processes and resins • Ability to model 13 IX processes including softening, dealkalinization, demineralization, RO/IX polishing, condensate polishing, and nitrate removal • Seven IX regeneration schemes including co- current, water or air blocked packed beds, AMBERPACK™, UPCORE™ IX Systems, and internal and external mixed beds AmirrezaArashi 6
  7. 7. The Ultrafiltration system design in WAVE is a powerful tool that allows sizing of new systems or evaluating the performance of existing ones. In order to design a new Ultrafiltration system it is important to understand the main inputs needed to help get an accurate and optimized design. These inputs include information about the feed water source (e.g., municipal, seawater, wastewater, well water or surface water), quality, temperature range and required feed flow or net plant output. On the other hand, the final application of the project is of interest, as in the case of drinking water applications, specific Dow™ UF modules must be used. For a given feed water type and quality, the appropriate design guidelines must be applied. These design guidelines have been created based on extensive experiences and references in similar waters. The design guidelines include suitable operating flux, duration of the filtration cycles or frequency of the chemical cleanings. Once all this information is introduced in the system design software, it will populate a detailed Ultrafiltration System Design report, which includes a general process flow diagram, module selection, sizing and quantity of trains, sizing of water and chemical tanks, process parameters and sequence tables, as well as estimations for chemical and energy consumption, among others. AmirrezaArashi 7 UF System Specification in WAVE
  8. 8. 1) Adding the UF Icon into the WAVE Home Window 2) Removing the UF Icon 3) Defining the Feed Water Flow rate and Recovery 4) Specifying Feed Water Properties 5) Defining the System Design 6) Defining the System Configuration 7) UF System Operation Details 8) Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings UF system specification includes the following steps AmirrezaArashi 8
  9. 9. Adding the UF Icon into the WAVE Home The UF Symbol can be dragged and dropped on top of the gray spot to specify a UF process as shown in. If the gray spot is not visible, simply dragging the UF icon between the two large blue arrows will make the gray spot visible. AmirrezaArashi Dragging and dropping UF icon 9
  10. 10. Removing the UF Icon Dragging and dropping the icons into the picture of the waste bin Right-clicking on the icon in question and selecting “Delete“ 10 AmirrezaArashi
  11. 11. Defining the Feed Water Flow rate and Recovery Feed and Product water flow rates should be specified using the text boxes in the middle of the blue arrows. First, Feed or Permeate flow option should be selected using the radio button in the upper part of the arrow, later the flow rate can be specified. Notes: •WAVE would display a warning if the Feed or Product flow rates are specified as 0 or a negative number •Given a feed water flow rate, WAVE would calculate a product flow rate based on a default recovery. Given a product water flow rate, WAVE would calculate a feed flow rate based on a default recovery. For UF, a default recovery of 95% is used. AmirrezaArashi Definition of feed or product flow for a UF system 11
  12. 12. WAVE does give the user the possibility of defining a recovery that defines feed/product flow if product/feed flow is known. This is done by: 1.Right-clicking on the UF icon 2.Selecting “Define Recovery” 3.Entering the desired recovery The default recovery value for UF systems is 95% in WAVE. The recovery defined above is a system recovery and is used– currently based on UF configuration and strainer recovery Definition of recovery for a UF system in the Home page AmirrezaArashi Definition of recovery for a UF system in the Home page 12
  13. 13. Specifying Feed Water Properties The amount of each component can be specified as shown below. The suggested order is: 1.From the Feed Water tab, select the water type 2.Enter the solid content properties (NTU, TSS, SDI) and the organic content (TOC) 3.Enter the temperature values and pH 4.Adjust the pH value using ¨Adjust pH¨ button AmirrezaArashi Entry of UF specific feed composition 13
  14. 14. Specifying Feed Water Properties Notes: •WAVE limits the minimum temperature to 1°C and the maximum temperature in the Feed Water temperature entry fields to 40°C for UF. •WAVE does not have a correlation between the Turbidity, SDI and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fields. The user is expected to put in the correct values for each field. AmirrezaArashi 14
  15. 15. Defining the System Design Fundamental UF System Design information can be specified on ¨Design¨ window. AmirrezaArashi UF Plant Design window 15
  16. 16. 1) UF Feed Flow Rate 2) UF Module Selection 3) UF Fluxes and Flow rates 4) Design Cycle Intervals and Membrane Integrity Testing 5) Specifying the Filtration TMP Increase between Processes for UF 6) Specifying the Strainer Size and Recovery Defining the System DesignAmirrezaArashi 16
  17. 17. 1 - UF Feed Flow Rate The feed flow rate to the UF is specified by the user at the Home Tab as indicated in Section Defining the Feed Water Flowrate and Recovery. AmirrezaArashi 17
  18. 18. 2 - UF Module Selection The UF module of interest can be selected from the Design Window. Once the module is selected, the table of Recommended Configurations would be updated. Drinking water modules are included in the list once the ¨Include drinking water modules¨ box is checked. AmirrezaArashi How to select a UF module type 18
  19. 19. UF Module SelectionAmirrezaArashi SFP-2660 SFD-2660 SFP-2860 SFD-2860 SFP-2880 SFD-2880 IntegraFlux™ 19 IntegraPac™
  20. 20. AmirrezaArashi 20 DOW™ Ultrafiltration Product Code The DOW™ Ultrafiltration Product Code consist of a string of letters and digits as described below. UF Module Selection
  21. 21. AmirrezaArashi 21 DOW™ Ultrafiltration other Product Code UF Module Selection
  22. 22. AmirrezaArashi SFP-2660 & SFD-2660 This module is an ideal choice for systems capacities of 50 m3/hr (220 gpm) or less. The shorter, 60 inch length module offers higher efficiencies over a wider range of feed water conditions compared to longer length modules. The smaller, 6 inch diameter module allows a more compact design for space constrained installations. 22 UF Module Selection
  23. 23. AmirrezaArashi SFP-2860 & SFD-2860 This module is an ideal choice for systems with capacities greater than 50 m3/hr (220 gpm). The larger, 8 inch diameter module offers the highest effective membrane area of the DOW UF modules, which contributes to a more economical membrane system design. The shorter, 60 inch length module offers higher efficiencies over a wider range of feed water conditions compared to longer length modules. 23 UF Module Selection
  24. 24. AmirrezaArashi SFP-2880 & SFD-2880 This module is an ideal choice for systems with capacities greater than 50 m3 /hr (220 gpm). Larger and longer, 8 inch diameter and 80 inch in length, together with an increase in packing density of 10,000 fibers, this module offers the highest effective membrane area of the DOWTM Ultrafiltration modules. The 2880 contributes to a more economical membrane system design. 24 UF Module Selection
  25. 25. AmirrezaArashi DOW IntegraFlux These modules are an excellent choice for systems with capacities greater than 50 m3/hr (220 gpm). The shorter SFP-2860XP or SFD-2860XP modules are well suited for installations with limited height. Larger and longer, 8 inch diameter and 80 inch in length, the SFP- 2880XP or SFD-2880XP modules offer a high effective membrane area combined with high permeability that provides the most economical and efficient membrane system design. 25 UF Module Selection
  26. 26. AmirrezaArashi DOW IntegraPac™ Innovative end-cap design enables direct coupling of modules reducing the need for piping and manifolds. The outside-in flow configuration allows the use of highly effective air scour cleaning which enhances particle removal and improves recovery. A dead-end flow format achieves higher recovery and energy savings. The module housing design eliminates the need for separate pressure vessels while the vertical orientation allows easy removal of air from cleaning and integrity testing processes. 26 UF Module Selection
  27. 27. AmirrezaArashi 27 DOW™ Ultrafiltration Product Selection guide The figure, below, can be used as a guide to target the proper product. UF Module Selection
  28. 28. AmirrezaArashi 28 DOW™ Ultrafiltration Product Selection guide The figure, below, can be used as a guide to target the proper product. UF Module Selection
  29. 29. AmirrezaArashi 29 DOW™ Ultrafiltration Product Selection guide The figure, below, can be used as a guide to target the proper product. UF Module Selection
  30. 30. DOW IntegraPac™ Ultrafiltration Skids A subset of the DW&PS product offerings are the IntegraPac products. Sliders depicting the minimum and maximum Skid Sizes would be displayed on the Recommended Configurations table that can be found in the ¨Configuration¨ tab. IntegraPac™ sliders in WAVE Note: WAVE may allow the user to set the Min IntegraPac™Ultrafiltration Skid Size Limit to be larger than the Maximum IntegraPac™ Skid Size Limit; however, the Recommended Configurations Table would be empty. AmirrezaArashi IntegraPac™ sliders in WAVE 30 2 - UF Module Selection
  31. 31. If the user enters a number of modules per skid higher than the maximum DOW IntegraPac™ skid size limit (22), a warning message will appear. Warning message if the number of IntegraPac™ modules is exceeded AmirrezaArashi Warning message if the number of IntegraPac™ modules is exceeded 31 2 - UF Module Selection
  32. 32. UF Module Design – Feed & Filtrate EndsAmirrezaArashi 32
  33. 33. UF operation reviewAmirrezaArashi Normal operation refers to the routine operating sequence of a system using the DOWTM Ultrafiltration IntegraPac™ module and includes the operating and backwash steps. Consult Dow for commissioning procedures. At initial start up the modules are flushed using a “forward flush” to remove any residual chemicals or trapped air from the module. The flush occurs on the outside of the fibers and does not filter the feed water to produce filtrate. After the forward flush is discontinued the modules can be placed in the operating mode. An operating cycle ranges from 20 to 90 minutes in duration. While operating, 100% of the feed water is converted to filtrate. This is also referred to as dead end filtration. As contaminants are removed and deposited on the hollow fiber membrane surface during the operating step the transmembrane pressure will rise. At the end of the preset operating cycle time, a backwash sequence commences. 33 The backwash mode occurs automatically usually on a preset time basis. The steps include an air scour, draining by gravity, backwash through the top outlet, backwash through the bottom outlet, and a forward flush. The air scour step is used to loosen particulates deposited on the outside of the membrane surface. Air is introduced on the outside of the fibers using only the hold up water volume of the module. Displaced feed flow/concentrate is allowed to discharge through the top of the module for disposal. After 20 to 30 seconds of continuous or intermittent air scour the module is drained by gravity.
  34. 34. AmirrezaArashi After the gravity draining step, the first backwash step is performed. Filtrate flow is reversed from the inside of the fiber to the outside and backwash flow is removed from the module housing through the top outlet. 34 UF operation review The second backwash step is performed to remove backwash water through the bottom outlet. Filtrate continues to flow from the inside of the fiber to the outside and backwash flow is removed from the module housing through the bottom outlet of the module, ensuring the entire length of fibers have been cleaned. The backwash steps can be repeated numerous times depending on the degree of fouling. After backwash is complete, a forward flush is performed to remove any remaining large particulates and air trapped on the outside of the fibers. After a backwash, the modules are returned to the normal operating mode. CEB operation refers to a chemically enhanced backwash. The frequency of a CEB is dependent on the feed water quality. On high quality feed waters a CEB may not be required. The CEB process is programmed to occur automatically but the frequency can be field adjusted after gaining site specific operating experience. The CEB is performed using UF filtrate and either an acid, or alkali chemical. The alkali solution can be a combination of oxidant and caustic to more efficiently clean contaminants from the membrane surface. Selection of chemicals is made according the DOW Ultrafiltration applications guidelines and understanding of the foulants in the feed water.
  35. 35. AmirrezaArashi The soak is performed for 5 to 20 minutes and allows time for the chemical to react with contaminants that have attached to the membrane surface or penetrated the fiber wall. Intermittent air scour can be applied during the soak step. After the soak a routine backwash including air scour, gravity drain, top and bottom backwash, and forward flush is performed to remove any remaining particulates and purge residual chemicals. After a CEB and at the start of the operating step, the initial filtrate produced may be sent to waste to remove residual chemicals. This step is dependent on the system piping and valve design and the downstream requirements for the filtrate. 35 UF operation review CIP A clean in place (CIP) is an offline operation that includes backwashes and chemical recirculation and soaking to clean the hollow fibers. The CIP is an on demand operation. It can be an automated process but is most often conducted manually. The frequency of a CIP is dependent on the feed water quality and routine fouling control strategy but can range from 1 to 6 months. Prior to a CIP the routine backwash steps including air scour, draining, backwash through the top outlet, and backwash through the bottom outlet are performed. The
  36. 36. AmirrezaArashi 1> Filtration Ultrafiltration system are most of the time in filtration mode while in operation. The feed water is pumped through the membrane and is converted to filtrate. Typically all feed is converted to filtrate in what is referred as dead-end filtration (as opposed to cross-flow filtration where a fraction of the feed leaves the system as reject). Filtration cycles typically range from 20-90 minutes, depending on the deed water source and quality. The figure shows a diagram of the filtration step in DOW UF Modules. 36 UF operation review
  37. 37. AmirrezaArashi 2> Air Scour The Air Scour step is used to loosen particulates deposited on the outside of the membrane surface. Oil-Free air is introduced through the bottom of the module creating a stream of ascending bubbles which help to scour material off the membrane. Displaced water volume is allowed to discharge through the top port of the modules for disposal, as shown in the figure. After a minimum of 20-30 seconds of continuous Air Scour, the module is drained by gravity. 37 UF operation review
  38. 38. AmirrezaArashi 3> Gravity Drain Once the Air Scour step is finished, the module must be drained by gravity in order to flush out of the system the material dislodged from the membrane surface by the preceding air scour step, as shown in the figure. The duration of this step will depend on the system volume and piping layout, but it is typically set to 30-60 seconds. If gravity drain is not possible due to the system configuration, or it takes too long , it can be substituted by a forced flush trough the bottom outlet of the module using the backwash pump, however this will consume more water and energy. 38 UF operation review
  39. 39. AmirrezaArashi 4> Backwash Top After the gravity drain step, the backwash step is initiated. Filtrate water is pumped backwards, ie., from the inside to the outside of the fibers, in order to push the accumulated material off the membrane. Then it is flushed out to waste trough the top module outlet (see figure). The backwash flux ranges from 100 – 120 LMH, and the duration of the step is 30-45 seconds. Sometimes, depending on the application, chlorine might be added to the backwash stream to help remove foulants or inhibit microbiological activity. Air scour can be combined with the backwash top step to increase cleaning effectiveness. 39 UF operation review
  40. 40. AmirrezaArashi 5> Backwash Bottom After the backwash top step, the filtrate continues to flow from the inside of the fiber to outside but now it is flushed out trough the bottom outlet of the module (see figure), ensuring the entire length of fibers have been cleaned. The backwash pump is not stopped in the transition between backwash top and backwash bottom the valves must be sequenced to prevent damaging the membranes. Similarly to the Backwash Top step, the duration of the backwash bottom is typically 30 to 45 seconds and optionally chlorine might be added to help remove foulants or inhibit microbiological activity. The backwash steps can be repeated numerous times depending on the degree of fouling. Monitoring the backwash wastewater quality can be useful to optimize the duration of these steps. 40 UF operation review
  41. 41. AmirrezaArashi 6> Forward Flush The backwash sequence finalizes with a forward flush. In this step, feed water is used to rinse the system to remove remaining solids and the air that might have got trapped in the system during the precedent steps. Water flows on the outside of the fibers (feed side) with the filtrate valve closed, and exists through the module top outlet, as shown in the figure. This step typically lasts 30-60 seconds or long enough to refill the modules and purge air and water from the outlet. After this, the systems returns to filtration mode and the cycle starts again. 41 UF operation review
  42. 42. AmirrezaArashi backwash steps can be repeated multiple times to remove contaminants or foulants not requiring chemical removal. After completing the backwash steps, the module is drained by gravity to remove excess water and prevent dilution of the CIP chemical solution. The CIP chemical solutions are recirculated through the modules on the outside of the hollow fibers for 30 minutes through a chemical mixing and solution tank. A portion of the recycle stream can be passed through the hollow fibers and recycled to the chemical cleaning tank. A cartridge filter is used to remove particulates from the CIP solution during recycle. 42 UF operation review CIP
  43. 43. AmirrezaArashi Note that the CIP solution can be heated to 40ºC to improve effectiveness for removing contaminants from the hollow fibers. The CIP solution pH can be measured during the cleaning process and refreshed with chemicals to maintain the target pH and effectiveness of the solution. A soak is performed after the initial recycle step for 60 minutes or longer depending on the degree of fouling that has occurred. After the soak step, CIP chemicals are again recycled through the modules on the outside of the hollow fibers for 30 minutes. Air scour for short durations can be performed during the soak and recycle steps to prevent channeling of the solution through the module. When the recycle is completed an air scour is performed and then the module is drained to remove the concentrated chemical solution. The top and bottom backwash and the forward flush steps are also performed to remove any remaining particulates on the outside of the fibers. After a CIP and at the start of the operating step, filtrate may be sent to waste to remove residual chemicals held in the fiber or module. The CIP steps described above are for a single alkali or acid chemical solution. If both an acid and alkali cleaning are required, the CIP steps would be repeated for each chemical solution. 43 UF operation review
  44. 44. AmirrezaArashi 44 Summary of Cleaning Processes
  45. 45. AmirrezaArashi 45 Summary of Cleaning Processes
  46. 46. WAVE allows the user to set the following values using text entry boxes. 1.Filtrate flux 2.Backwash flux 3.CEB flux 4.Forward Flush flowrate 5.Airflow 6.CIP Recycle flow rate 3 - UF Fluxes and Flow rates Note: WAVE populates the flow rates and fluxes by default based on DOW™ Ultrafiltration – General Design Guidelines. AmirrezaArashi UF Fluxes and Flowrates 46
  47. 47. Visual Inspection TestAmirrezaArashi During the pressure hold/decay test, leaking modules can be identified through the transparent section of filtrate piping. As the system is being pressurized with oil-free compressed air from the air inlet valve at a maximum of 2 bars (29 psi), large continuous air bubbles may appear in the transparent filtrate piping. This indicates that the specific module may have broken fibers or damaged seals. Smaller and infrequent bubbles are the result of air diffusion through the pores of the ultrafiltration membrane. 47
  48. 48. 4 - Design Cycle Intervals and Membrane Integrity Testing WAVE allows the user to set the cycle intervals for each mode in UF using the number entry boxes. 1.Filtration Duration – span before interruptions 2.Air scour – span between each successive incidence 3.Acid CEB– span between each successive incidence 4.Alkali/Oxidant CEB– span between each successive incidence 5.CIP– span between each successive incidence 6.Membrane integrity testing AmirrezaArashi UF Cycle intervals 48
  49. 49. 4 - Design Cycle Intervals and Membrane Integrity Testing AmirrezaArashi Note: WAVE populates the cycle intervals by default (based on Dow™ Ultrafiltration – General Design Guidelines) and includes limits on the values that can be input by the user. Membrane Integrity Testing The integrity of membranes (made into fibers) is periodically tested in most UF systems. While the test itself involves little water (mostly compressed air), the time taken during the test would affect the timing of all the other modes in UF. For that reason it is considered in WAVE. It is possible in WAVE to specify if Membrane Integrity Testing is to be considered and if so, its duration for each train. Note: By default, WAVE assumes that Membrane Integrity Testing is not considered when looking at the timing of UF modes of operation. 49
  50. 50. Trans Membrane Pressure or TMPAmirrezaArashi 50 Trans Membrane Pressure (TMP) Dead-end management is applied because the energy loss is less than when one applies a cross-flow filtration. This is because all energy enters the water that actually passed the membrane. The pressure that is needed to press water through a membrane is called Trans Membrane Pressure (TMP). The TMP is defined as the pressure gradient of the membrane, or the average feed pressure minus the permeate pressure. The feed pressure is often measured at the initial point of a membrane module. However, this pressure does not equal the average feed pressure, because the flow through a membrane will cause hydraulic pressure losses. Operating TMP (Maximum) = 2.1 Bar
  51. 51. How to Calculate Transmembrane PressureAmirrezaArashi 51 • TMP = the difference in pressure between two sides of a membrane. • it describes how much force is needed to push water (referred to as the "feed") through a membrane. • A low transmembrane pressure indicates a clean, well-functioning membrane. • A high transmembrane pressure indicates a dirty or "fouled" membrane with reduced filtering abilities. add the values for the feed pressure and the retentate pressure. Divide the sum by two and subtract the permeate pressure. The result is the transmembrane pressure. Pf (feed pressure) Pr (Retentate pressure) Pp (permeatepressure) Transmembrane Pressure (TMP) = (Pr+Pf)/2 - Pp
  52. 52. 5 - Specifying the Filtration TMP Increase between Processes AmirrezaArashi WAVE makes possible the specification of increases of pressure drop across the UF membrane (trans membrane pressure or TMP) between successive Backwash, Acid/Alkali CEB and CIP steps per hour. It will help to estimate the energy needed for ultrafiltration by taking into account solid accumulation/fouling of the UF membrane during use. By using the appropriate rates of TMP increase and Backwash/CEB/CIP frequencies, one can incorporate the effect of deteriorating membrane performance between cleanings. The TMP increase between processes can be accessed as shown. The Filtration Specification Window in WAVE for UF modeling 52
  53. 53. AmirrezaArashi Notes: •WAVE sets the values for transmembrane pressure drop (TMP) increase with time to zero by default. The user is urged to use an appropriate value based on data and experience. •The UF System Diagram is displayed automatically in the Filtration Window and is updated based on the changes made in other Windows. 53 5 - Specifying the Filtration TMP Increase between Processes
  54. 54. 6 - Specifying the Strainer Size and Recovery WAVE makes possible the specification of Strainer size and recovery (pretreatment for UF). The Strainer Specification can be accessed as shown. Note: The Strainer Recovery is set to 99.5% by default in WAVE. A change in the Strainer Recovery would be automatically reflected in the filtrate flowrate. However, the rest of the system design is not directly affected. AmirrezaArashi UF Strainer Specification 54
  55. 55. Defining the System Configuration The next window is for definition of the UF Plant Configuration.  Recommended Configurations  Choosing a Configuration  Specifying Other Design Options  The UF Process Flow Diagram AmirrezaArashi UF Configuration window 55
  56. 56. 1 - Recommended ConfigurationsAmirrezaArashi The recommended Configurations table is populated based on the flux, cycle duration and module selection (and Dow™ Ultrafiltration – General Design Guidelines). Recommended Configuration Table in UF for non- IntegraPac™ 56
  57. 57. 1 - Recommended ConfigurationsAmirrezaArashi It describes the system design as shown below. Modules/Skid and Skids/Train options can be edited for IntegraPac™ systems. Design options that include the number of Modules/Skid and Skids/Train are supplied by WAVE for IntegraPac™ systems. Note: By default, WAVE calculated the number of modules per train based on the flux and duration recommendations. Configuration Table in UF for IntegraPac™ 57
  58. 58. 2 - Choosing a ConfigurationAmirrezaArashi There are two ways to choose a UF system configuration: Double clicking on one of the rows in the Recommended Configurations Table Directly specifying the number of online trains, BW/CEB standby, CIP standby trains, modules per train, skids per train (IntegraPac™), modules per skid (IntegraPac™) in the respective input fields in the Configuration Window in the Ultrafiltration Tab as shown below. Direct specification of the UF system configuration in the WAVE Configuration Window. 58
  59. 59. 2 - Choosing a ConfigurationAmirrezaArashi Notes: By default, WAVE assumes 1 online train with zero standby trains and 1 module per train to start the computation. For IntegraPac™ systems, WAVE assumes by default 1 skid per train The Recommended Configurations Table appears in the Configuration Window. The user can choose a specific configuration by double-clicking on a row in the Table. WAVE highlights the selected configuration in the Selected Configuration table in the Configuration Window but it does not highlights the selection in the Recommended Table. The user is urged to check the entries in the Selected Configuration section of the Configuration Window (as shown above) to ensure that the right configuration is specified. 59
  60. 60. 3 - Specifying Other Design OptionsAmirrezaArashi In addition to flowrates, fluxes, UF mode durations and system configurations, there are additional design options that can be specified in WAVE (Figure 1 and Figure 2). These options, which affect the size and number of storage tanks, include: • Standby Options • Storage Tank Options Additional UF system design inputs in WAVE (operating mode) Standby Options There are two Standby Options: 1.Constant system output, variable operating flux 2.Constant operating flux, variable system output 60
  61. 61. 3 - Specifying Other Design OptionsAmirrezaArashi Selection of the Standby option for UF modeling in WAVEStorage Tank Options WAVE automatically selects Storage Tank Option once the Standby Option is selected. There are two options: 1.BW only: There is no storage tank for the filtrate to ensure constant flow to downstream processes. This might require additional standby modules. Some of the filtrate is siphoned off to be stored for Backwash purposes. 2.BW + filtration: There is a storage tank for the filtrate to ensure constant flow to downstream processes. This might require fewer standby modules. Some of the filtrate is siphoned off to be stored for Backwash purposes. 61
  62. 62. 4 - The UF Process Flow DiagramAmirrezaArashi Based on the information provided in the Design and Configuration Windows, WAVE generated the UF process flow diagram as shown in Figure 1. It is shown interchangeably with the Recommended Configurations Table. One can generate the UF System Diagram by clicking on the “Show UF System Diagram” button as shown in Figure 1. The user can restore the Recommended Configurations Table by clicking on the “Show Recommended Configurations” button as shown. 62
  63. 63. AmirrezaArashi As shown in in Figure 1, The UF System Diagram displays: 1) Flowrates (feed, product, Backwash, CIP, air scour, chemicals) 2) Feed water composition (TSS, TOC, NTU, SDI) 3) Number of skids and modules 4) UF module type 5) UF system recovery and strainer recovery 6) Tank sizes (Backwash or Backwash + filtrate, CIP) Generating the UF System Diagram restoring the Recommended Configurations Table 63 4 - The UF Process Flow Diagram
  64. 64. AmirrezaArashi Notes: •Specifications in the Configuration or Design Windows. •The UF System Diagram can be generated from the Design Window as well as the Configuration Window using the same procedure. •There would be a CIP Tank even though there may not be a CIP (standby) train. •When the Backwash (BW), CEB and CIP steps are specified, there would be changes to the UF System Flow Diagram. These are discussed in more detail in upcoming sections. 64 4 - The UF Process Flow Diagram
  65. 65. UF System Operation DetailsAmirrezaArashi WAVE can technically model a UF system given only the system configuration information given in the two subsections above (with all other required information supplied by default). However, it is possible to define the different modes of operation of a UF system (Backwash, CEB, CIP) in more detail in WAVE. The windows for specifying the above are revealed for use by clicking on the “More” button as shown in Figure. They can be hidden again using the “Less” button as shown in Figure. 1) Specifying the BW 2) Specifying the CEB 3) Specifying the CIP Further options to specify a UF system in WAVE 65
  66. 66. Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)AmirrezaArashi Backwash (BW) Mode specification includes the following options: 1.Backwash Temperature 2.Backwash Durations 3.Backwash and Forward Flush Water Sources 4.Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification Backwash Temperature WAVE uses the design temperature (specified in the Feed Water Tab) by default (Figure 1). Backwash temperature using the design temperature 66
  67. 67. AmirrezaArashi Backwash durations Backwash Durations WAVE populates the durations of the multiple steps within the Backwash mode; Air Scour, Drain, Top and Bottom Backwash, Forward Flush by default based on the feed water type and subtype. However, users can also specify their own duration values as shown in Figure 2. 67 Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)
  68. 68. AmirrezaArashi Backwash Durations Notes: • Currently the effect of different temperatures on the system design (by affecting density/feed pressure) is not included in WAVE. • Changes to the Top or Bottom Backwash durations would affect the operating flux and would be reflected automatically in the UF System Diagram. • The WAVE user can specify the Backwash Flux and how far apart the Backwashes are in the Design Window. By modifying the Top and Bottom Backwash durations, the user can effectively modify the amount of water used for Backwash. This would be reflected in the UF system recovery. • Modifying the Air Scour and Drain durations would affect the Operating Flux, as these would affect the timing of the UF system. • Modifying the duration of Forward Flush, with flowrate specified in the Design Window and source specified in the Backwash Window, affects the Operating Flux and System Recovery. • If the user elects to make the CEB durations the same as Backwash durations (as would be discussed in a later section), the effects of changes in Backwash durations, duplicated in CEB durations, would be magnified. 68 Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)
  69. 69. AmirrezaArashi Backwash and Forward Flush water type selection Backwash and Forward Flush Water Sources A WAVE user can choose between the following options for backwash water source: • UF filtrate (product of the UF system being designed in WAVE) • Pretreated water (water that was passed through the Strainer but not the UF modules) A WAVE user can choose between the same options for Forward Flush water source. The choice can be made as shown in Figure 3. Note: The effect of choosing different options for Backwash and Forward Flush would be seen after WAVE completes the UF calculations. 69 Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)
  70. 70. AmirrezaArashi Specification of an oxidant for Backwash (a) Activating the Oxidant option (b) Selecting the Oxidant (c) Specifying the oxidant target concentration in the Backwash stream Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification WAVE allows for the addition of an oxidant for more effective cleaning of the UF module during Backwash. This is separate from the use of an oxidant during CEB. An oxidant can be selected and its dose in the Backwash stream specified by following the steps 70 Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)
  71. 71. AmirrezaArashi Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification WAVE allows for the addition of an oxidant for more effective cleaning of the UF module during Backwash. This is separate from the use of an oxidant during CEB. An oxidant can be selected and its dose in the Backwash stream specified by following the steps below • Click on the “Oxidant” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. In addition a line feeding Oxidant to the Backwash line (named BW Oxidant) would appear in the UF System Diagram. • Click on the dropdown arrow. • Select the oxidant chemical of interest. The name of the chemical and its concentration in BW Oxidant stream would be displayed in the UF System Diagram. • Specify the target oxidant concentration in the Backwash stream. The target oxidant concentration in the Backwash stream would appear in the UF System Diagram. • Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the Backwash Window. 71 Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)
  72. 72. AmirrezaArashi Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification Notes: •The list of oxidants is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. •In WAVE, NaOCl would appear as the oxidant chemical by default. •Clicking on the “Oxidant” button a second time would deactivate the input cell and remove the BW Oxidant line from the UF System Diagram. Setting the target concentration to zero would not remove the BW Oxidant line from the UF System Diagram. 72 Specifying the BW (Backwash Mode)
  73. 73. Chemical Library AmirrezaArashi Multiple chemicals are used in WAVE to adjust pH, coagulate solids, clean UF modules, prevent scaling, regenerate ion exchange resins etc. In WAVE, these chemicals can be common substances (e.g. NaOH, HCl) at various concentrations or user defined chemicals. These chemicals can be defined as shown below: 1- Click on ‘User Settings’ in the top ribbon Selection of User Settings to specify Chemicals 73
  74. 74. Chemical Library AmirrezaArashi 2- Click on ‘Chemical Library’ Selection of the Chemical Library to specify Chemicals 74
  75. 75. Chemical Library AmirrezaArashi 3 - Select which chemicals would appear in dropdown boxes and which chemicals are to be included in cost calculations Specification of Chemicals 75
  76. 76. AmirrezaArashi This is similar to the specifying the Backwash Mode. 1.CEB Temperature 2.CEB Durations 3.CEB Mineral Acid Selection and Dose Specification 4.CEB Organic Acid Selection and Dose Specification 5.CEB Alkali Selection and Dose Specification 6.CEB Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification 76 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  77. 77. AmirrezaArashi UF CEB specification in WAVE, with default temperature highlighted CEB Temperature WAVE uses the design temperature (specified in the Feed Water Tab) by default for CEB Note: Currently the effect of different CEB temperatures on the system design (by affecting density/feed pressure) is not included in WAVE. 77 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  78. 78. AmirrezaArashi UF CEB durations specification in WAVE CEB Durations WAVE populates the durations of the multiple steps within the CEB mode; Air Scour, Drain, Top and Bottom Backwash, Forward Flush by default based on the feed water type and subtype. However, users can also specify their own duration values as shown in Figure 2. 78 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  79. 79. AmirrezaArashi CEB Durations Notes: •Once the CEB durations are specified to be the same as Backwash durations, any changes in Backwash durations are automatically reflected in CEB durations. •Changes to the Top or Bottom Backwash durations would affect the operating flux and would be reflected automatically in the UF System Diagram. •The WAVE user can specify the CEB Flux and how far apart the CEBs are in the Design Window. By modifying the Top and Bottom Backwash durations, the user can effectively modify the amount of water used for Backwash. This would be reflected in the UF system recovery. •Modifying the Air Scour and Drain durations for CEB would affect the Operating Flux, as these would affect the timing of the UF system. •Modifying the duration of Forward Flush, with flowrate specified in the Design Window and source specified in the Backwash Window, affects the Operating Flux and System Recovery. 79 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  80. 80. AmirrezaArashi Specification of a Mineral Acid for CEB (a) Activating the Mineral Acid option (b) Selecting the Mineral Acid (c) Specifying the target pH or concentration in the CEB stream CEB Mineral Acid Selection and Dose Specification WAVE allows for the addition of a mineral (i.e. inorganic) acid for CEB. This is done by following the steps below: 80 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  81. 81. AmirrezaArashi CEB Mineral Acid Selection and Dose Specification WAVE allows for the addition of a mineral (i.e. inorganic) acid for CEB. This is done by following the steps below: 1.Click on the “Mineral Acid” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. In addition a line feeding CEB Acid to the Backwash line (named CEB Acid) would appear in the UF System Diagram. 2.Click on the dropdown arrow. 3.Select the mineral acid of interest. The name of the chemical and its concentration in CEB Acid stream would be displayed in the UF System Diagram. 4.Specify the target pH for pH reduction in the CEB stream (if the ionic composition of the feed water is available) or target mineral acid concentration in the CEB stream. The target mineral acid concentration in the CEB stream would appear in the UF System Diagram. 5.Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the CEB Window. 6.Specification of a Mineral Acid for CEB (a) Activating the Mineral Acid option (b) Selecting the Mineral Acid (c) Specifying the target pH or concentration in the CEB stream 81 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  82. 82. AmirrezaArashi Changes in Mineral Acid input in CEB with no Ionic Composition LSI and S&DI Entry during Acid Addition in CEB If ionic composition is not defined on the feedwater screen, the LSI cell will be blank. Otherwise, if ionic composition is defined, the LSI cell as a pH value is specified (Figure 4). The LSI (Langelier Saturation Index) is an indicator used to determine the need for calcium carbonate scale control. This is important in UF because UF is usually a pretreatment for RO feed. The LSI is applicable for water streams containing up to 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids. For water streams containing greater than 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids, the Stiff & Davis Stability Index (S&DI) is preferredFigure 6). Changes in Mineral Acid input in CEB with no Ionic Composition 82 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  83. 83. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Acid Addition in CEB Changes in Mineral Acid input in CIP with feed TDS < 10,000 mg/L Changes in Mineral Acid input in CIP with feed TDS < 10,000 mg/L 83 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  84. 84. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Acid Addition in CEB Changes in Mineral Acid input in CIP with feed TDS > 10,000 mg/L Changes in Alkali input in CIP with feed TDS > 10,000 mg/L 84 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  85. 85. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Acid Addition in CEB Notes: • The list of mineral acids is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. • The target pH in the CEB stream for pH reduction (if the ionic composition of the feed water is available) or target mineral acid concentration in the CEB stream interconvert automatically, i.e. if the user initially did not have ionic composition data and entered target mineral acid concentration, but later enters some ionic composition data, the target mineral acid concentration is converted to a corresponding pH and vice versa. • If the “Mineral Acid” button is activated, WAVE would require selection of a mineral acid and a corresponding pH/target concentration. • Clicking on the “Mineral Acid” button a second time would deactivate the input cell and remove the CEB Acid line from the UF System Diagram. Setting the target concentration to zero would not remove the CEB Acid line from the UF System Diagram. 85 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  86. 86. AmirrezaArashi CEB Organic Acid Selection and Dose Specification WAVE allows for the addition of an organic acid for CEB. This is done by following the steps below: • Click on the “Organic Acid” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. In addition a line feeding CEB Organic Acid to the Backwash line (named CEB Organic Acid) would appear in the UF System Diagram. • Click on the dropdown arrow. • Select the organic acid of interest. The name of the chemical and its concentration in CEB Organic Acid stream would be displayed in the UF System Diagram. • Specify the target organic acid concentration in the CEB stream. The target mineral acid concentration in the CEB stream would appear in the UF System Diagram. • Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the CEB Window. 86 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  87. 87. AmirrezaArashi CEB Organic Acid Selection and Dose Specification Specification of an Organic Acid for CEB: Activating the Organic Acid option; Selecting the Organic Acid and Specifying the target concentration in the CEB stream Notes: o The list of organic acids is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. o If the “Organic Acid” button is activated, WAVE would require selection of an organic acid and a corresponding target concentration. o Clicking on the “Organic Acid” button a second time would deactivate the input cell and remove the CEB Organic Acid line from the UF System Diagram. Setting the target concentration to zero would not remove the CEB Organic Acid line from the UF System Diagram. 87 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  88. 88. AmirrezaArashi CEB Alkali Selection and Dose Specification Specification of a Alkali for CEB (a) Activating the Alkali option (b) Selecting the Alkali concentration (c) Specifying the target pH in the CEB stream WAVE allows for the addition of an alkali for CEB. This is done by following the steps below : • Click on the “Alkali” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. In addition a line feeding CEB Alkali to the Backwash line (named CEB Alkali) would appear in the UF System Diagram. • Click on the dropdown arrow. • Select the alkali of interest. The name of the chemical and its concentration in CEB Alkali stream would be displayed in the UF System Diagram. • Specify the target alkali concentration in the CEB stream. The target alkali concentration in the CEB stream would appear in the UF System Diagram. 88 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  89. 89. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CEB CEB Water quality in Alkali input in CEB with feed with no ionic composition One can note the appearance of the LSI cell as a pH value is specified (note the difference between Figure 9 and Figure 10). The LSI is applicable for water streams containing up to 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids (Figure 10). For water streams containing greater than 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids, the S&DI is preferred (as seen in Figure 12). CEB Water quality in Alkali input in CEB with feed with no ionic composition 89 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  90. 90. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CEB Changes in Alkali input in CEB with feed TDS < 10.000 mg/L Changes in Alkali input in CEB with feed TDS < 10.000 mg/L 90 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  91. 91. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CEB Changes in Alkali input in CIP with feed TDS > 10,000 mg/L Changes in Alkali input in CIP with feed TDS > 10,000 mg/L 91 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  92. 92. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CEB Notes: •The list of alkali chemicals is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. •The target pH in the CEB stream for pH reduction (if the ionic composition of the feed water is available) or target alkali concentration in the CEB stream interconvert automatically, i.e. if the user initially did not have ionic composition data and entered target alkali concentration, but later enters some ionic composition data, the target alkali concentration is converted to a corresponding pH and vice versa. •If the “Alkali” button is activated, WAVE would require selection of an alkali and a corresponding pH/target concentration. •Clicking on the “Alkali” button a second time would deactivate the input cell and remove the CEB Alkali from the UF System Diagram. Setting the target concentration to zero would not remove the CEB Alkali line from the UF System Diagram. (c) 92 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  93. 93. AmirrezaArashi CEB Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification Specification of an Oxidant for CEB (a) Activating the Oxidant option (b) Selecting the Oxidant (c) Specifying the target pH or concentration in the CEB stream WAVE allows for the addition of an oxidant for CEB. This is done by following the steps below: 1) Click on the “Oxidant” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. In addition a line feeding CEB oxidant to the Backwash line (named CEB Oxidant) would appear in the UF System Diagram. 2) Click on the dropdown arrow. 3) Select the oxidant of interest. The name of the oxidant chemical and its concentration in the CEB Oxidant stream would be displayed in the UF System Diagram. 4) Specify the target oxidant concentration in the CEB stream. The target oxidant concentration in the CEB stream would appear in the UF System Diagram. 93 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  94. 94. AmirrezaArashi CEB Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification Notes: o The list of Oxidants is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. o If the “Oxidant” button is activated, WAVE would require selection of an oxidant and a corresponding target concentration. o Clicking on the “Oxidant” button a second time would deactivate the input cell and remove the CEB Oxidant line from the UF System Diagram. Setting the target concentration to zero would not remove the CEB Oxidant line from the UF System Diagram. 94 Specifying the CEB (Chemically Enhanced Backwash mode)
  95. 95. AmirrezaArashi This is similar to the specifying the Backwash and CEB Modes. 1.Number of Backwash (BW) steps within a CIP 2.CIP Source Water 3.CIP Recycle Flowrate 4.CIP Temperature 5.CIP Durations 6.CIP Mineral Acid Selection and Dose Specification 7.CIP Organic Acid Selection and Dose Specification 8.CIP Alkali Selection and Dose Specification 9.CIP Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification 95 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  96. 96. AmirrezaArashi Number of Backwash (BW) steps within a CIP The CIP specification window for UF modeling in WAVE The most thorough cleaning for a UF module requires the clean in place (CIP) process. The unit operations of a CIP involve: 1) An initial Backwash sequence 2) Soak and Backwash for each chemical used 3) The number of Backwashes for the CIP can be specified as shown in . Note: By default, WAVE includes 2 backwashes within a CIP 96 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  97. 97. AmirrezaArashi CIP Source Water The CIP Water Type specification window for UF modeling in WAVE A WAVE user can choose between the following options for CIP water source: • UF filtrate (product of the UF system being designed in WAVE) • Pretreated water (water that was passed through the Strainer but not the UF modules) The choice can be made as shown in Figure. Notes: The effect of choosing different options for Backwash and Forward Flush would be seen after WAVE completes the UF calculations. The default source water for CIP is UF Filtrate. 97 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  98. 98. AmirrezaArashi CIP Recycle Flow rate The CIP Recycle Flow Rate modification CIP chemicals are circulated (recycled) through the UF fibers and housing to clean the system. This flow rate can be specified in the ¨Design¨ window as shown in Figure. From the recycle flow rate and duration, the user can calculate the volume of CIP chemicals needed per module. Notes: 2 m3/h/module is used as the default CIP recycle flow rate in WAVE. It is limited between 1 and 4. The effect of changing the CIP recycle flow rate is seen after WAVE models the UF system. 98 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  99. 99. AmirrezaArashi CIP Temperature The CIP temperature specification window for UF modeling in WAVE The CIP solution can be heated to improve its effectiveness at removing contaminants from the UF membrane. It has the same limits as CEB temperature (1-40°C). It can be specified as shown in Figure. Note: Currently the effect of different CIP temperatures on the system design (by affecting density/feed pressure) is not included in WAVE. 99 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  100. 100. AmirrezaArashi CIP Durations The CIP duration specification window for UF modeling in WAVE Three durations can be defined for CIP in WAVE (as shown in Figure): • Chemical Soaking duration – the amount of time the UF module is soaked in each chemical during CIP • Heating Step duration – the amount of time taken daily to heat the CIP chemicals from the UF system design temperature up to the CIP temperature ( to calculate energy consumption) • CIP Recycle duration – the amount of time during which the CIP solution is circulated through the UF module Note: Additional energy will be required to maintain the CIP temperature; however, that is outside the scope of WAVE. 100 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  101. 101. AmirrezaArashi CIP Mineral Acid Selection and Dose Specification Specification of a Mineral Acid for CIP (a) Activating the Mineral Acid option (b) Selecting the Mineral Acid (c) Specifying the target pH in the CIP stream WAVE allows for the addition of a mineral (i.e. inorganic) acid for CIP. This is done by following the steps below (Figure 6): 1) Click on the “Mineral Acid” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. 2) Click on the dropdown arrow. 3) Select the mineral acid of interest. 4) Specify the target pH for pH reduction for CIP (if the ionic composition of the feed water is available) or target mineral acid concentration in the CIP stream. 5) Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the CIP Window. 101 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  102. 102. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Mineral Acid Addition in CIP CIP Water quality in Mineral Acid input in CIP with feed with no ionic composition The LSI value cell appears as a pH value is specified. The LSI (Langelier Saturation Index) is an indicator used to determine the need for calcium carbonate scale control. The LSI is applicable for water streams containing up to 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids (TDS). For water streams containing more than 10,000 mg/L of TDS, the Stiff & Davis Stability Index (S&DI) is preferred (as seen in Figure). 102 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  103. 103. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Mineral Acid Addition in CIP Changes in Mineral Acid input in CIP with feed TDS < 10,000 mg/L 103 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  104. 104. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Mineral Acid Addition in CIP Changes in Mineral Acid input in CIP with feed TDS > 10,000 mg/L 104 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  105. 105. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Mineral Acid Addition in CIP Notes: •The list of mineral acids is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. •The target pH in the CIP stream for pH reduction (if the ionic composition of the feed water is available) or target mineral acid concentration in the CIP stream interconvert automatically, i.e. if the user initially did not have ionic composition data and entered target mineral acid concentration, but later enters some ionic composition data, the target mineral acid concentration is converted to a corresponding pH and vice versa. •If the “Mineral Acid” button is activated, WAVE would require selection of a mineral acid and a corresponding pH/target concentration. •Clicking on the “Mineral Acid” button a second time would deactivate the input cell. 105 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  106. 106. AmirrezaArashi CIP Organic Acid Selection and Dose Specification Specification of an Organic Acid for CIP (a) Activating the Organic Acid option (b) Selecting the Organic Acid (c) Specifying the target concentration in the CIP stream WAVE allows for the addition of an organic acid for CIP. This is done by following the steps below: 1.Click on the “Organic Acid” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. 2.Click on the dropdown arrow. 3.Select the organic acid of interest. 4.Specify the target organic acid concentration in the CIP stream. 5.Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the CIP Window. 106 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  107. 107. AmirrezaArashi CIP Alkali Selection and Dose Specification Specification of Alkali for CIP (a) Activating the Alkali option (b) Selecting the Alkali (c) Specifying the target pH in the CIP stream WAVE allows for the addition of an alkali for CIP. This is done by following the steps below: 1) Click on the “Alkali” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green 2) Click on the dropdown arrow. 3) Select the alkali of interest. 4) Specify the target alkali concentration in the CIP stream. 5) Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the CIP Window. 107 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  108. 108. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CIP CIP Water quality in Alkali input in CIP with feed with no ionic composition One can note the appearance of the LSI cell as a pH value is specified. The LSI is applicable for water streams containing up to 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids (Figure). For water streams containing greater than 10,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids, the S&DI is preferred (as seen in Figure). 108 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  109. 109. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CIP Changes Changes in Alkali input in CIP with feed TDS < 10,000 mg/L 109 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  110. 110. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CIP Changes in Alkali input in CIP with feed TDS > 10,000 mg/L 110 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  111. 111. AmirrezaArashi LSI and S&DI Entry during Alkali Addition in CIP Notes: •The list of alkali chemicals is defined by the user as described in Sections Chemical Library and Adding a New Chemical. •The target pH in the CIP stream for pH reduction (if the ionic composition of the feed water is available) or target alkali concentration in the CEB stream interconvert automatically, i.e. if the user initially did not have ionic composition data and entered target alkali concentration, but later enters some ionic composition data, the target alkali concentration is converted to a corresponding pH and vice versa. •If the “Alkali” button is activated, WAVE would require selection of an alkali and a corresponding pH/target concentration. •Clicking on the “Alkali” button a second time would deactivate the input cell. 111 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  112. 112. AmirrezaArashi CIP Oxidant Selection and Dose Specification Specification of Oxidant for CIP (a) Activating the Oxidant option (b) Selecting the Oxidant (c) Specifying the target concentration in the CIP stream WAVE allows for the addition of an oxidant for CIP. This is done by following the steps below (Figure): 1.Click on the “Oxidant” button to activate it. The grey area would turn green. 2.Click on the dropdown arrow. 3.Select the oxidant of interest. 4.Specify the target oxidant concentration in the CIP stream. 5.Click over or tab to move elsewhere in the CIP Window. 112 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  113. 113. AmirrezaArashi UF System Diagram for CIP The UF System Diagram is displayed in the CIP Window as shown in last Figure. Currently, the CIP changes would not be reflected in the UF System Diagram. 113 Specifying the CIP (Clean In Place mode)
  114. 114. AmirrezaArashi In addition to the various ultrafiltration modes and the system configuration, WAVE allows the user to specify the following additional parameter values (as shown in Figure): • Pressure Settings and Power • Valve Timing • Specification of Tank Sizes Additional equipment specifications for UF modeling in WAVE 114 Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings
  115. 115. AmirrezaArashi Pressure Settings Additional equipment specifications for UF modeling in WAVEWAVE allows the user to specify the following: 1) Maximum Air Scour Pressure 2) Filtrate Pressure 3) Filtration Piping Pressure Drop 4) Strainer Pressure Drop 5) Backwash Piping Pressure Drop 6) CIP Piping Pressure Drop Specifying these values allows the user to better approximate the energy requirement for the system operation. Notes: • Default filtrate pressures and piping pressure drops are 0.5 bar in WAVE for UF modeling. • The default Maximum air scour pressure is 2 bar. 115 Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings
  116. 116. AmirrezaArashi Power (Control Equipment Energy Consumption) Additional equipment specifications for UF modeling in WAVE The UF control system contains multiple controllers, most of which would consume energy to operate. WAVE makes possible specification of the controller and valve power consumption as shown in Figure. Notes: • The default PLC power requirement per train in WAVE for UF is 0.5 kW • The default valve power requirement per train in WAVE for UF is 0.0 kW 116 Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings
  117. 117. AmirrezaArashi Valve Timing Additional equipment specifications for UF modeling in WAVE The valve open/close action durations of the multiple valves opening and closing in WAVE would affect the timing of downstream steps and are thus included in the WAVE UF modeling as shown in Figure. Note: WAVE assumes 6 valves per train and a valve open/close action duration of 10 seconds by default. 117 Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings
  118. 118. AmirrezaArashi Specification of Tank Sizes Tank specifications for UF modelling in WAVE WAVE makes possible the specification of actual tank sizes vs calculated minima in the Tanks Window as shown in Figure. 118 Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings
  119. 119. AmirrezaArashi Specification of Tank Sizes This includes: 1) Tank storage times and refill rates • By specifying how long the chemicals used are stored, given the rate of chemical consumption, WAVE can estimate the size of the chemical tanks. • In addition, given the Backwash tank refill rate, and the calculated Backwash flowrate, WAVE can calculate the size of the Backwash tank 2) Tank size factors WAVE allows the user to specify how big a safety factor for the tanks the user needs as shown in Figure 1. Any changes to these entries would result in recalculation of the tank volumes shown in the UF System Diagram. • For the BW or BW+Filtrate tank, WAVE defaults to a value of 100% of the computed minimum tank size. This is based on an analysis of the flows into and out of the tank. A value <100% means the tanks could be undersized and a value of >100% provides a safety margin. • WAVE defaults to a CIP tank which is 200% of the module volume to be cleaned: 100% is the volume to fill the modules with cleaning solution, while the remaining 100% is assumed to fill the tank, pump, or pipes. Note: A larger refill rate (larger % of filtrate flow directed to the tank) would fill up the tank faster. 119 Specification of Additional UF Equipment Settings
  120. 120. AmirrezaArashi Once the system design inputs are available in WAVE, WAVE can be run to model the system. The details of the following actions that can be performed to generate, modify and handle the reports are described below: Generation and Understanding of Summary report Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report Modification of System Design after Calculation Handling the Reports (Saving and Exporting) 120 Final Calculation and Report
  121. 121. AmirrezaArashi Generation and Understanding of Summary report WAVE simulation and report generation for UF Once all the required inputs are in place in the Ultrafiltration Tab, the UF system can be simulated by clicking on the “Summary Report” Tab to generate the Summary Report and the “Detailed Report” button as shown in Figure 1. 121 Final Calculation and Report
  122. 122. AmirrezaArashi Generation and Understanding of Summary report WAVE simulation and report generation for UF In the Summary report the UF system diagram and some key output are described as shown below. 122 Final Calculation and Report
  123. 123. AmirrezaArashi Generation and Understanding of Summary report WAVE simulation and report generation for UF This table provides an overview of the UF system. 123 Final Calculation and Report
  124. 124. AmirrezaArashi Generation and Understanding of Summary report WAVE simulation and report generation for UF UF operating conditions are also specified, as presented in the table below (Results may vary depending on specific operating conditions). 124 Final Calculation and Report
  125. 125. AmirrezaArashi Generation and Understanding of Summary report WAVE simulation and report generation for UF These tables provide a quick view of the UF water quality. 125 Final Calculation and Report
  126. 126. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report Generation of Detailed Reports in WAVE UF Detailed Report can be generated as shown below. 126 Final Calculation and Report
  127. 127. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report Detailed Report Components are shown below. (Results may vary depending on specific operating conditions.) 127 Final Calculation and Report
  128. 128. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report Detailed Report Components are shown below. (Results may vary depending on specific operating conditions.) 128 Final Calculation and Report
  129. 129. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details 129 Final Calculation and Report
  130. 130. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details 130 Final Calculation and Report
  131. 131. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details 131 Final Calculation and Report
  132. 132. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details Final Calculation and Report 132
  133. 133. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details 133 Final Calculation and Report
  134. 134. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details 134 Final Calculation and Report
  135. 135. AmirrezaArashi Generating and understanding the UF Detailed Report UF Flow Details 135 Final Calculation and Report
  136. 136. AmirrezaArashi Modification of System Design after Calculation WAVE makes possible regeneration of the report through: Modification of the Feed Temperature Modification of the System Recovery 136 Final Calculation and Report
  137. 137. AmirrezaArashi Modification of the Feed Temperature After the first simulation of the system, a WAVE user can rerun the simulation at a different temperature by following these steps): 1) Click on the dropdown arrow under “Temperature” in the Summary Report Tab. 2) Select the appropriate temperature value: • Design temperature • Maximum temperature • Minimum temperature • Other values (using the ‘Specify’) option. 3) Click on the “Report” button. 4) The report will be updated with recalculated values. WAVE report regeneration and addition simulation by changing feed temperature (a) Selection of the appropriate temperature (b) Initiation of calculation 137 Final Calculation and Report
  138. 138. AmirrezaArashi Modification of the Feed Temperature Notes: • The same Minimum, Maximum and Design Temperatures specified in the Feed Water Tab would be shown in the dropdown list in the Report Tab. • The temperature specified at this step would not be propagated to other windows (e.g. the Chemical Adjustment Popup Window) 138 Final Calculation and Report
  139. 139. AmirrezaArashi WAVE makes it possible to send the System Recovery calculated at the Report Tab to the Home Tab to be used for additional work. This can be done through the following steps (as shown in Section Defining the Feed Water Flowrate and Recovery): 1) Click on the “Update Estimated Recovery” button in the Report Tab. 2) Click on the Home Tab and right-click on the Technology symbol 3) Select “Define Recovery” from the dropdown list. The Define Recovery Popup Window would appear. 4) Select the radio button next to “Use Last Calculated Value” and click “OK” 5) Click on the Report Tab Note: The “Update Estimated Recovery” button only updates the System Recovery. WAVE report regeneration and addition simulation by changing feed temperature (a) Selection of the appropriate temperature (b) Initiation of calculation Modification of the System Recovery 139 Final Calculation and Report
  140. 140. AmirrezaArashi The Summary Report serves as a quick look at the results. The Summary Report can be exported as a PDF document to a folder location of the user’s choice Figure. Export of Summary Report in WAVE as PDF Handling the Reports (Saving and Exporting) 140 Final Calculation and Report
  141. 141. AmirrezaArashi The reports can be exported to PDF or to Excel, Word or PDF as shown in Figure. All of these options lead to a folder location where the user can save the PDF, Excel or Word file. Export of Detailed Reports in WAVE - selecting the dropdown Handling the Reports (Saving and Exporting) 141 Final Calculation and Report
  142. 142. AmirrezaArashi 142 UF P&ID Design
  143. 143. AmirrezaArashi 143 UF P&ID Design
  144. 144. AmirrezaArashi 144 UF P&ID Design (CIP)
  145. 145. DOW™ WAVE Design Software By : Amirreza Arashi 145

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