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  1. The Beverage Industry, Yesterday and Today HBar M.Aldana
  2. Alcoholic Beverages • Alcoholic beverages have been part of everyday life in most cultures, used in tinctures, tonics, and remedies.
  3. The Earliest Wines • 8,000-10,000 years ago, someone discovered that when fruit (or grain, milk or rice) was fermented, the results tasted good, made one happy – or both.
  4. The Earliest Wines • Archaeologists say the Chinese were making wine from mixed fermented beverage made from rice, beeswax- honey, and either wild grapes or hawthorn berries.
  5. The Earliest Wines • The Bible mentions wine consumption in both Old and New Testaments. • « when Noah settled down after the flood, he planted a vineyard… and he drank of the wine and was drunken. »
  6. The Earliest Wines • Alcohol was a universal feature of early civilizations. People around the world fermented anything that would ferment: honey, grapes, dates, rice, sugarcane, milk, palms, peppers, berries, sesame seeds, pomegranates.
  7. The Earliest Wines • Almost all of the world’s wines (those made of grapes) can be traced to a single Eurasian grape species – Vitus vinifera
  8. The Earliest Wines • It is believed that the ancient Greeks got their viticulture knowledge from the Egyptians and began to make wine about 2000 BC although archaeologist have found evidence that perhaps the island nation of Cyprus was the first in Europe to make wine.
  9. The Earliest Wines • A sweet dessert wine Commandaria is perhaps the oldest « brand name »
  10. The Earliest Wines • Historians continue to debate the exact origin of the term wine: • Wee-on (Wittite characters) was the 1st recorded for word for wine • Win (old english) which derived from the Latin vinum , and is further traced to the ancient Greek word oinos
  11. The Earliest Wines • The Greeks first discovered the practice of aging wines, storing them in cylinders known as amphorae. • Made of clay, they were remarkably airtight.
  12. The Earliest Wines • The Romans tried a similar method, but their clay was more porous and didn’t work as well. • So they began coating their clay vessels with tar on the insides, a process called pitching.
  13. The Earliest Wines • As the Roman empire spread, it brought grapes. • After the fall of the Roman empire, the Catholic Church was the most prominent promoter of viticulture.
  14. The Earliest Wines • Monasteries became vanguards of wine production and knowledge because wine was needed both in everyday life and in sacramental activities.
  15. The Earliest Wines • The Portugese are credited with shipping the first corked bottles of wine to England, but not until the year 1780.
  16. Fact: • A bottle from the 1700s was discovered in 2002, bobbing around in the North Sea off the coast of the Netherlands. • The findings were: it was an early variant of dry port that had been colored with a small amount of elderberry juice, its alcohol content was estimated at 10.6%, it showed no traces of oxidation, and its acidity compared favorably to present day wines.
  17. The Earliest Wines • In many cultures, people associated intoxicating beverages with wisdom. • Early Persians discussed matters of importance twice: once when they were sober and once when they were drunk • Saxons in ancient England opened their council meetings by passing around a large stone mug of beer.
  18. The Earliest Wines • In many cultures, people associated intoxicating beverages with wisdom. • Greeks held their famous symposiums (philosophical discussion) during hours of after- dinner drinking. (symposium = drinking together) • Romans – In vino veritas (In wine there is truth)
  19. The Earliest Wines • Alcoholic beverages, often in combination with herbs, have been used for centuries as medicines and tonics. • Herbs and alcohol were among the few ways of treating or preventing disease until a century ago.
  20. The Earliest Wines • Probably the most important historic use of alcoholic beverages – as food and drink. • For centuries these hearty beverages provided up to half the calories needed for a day’s heavy labor.
  21. The Earliest Wines • Alcoholic beverages were considered the only liquids fit to drink. • Household water was commonly polluted. • Milk could cause milk sickness (tuberculosis) • Beer, ale and wine were disease-free, tasty and thirst-quenching, crucial qualities in societies.
  22. The Earliest Wines • Both wines and grapevines were imported from France to the New World (US) in the 1700s • By the early 1900s about 1700 wineries dotted the US and they were mostly small, family- owned businesses. • Wine was still considered an effete beverage until the 1800s.
  23. The Earliest Wines • Today, the world’s largest wine museum is located in Briones (Spain)
  24. Wine and Religion • Early beers, ales, and wines were considered gifts from the gods – that is miracle products with magical powers. • People used them universally in religious rites, and they still do.
  25. Wine and Religion • The Israelites in the Old Testament offered libations to Jehovah • The Romans honored Bacchus, god of wine
  26. Wine and Religion • Christians used wine in the sacrament of communion • Primitive people used fermented beverages in their sacred rites • Victories, weddings, and other sacred and joyous occassions were celebrated with wine or ale
  27. Brief History of Beer • Summerians (people from Mesopotamia) are said to have discovered the beer fermentation process by chance. • They had a goddess of brewing Ninkasi and a hymn to her, which was the beer- making recipe put to music.
  28. Brief History of Beer • The Babylonians knew how to brew 20 different types of beer. • Ancient Egyptians made note of Ramses III, the pharaoh whose annual sacrifice of about 30,000 gallons of beer appeased “thirsty gods”
  29. Brief History of Beer • The word beer comes from the ancient Latin word biber, a slang term for the beverage made by fermenting grain, and adding hops for flavoring. • In ancient times, biber was considered lower class compared to ale, which was made in similar fashion but without the addition of hops.
  30. Brief History of Beer • Hops became popular in Europe and was discovered to be a natural preservative; other herbs have been tried, sometimes with disastrous results.
  31. Brief History of Beer • In 1516, Duke of Bavaria proclaimed “German Beer Purity Law” establishing that only barley, hops and pure water could be used to make beer in that region. • It is the oldest valid food/beverage law in the world.
  32. Brief History of Beer • Until the Middle Ages, both beer brewing and bread baking were viewed largely as women’s work. • In ancient Babylon only priestesses made beer, connecting it with religion for the first time. • During periods of fasting, monks were permitted to have beer.
  33. Brief History of Beer • The modern bridal joins the word bride and ale; a bride’s ale was brewed by a young woman’s family in preparation for wedding festivities.
  34. Brief History of Beer • Every civilization has made some type of beer, from whatever grain or root or plant was available in abundance. – African tribes – millet – Japan – rice – Europe, North and South America - barley
  35. Brief History of Beer • The brew was hearty and filling, and provided calories and nutrients to fuel manual labor. • In one incident at Plymouth (Massachusetts) Pilgrims were hasted ashore and made to drink water so that the seamen might have more beer.
  36. Brief History of Beer • Before 1850, the beverage preference in the US was ale, which had been popular in England. It was made like beer, but fermented more quickly, at higher temperatures than beer.
  37. Brief History of Beer • The Germans brought with them a different brewing style that produced a lighter beer known as lager, which is paler and clearer in appearance than ale and has a drier flavor. • Its name comes from a German word for storage or storehouse.
  38. Brief History of Beer • In 1800s, French Chemist Louis Pasteur discovered that like milk or cider, beer could be heated to sufficient temperature to kill harmful bacteria without diminishing the quality of the beer. (Pasteurization) • Pasteur also experimented with live brewer’s yeast to prompt fermentation.
  39. Distilled Spirits • The process of distillation – first heating, then cooling and condensing liquids to extract and concentrate their alcohol content • Distilled spirits made from fermented liquids were much more potent than the original liquids. • The first ones were called aqua vitae (water of life) and was used as medicines
  40. Distilled Spirits • Highland Scots and Irish distillers made whiskey • French distilled wine to make brandy • A dutch doctor’s experiment produced gin • Russia and Poland – vodka • Mexico’s mescal - tequila
  41. Alcohol and Health in History • Alcoholic beverages, particularly wines, were the prime medicinal agents of our ancestors from the ancient world into the early nineteenth century. • Wine was the most common ingredient in the medicines of ancient Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia.
  42. Alcohol and Health in History • Wine + Rue = any insect sting or bite • Wine + Saffron = cure for impotence • Brandy (burnt wine) = Black Death • Wine + ground donkey testicles = epilepsy
  43. Alcohol and Health in History • Aside from its anaesthetic properties, folk healers also recognized its ability to act as a disinfectant.
  44. The Tavern • In both Greece and Rome, some taverns offered lodging for the night, or gambling and other amusements. • In England, the public house, or pub is a place where people gathered for fellowship and pleasure.
  45. The Tavern
  46. The Tavern • An evergreen bush on a pole outside meant ale was served. • A sign with a picture of, a Black Horse, White Swan, or Red Lion identified each pub. • These early logos were used because most people could not read. • Inns, cabarets, dance halls, meeting houses
  47. The Tavern • When Europeans emigrated America, they brought the tavern with them. • It was a town’s welfare to have a place that provided drink, lodging and food. • In Massachusetts in the 1650s, any town without a tavern was fined!
  48. The Tavern • Taverns were often built near the church so that parishioners could warm up quickly after Sunday services • Taverns also became the rendezvous spots for rebels during the rebellion
  49. The Tavern • After the war, drinking places kept the name tavern, while more elaborate inns adopted the word hotel
  50. Prohibition and Its Effects • A growing number of people in the US sought to curb the use of alcoholic beverages. • This movement went by the name Temperance and its target was “ardent spirits” (distilled spirits), but proponents soon included beer and wine and expanded their goal from temperance, or moderation to total prohibition.
  51. Temperance • The propaganda lasted century long and the movement succeeded in convincing many Americans that drink in any kind led inevitably to sin and damnation. • Those engaged in making or selling alcoholic beverages were on the devil’s side of this battle between good or evil or, as it was also dubbed dry and wet.
  52. Prohibition and Its Effects • By the late 1800s there was a swinging-door saloon on almost every corner in small towns and big cities. Far too many of them were unable to survive on sales of beer and whiskey alone. • May of them added prostitution, gambling and other illegal going-ons.
  53. Prohibition and Its Effects • In 1851, Maine became the first state to pass its own prohibition law. • In 1880, Kansas was the first state to pass a constitutional amendment that outlawed both the manufacture and sale of alcohol, although the new law was selectively enforced or often simply ignored.
  54. Carry A. Nation • Carry decided enough was enough. • Married to an alcoholic and disgust at the lack of enforcement of the law led her to take action.
  55. Carry A. Nation • Called herself Home Defender. • Waged a 2-year vigilante style campaign, rallying women to show up at bars swinging bats and hatchets and singing hymns as they literally destroyed the places.
  56. The Prohibition • During World War I, the “dry side” won its battle. The 18th Amendment passed, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, and importation of intoxicating liquors in the US and its territories.
  57. The Prohibition • While legal establishments were closing their doors, illegal “speakeasies” began opening theirs to those who would whisper the right password.
  58. The Prohibition • Legal breweries and distilleries closed down, but illegal stills made liquor by the light of the moon in secret hideouts hence the nickname “moonshine” • Illegal spirits were also smuggled into the country. • Some folks just decided to make their own beer, wine and gin at home.
  59. The Prohibition • Ironically, rather that decreasing drinking, prohibition seemed to invite it. 9 years after the passing New York City had 32,000 speakeasies (twice as many as the number of pre-Prohibition saloons!)
  60. The Prohibition • In 1933, Congress passed the 21st Amendment, repealing the 18th • Before Prohibition, beverage manufacturing had been the 5th largest industry in the United States; after the 21st , it made a quick comeback, despite stiff taxes and heavy regulation by federal and state governments.
  61. • Today, alcoholic beverages are an accepted part of our lives. The serving of liquor in bars and restaurants is a normal part of the culture, and restaurant patrons expect to be able to buy mixed drinks, beer and wine with their food. • In fact, restaurants that don’t serve liquor often have a hard time competing.
  62. Today’s Beverage Industry • Alcohol consumption has remained steady and relatively unaffected until the 1990s where alcohol consumption (in the US) gradually declined.
  63. Today’s Beverage Industry • Experts observers relate the drop to lifestyle changes for many busy people, many of whom now focus on fitness and preventive health care. • People stopped smoking, they exercise, they watch their weight; they count calories, carbohydrates and cholesterol; and they keep their heads clear during work hours.
  64. Today’s Beverage Industry
  65. Today’s Beverage Industry • Bottled and enhanced waters (organic to vitamin infused), energy drinks, flavored iced teas, and on rare occasions a single glass of wine.
  66. Today’s Beverage Industry • Beverage Digest • http://www.beverage- 31101
  67. Today’s Beverage Industry • In 2003, water consumption had risen to 16.6 gallons per person, per year from 8.7 gallons 10 years ago • By 2007, the average person drank 29 gallons of bottled water, making it the most popular beverage next to carbonated soft drinks.
  68. Today’s Beverage Industry • For fitness and/or organic enthusiasts, they want a light drink, less alcohol, fewer calories and carbohydrates.
  69. Today’s Beverage Industry • White goods (vodka, gin, tequila, rum) do better than brown goods (Bourbon, Scotch, and other whiskeys) even though they all have similar alcohol contents.
  70. Today’s Beverage Industry • In 2007, wine consumption hit a new record of 2.97 gallons • Home making of wine is also now possible: you can order equipment online
  71. Today’s Beverage Industry • Beer sales look very impressive: 21 gallons of beer per person per year; compared to the 24 gallons per person figures in the 1980s, it decreased
  72. Today’s Beverage Industry • Beer companies introduced: – Light beers (lower alcohol and calories) – Dry beers (crispy flavored, no aftertaste) – And non-alcoholic beers
  73. Today’s Beverage Industry • Wines by the glass rather than by the bottle is also offered for customers who drink less. • They also do more to publicize their non-alcoholic offerings: mineral waters, soft drinks, flavored teas, juice drinks, and even no–alcohol beers and mocktails.
  74. Today’s Beverage Industry • There has been renewed interest in the traditional cocktails (Martini, Bloody Mary, Screwdriver) and all tall drinks (Scotch & Soda, Bourbon & Soda, Gin and Vodka Tonic or Vodka and Tonic)
  75. Today’s Beverage Industry • There is also strong interest in call brands (premium brands that are requested, or called for by name. • Super-premiums also have a loyal following with customers who have developed a taste for and interest in buying “the best” and are willing to pay more for it.
  76. Philippine Trends • Milkteas • Soy-based products • Natural fruit juices • Energy drinks • Coffee
  77. Beverage-Only Bar • The simplest kind of beverage enterprise – serves beverages alone, no foodservice except snacks: peanuts, pretzels, cheese and crackers.
  78. Bar/Entertainment Combination • Bars offering entertainment that ranges from pool, pinball, dartboards, giant televisions to nightclubs with big-name entertainers to comedy clubs to ballroom with big bands.
  79. Bar/Entertainment Combination • In most cases, the entertainment draw the crowd, but it is the drinks that provide the profits. • A cover charge (admission fee) per person paid at the door may be charged, at least part of it is likely to go to the entertainers.
  80. Bar/Entertainment Combination • In the mid-twentieth century, a Sports bar is a nickname for popular watering holes frequented by sports writers, who bought each other drinks, traded stories and colorful quotes. • Today, they are designed for group viewing of popular sporting events and are equipped with big-screen television screens
  81. Food and Beverage Combinations • The most common form of beverage operations – is linked with some kind of foodservice. • One type is the restaurant/bar where drinks and wine are part of the meal service.
  82. Food and Beverage Combinations • Another type is a bar that offers light food in addition to drinks. • A special variation of the food & beverage combination is the wine bar, where customers can choose from a selection of wines by the glass or by the bottle. Some wine bar offers inexpensive one-ounce tastes or groups of one-ounce samples known as wine flights to enable guests to sample a number of wines.
  83. Food and Beverage Combinations
  84. Food and Beverage Combinations • Beer aficionados also have their own version of the wine bar – the brewpub.
  85. Bars and Smoking • The cigar bar has been a trendy addition to the beverage scene. • Customers who enjoy high-priced cigars also have the opportunity to order premium spirits, wines, beers and after dinner drinks to accompany them.
  86. Bars and Smoking
  87. Hotel Beverage Operations • In hotels, the beverage operation differs in many ways from the bar. • There might be three or four bars under one roof, each with different purpose and ambience; Lounge bars, restaurant bar, nightclubs are among a few. • Beverage service is also available thru room service.
  88. Hotel Beverage Operations
  89. Hotel Beverage Operations • Individual rooms often have a minibar, a small refrigerator or cabinet stocked with modest inventory of snacks and drinks.
  90. Airline Beverage Service • Airline drink menus are limited. • Liquors, beers, wines and a few type of cocktail mixes are handed out in small individual bottles or cans. The cups are nesting, plastic disposables, except in first- business class cabins.
  91. Airline Beverage Service