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ovarian cyst

  1. 1. By : AMEER AZEEZ :HAYDER AMMAR ovarian cyst 13:03:18 gynecology course
  2. 2. ovarian cyst Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures within the ovary that are filled with a liquid or semisolid substance Ovarian cysts are very common. They can occur during the childbearing years or after menopause. Most ovarian cysts are benig n (not cancer) and go away on their own without treatment. Rarely, a cyst may be malignant
  3. 3. What are the different types of ovarian cysts? functional cysts Follicle cysts. In a normal menstrual cycle, the egg grows inside a tiny sac called a follicle. When the egg matures, the follicle breaks open to release the egg. Follicle cysts form when the follicle doesn’t br eak open to release the egg. This causes the follicle to continue growing into a cyst. These cysts often have no symptoms and go away in one to three months. Corpus luteum cysts. Once the follicle breaks open and releases the egg, the empty follicle sac shri nks into a mass of cells called corpus luteum. Corpus luteum makes hormones to prepare for the next egg for the next menstrual cycle. Corpus luteum cysts form if the sac doesn’t shrink. Instead, the sac r eseals itself after the egg is released. Then fluid builds up inside. Most corpus luteum cysts go away a fter a few weeks, but they can grow to almost four inches wide. They also may bleed or twist the ovary and cause pain. And they are most commonly ruptured.
  4. 4. Follicle cysts.
  5. 5. Corpus luteum cysts.
  6. 6. Pathological ovarian cyst dermoid cysts: sac-like growths on the ovaries that can contain hair, fat, and other tissue cystadenomas: noncancerous growths that can develop on the outer surface of the ovaries endometriomas: tissues that normally grow inside the uterus can develop outside the uterus and attach to the ovaries, resulting in a cyst
  7. 7. Symptoms of an ovarian cyst Often times, ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms. However, symptoms can appear as the cyst grows. Symptoms may include: abdominal bloating or swelling painful bowel movements pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle painful intercourse pain in the lower back or thighs breast tenderness nausea and vomiting Severe symptoms of an ovarian cyst that require immediate medical attention incl ude: severe or sharp pelvic pain fever faintness or dizziness rapid breathing
  8. 8. Diagnosing an ovarian cyst the following tests may be recommended to find out more information: •Ultrasound exam
  9. 9. Medical management
  10. 10. Surgical management
  11. 11. Cont..
  12. 12. Complication
  13. 13. Which of the following types of cysts most commonl y ruptures? 1. Endometriomas 2. Corpus luteum cysts 3. Dermoid cysts 4. Cystadenomas
  14. 14. Corpus luteum cysts tend to be larger and more symptoma tic than follicular cysts and are more prone to hemorrhage and rupture. Follicular cysts are usually smaller, with intern al hemorrhage being relatively uncommon.
  15. 15. Which of the following is not associated with sympto ms of ovarian cyst rupture? 1. Abdominal distention 2. Unilateral pelvic pain 3. Amenorrhea 4. Peritoneal signs
  16. 16. Cyst rupture is characterized by sudden, unilateral, sharp pelvic pain. This can be associated with trau ma, exercise, or coitus. In addition, cyst rupture can lead to peritoneal signs, abdominal distention, an d bleeding that is usually self-limited.
  17. 17. Which of the following is the preferred imaging modality for assessing ovarian cysts with or without rupture? 1. CT 2. MRI 3. Ultrasonography 4. Radiography
  18. 18. Ultrasonography is the preferred imaging modality for assessing gynecologic structures, given its low cost, availability, and sensitivity in recognizing adnexal cysts and hemoperitoneum. Despite this, ultras ound findings are nonspecific in some instances, particularly after rupture and decompression of a cys t in the setting of apparent physiologic levels of fluid in the pelvis. If ultrasound yields ambiguous resul ts in a patient with significant pain, CT of the pelvis with contrast should be performed.
  19. 19. Cancer is always a concern with ovarian cysts, and cancer antigen 1 25 (CA-125) testing is often used to investigate for ovarian cancer. W hich of the following is a contraindication to CA-125 testing? 1. Age 20-30 years 2. Anemia 3. Pregnancy 4. Postmenopause
  20. 20. Keep in mind the possibility of cancer when managing an ovarian cyst. [29] Cancer antigen 125 (CA1 25) is a protein expressed on the cell membrane of normal ovarian tissue and ovarian carcinomas. A s erum level of less than 35U/mL is considered normal, although in some laboratories, the upper limit of normal may be lower than this. CA-125 testing should not be done in pregnant patients with ovarian cysts because levels are significa ntly higher, especially during the first trimester. CA-125 testing should also not be done in the acute se tting of ovarian cyst accidents, as this marker is raised in peritonitis, hemorrhage, cyst rupture, and inf ection, as well as in menstruation, fibroids, and endometriosis.

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