Presented by - Rahul Sahu(c-231)
Aritro Sengupta (c-232)
Tushar Agrawal (c-203)
What is a Presentation?
“ A structured, prepared and speech-based means of
communicating information, or ideas to a group of interested
people, in order to inform or persuade them. ”
It is typically a demonstration,
introduction, lecture, or speech meant
to inform, persuade, inspire, motivate,
or to build good will or to present a
new idea or product.
Common cause of Ineffective
Failure to motivate the
Poorly designed slides
Steps needed to make an effective
For delivering an effective
presentation we need to take the
following steps :
What is the purpose of your presentation?
Who will be your audience?
What are you trying to achieve
through this presentation?
Steps in Preparing a Presentation
1.Subject of presentation:
a) Decide your message in advance
b) Have a strong conviction on what you want to
2. Organize your points logically:
a) What to say at the beginning?
b) What you deal in the middle?
c) How to close?
( May be by summarizing entire
3. Rehearse in private:
You need to practice delivery of
Because, ‘Practice makes a person perfect’.
4.Keep notes to a minimum:
- If necessary, use Index cards.
- Jot down the main points.
Try to conquer nervousness:
* Try to minimize your stage-fear.
* Take deep breath and try to relax.
* If required, drink little water.
* Concentrate on topic & not the
Organising the presentation material may
• Blue Sky Thinking (the ideas)
• Selecting the main points.
• Deciding whether to illustrate.
• Introduction and conclusion.
Having thought about and planned a good structure will also help
to alleviate any nervousness you may be feeling in the build up to
What are visual aids?
Visual aids are items of a visual manner, such as graphs,
photographs, video clips etc used in addition to spoken
information. Visual aids are chosen depending on their
purpose, for example, you may want to:
• Summarise information.
• Reduce the amount of spoken words, for example, you may
show a graph of your results rather than reading them out.
• Clarify and show examples.
• Emphasise what you're saying.
• Make a point memorable.
• Engage the audience and maintain their interest.
• Make something easier for the audience to understand.
Preparation and use of visual aids
Once you have decided that you want to use a visual aid, you must ensure that the
audience is able to quickly understand the image - it must be clear. They can be
used throughout your speech but try to only use visual aids for essential points as it
can be tiring for the audience to skip from one visual to another.
• Think about how can a visual aid can support your message.
What do you want the audience to do?
• Ensure that your visual aid follows what you're saying or this
will confuse the audience.
• Avoid cluttering the image as it may look messy and unclear.
• Visual aids must be clear, concise and of a high quality.
• Keep the style consistent, such as, the same font, colours,
• Use graphs and charts to present data.
During the presentation
• Ensure that the visual aids can be seen by
everyone in the audience.
• Face the audience most of the time rather than the
• Avoid reading from the visual aid.
• As soon as you show the visual aid the audience’s
attention will be drawn to it so you must
immediately explain it. You will be ignored if you
talk about something else.
• Make it clear to the audience why you are using it.
• When you no longer need the visual aid ensure
that the audience can't see it.
Types of visual aids
Blackboard or whiteboard
Microsoft PowerPoint is widely used for presentations
because it's easy to create attractive and professional
presentations and it's simple to modify and reorganise
content compared to other visual aids. You can insert
a range of visual items into the slides which will
improve the audience's focus. Also, the audience can
generally see slideshows better than other visual aids
and you don't have to face away from them. However,
your presentation can look unprofessional if this
software is used poorly.
1. Have a clear and simple background.
2. Avoid using too many different types of fonts or font sizes.
3. Use bullet points to summarise key points.
4. Consider providing handouts of diagrams
because the audience will find the diagrams easier
5. Avoid putting too much text on a slide.
What can you do with PowerPoint?
• Custom animation
• Add photos, videos and sound
• Save as a webpage
• Print presentations as handouts
• Embed YouTube videos
Uses of MS PowerPoint in Our Daily Life :
1. Uses of PowerPoint in Education: –
Teachers can use PowerPoint to teach lessons,
chapters of any book or whole book in one
PowerPoint slide. In this case, they can create or
delegate to create a complete presentation of a
In this presentation, they can cover each chapter
in the different slide. In each slide, they can
highlight, mention and teach most important
points those are essential to cover in that chapter.
2. Uses of PowerPoint in Business: -
Business is all about creating a plan, execution,
marketing strategies and making process and
system easier to follow and integrate. In this case,
PowerPoint is used to create a business plan,
organizational structure, marketing plan, execution
strategies, processes, and system.
3. Uses of PowerPoint for House-Wives: -
Housewives can use PowerPoint to create slide shows. In which
they can create calculation, numbers, Alphabets or all kind of
lessons they want to teach kids in slideshows. They can also use
to create photo album and presentation in which they showcase
their precious moments with family.
4. Uses of PowerPoint for Job Seekers: -
This is one of the best uses of PowerPoint
for skilled people or job seekers. In
PowerPoint, they can create Digital
Resume or Multimedia resume.
5. User of Microsoft PowerPoint in earning money
and in starting an online business: -
Creating a presentation for companies and organization is a good
business idea that you can start from home. You can research,
what kind of presentations are in demand. You can also use
PowerPoint to create video tutorials or computer related tutorial
and then upload on YouTube.
• Knowing your audience —their general age, gender, education
level, religion,language, culture, and group membership—is the
single most important aspect of developing your speech.
• Analyzing your audience will help you discover information that you
can use to build common ground between you and the members of your
•A key characteristic in public speaking situations is the unequal
distribution of speaking time between the speaker and the audience. This
means that the speaker talks more and the audience listens, often without
asking questions or responding with any feedback.
Benefits of Understanding Audiences :
When you are speaking, you want
listeners to understand and
respond favorably to what you are
saying. An audience is one or more
people who come together to listen
to the speaker. Audience members
may be face to face with the speaker
or they may be connected by
communication technology such as
computers or other media. The
audience may be small and private
or it may be large and public.
Signs to detect that audience is not
Their eye contact is too fixed, and their
heads are too still.
Their body is turned away from you.
They don't mirror your body language.
A.U.D.I.E.N.C.E. Analysis - It's Your Key To Success
A nalysis - Who are they? How many will be there?
U nderstanding - What is their knowledge of the subject?
D emographics - What is their age, sex, educational
I nterest - Why are they there? Who asked them to be there?
E nvironment - Where will I stand? Can they all see & hear
N eeds - What are their needs? What are your needs as the
C ustomized - What specific needs do you need to address?
E xpectations - What do they expect to learn or hear from you?
Three ways to analyse your audience :-
1 . Demographic Analysis : Who is in your audience? What
are their individual and group characteristics?
2 . Psychological Analysis : What does your audience
know? What do they believe? What do they think about
3. Contextual Analysis : When and where are you
presenting? Why is this audience listening to you?
Impromptu speaking is the presentation of a short message
without advance preparation. Impromptu speeches often
occur when someone is asked to “say a few words” or give a
toast on a special occasion.
Extemporaneous speaking is the presentation of
a carefully planned and rehearsed speech,
spoken in a conversational manner using brief
notes. By using notes rather than a full
manuscript, the extemporaneous speaker can
establish and maintain eye contact with the
audience and assess how well they are
understanding the speech as it progresses.
Speaking from a Manuscript
Manuscript speaking is the word-
for-word iteration of a written
message. In a manuscript speech, the
speaker maintains his or her attention
on the printed page except when
using visual aids.
Manuscript speaking is reserved for special occasions. You might be
giving a presentation where every word must be exactly as you want it
so you won't be misquoted. Perhaps your speech includes technical
information that must be carefully worded.
Speaking from Memory
When it comes to speeches,
memorization can be useful when the
message needs to be exact and the
speaker doesn’t want to be confined
The advantage to memorization is that it enables the speaker to
maintain eye contact with the audience throughout the speech. Being
free of notes means that you can move freely around the stage and use
your hands to make gestures. If your speech uses visual aids, this
freedom is even more of an advantage.
Six Steps to Conquering Your Presentation
1. Know Your Audience
Consult your audience before your presentation.
The more confident you are that you are presenting
them with useful and interesting material for them,
the less nervous you will be overall.
•Define who your target audience is.
•Ask people who are representative of the audience what they
expect from the presentation.
2. Know Your Material
Nothing is worse for nerves than trying
to give a presentation on a topic you are
not well prepared for.
To make your material interesting and memorable, include
occasional questions to the audience to encourage audience
participation. This enhances the learning experience and gives
you a break from presenting. It also allows you to deliver your
information in a more conversational manner which is often
3. Structure Your Presentation
A common technique for trying to calm nervousness is memorizing what
you intend to say. But all this does is make your delivery sound like it is
coming from a robot. If you miss a word or draw a blank, your whole
presentation is thrown off and then your nervousness compounds itself
with every remaining second. It is far better to structure your presentation
so that you give yourself clues to what is coming next.
A simple, widely used, and highly
effective structure is to tell the audience
what you're going to say, then say it, and
then recap what you've said.
4. Practice, Practice, Practice
• Learn the organization and order of your
• If you do feel the need to memorize, limit it to
your opening. This will help you get off to a
• Try videotaping yourself. You will see what
you look like to others and then you can make
a plan to change the things that need changing.
• Use audiotape to listen to how you speak, your
tone and your speed, and adjust appropriately.
5. Prepare, Prepare, Prepare
Once you know what you are going to
say, you need to prepare yourself for
the actual delivery.
• Decide what you are going to wear –
make it comfortable and appropriate.
• Arrive early and get your equipment
6. Calm Yourself From the Inside
Nervousness causes physiological reactions which are
mostly attributed to the increase of adrenaline in your
system. You can counteract these effects with a few simple
Practice deep breathing – adrenalin causes you
to breathe shallowly. By breathing deeply your
brain will get the oxygen it needs and the slower
pace will trick your body into believing you are
Drink water – adrenalin can cause a dry mouth, which in
turn leads to getting tongue-tied. Have a glass of water
Smile – this is a natural relaxant that sends positive
chemicals through your body.
Just before you start talking, pause, make eye contact,
and smile. This last moment of peace is very relaxing
and gives you time to adjust to being the centre of
Move around during your presentation. This will expend
some of your nervous energy.
How To Overcome Stage Fright During A
Put Aside The Thought of Being
Liked or Disliked By The Audience.
Think About The Best Presentations
That You Have Given.
Rectify Your Mistakes
Few Relaxation Exercises