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Landscape architecture

about the two main elements of landscape architecture the hardscape and the softscape in landscape design.

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HARDSCAPING AND SOFTSCAPING
IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN
SUBMITTED BY:
ALK PRAKASH
B.ARCH 7TH SEM
ROLL.NO-02
GCAP
CONTENTS:
➢ HARDSCAPING .
➢ HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS.
➢ SOFTSCAPING.
➢ SOFTSCAPING ELEMENTS.
➢ IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HARDSCAPING AND
SOFTSCAPING IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN.
Landscape architecture
HARDSCAPING
Introduction
THE BASIC INTEGRATION IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN IS TO
CREATE SPACES,SEQUENCE AND FURNISHING THE
SPACE.SPACES THAT ARE CREATED ARE LINKED IN
SEQUENCE BY ROUTE.HARD LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS ARE
DESIGNED AND BUILT TO FULFILL THE FUNCTIONS OF
LANDSCAPE AS WELL AS ENHANCING IT. THE EFFECT IS
SPONTANEOUS AND QUICK. THE FLOOR AND WALLS OF
AN OUTDOOR SPACE INCLUDES PAVEMENT AND WALLS
COMPRISED OF CONCRETE,MASONRY AND RAW
MATERIALS LIKE STONE AND GRAVEL EXCEPT PLANT
MATERIAL IS CONSIDERED ‘HARDSCAPE’.
The basic purpose of hard landscape is:
● To cater needs not accommodated by soft landscape
elements.
● To provide complimentary effect and to enhance the
beauty of soft landscape.
These may be divided into the following categories
based on the functions of the hardscape elements:
1. Separating elements
2. Special surfaces
3. Linkages
4. furnishings
1. Separating elements:
Physical and visual barriers control the movement of men,vehicles and
animals. indirectly ,physical barrier functions as climate sound and pollution
control. Physical barriers are drainage ditch,moat,stream and steep
embankment. Visual barriers are flower pots solid wall and fences.
A. Planter box/flower pots:
Planter box or flower pots can be used where the soil is unsuitable for
planting. They help in subdividing spaces into different areas. They can be
arranged to show direction or access. They provide scale of surrounding
landscape.
B. fence ,wall/retaining wall:
Fence,wall or retaining wall provides spaces or divided areas of ownership.it
helps to block unpleasant view and odour. It gives security from intruders. It
also prevents soil erosion.

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Landscape architecture

  • 1. HARDSCAPING AND SOFTSCAPING IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN SUBMITTED BY: ALK PRAKASH B.ARCH 7TH SEM ROLL.NO-02 GCAP
  • 2. CONTENTS: ➢ HARDSCAPING . ➢ HARDSCAPE ELEMENTS. ➢ SOFTSCAPING. ➢ SOFTSCAPING ELEMENTS. ➢ IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HARDSCAPING AND SOFTSCAPING IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN.
  • 4. HARDSCAPING Introduction THE BASIC INTEGRATION IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN IS TO CREATE SPACES,SEQUENCE AND FURNISHING THE SPACE.SPACES THAT ARE CREATED ARE LINKED IN SEQUENCE BY ROUTE.HARD LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS ARE DESIGNED AND BUILT TO FULFILL THE FUNCTIONS OF LANDSCAPE AS WELL AS ENHANCING IT. THE EFFECT IS SPONTANEOUS AND QUICK. THE FLOOR AND WALLS OF AN OUTDOOR SPACE INCLUDES PAVEMENT AND WALLS COMPRISED OF CONCRETE,MASONRY AND RAW MATERIALS LIKE STONE AND GRAVEL EXCEPT PLANT MATERIAL IS CONSIDERED ‘HARDSCAPE’.
  • 5. The basic purpose of hard landscape is: ● To cater needs not accommodated by soft landscape elements. ● To provide complimentary effect and to enhance the beauty of soft landscape. These may be divided into the following categories based on the functions of the hardscape elements: 1. Separating elements 2. Special surfaces 3. Linkages 4. furnishings
  • 6. 1. Separating elements: Physical and visual barriers control the movement of men,vehicles and animals. indirectly ,physical barrier functions as climate sound and pollution control. Physical barriers are drainage ditch,moat,stream and steep embankment. Visual barriers are flower pots solid wall and fences. A. Planter box/flower pots: Planter box or flower pots can be used where the soil is unsuitable for planting. They help in subdividing spaces into different areas. They can be arranged to show direction or access. They provide scale of surrounding landscape. B. fence ,wall/retaining wall: Fence,wall or retaining wall provides spaces or divided areas of ownership.it helps to block unpleasant view and odour. It gives security from intruders. It also prevents soil erosion.
  • 7. 2. Special surfaces: Special surfaces are added features which indicate activities,event and safety like paving(gravel,cobbles,tarmac,bricks and pebbles)and pedestrian walkway. A. paving: Paving indicates direction by using suitable,comfortable surfaces for pedestrian,compared to surfaces of others area.it also differentiates access to vehicles and pedestrian movement by using different surface finishes. At junctions or meeting points of pedestrians and vehicles,different material or levels can be adopted to indicate danger.paving can be used as focal point for temporary stopping. 3. Linkages: A. bridges: Bridge links access from one place to another. It also helps to avoid dangerous or disturbing element and to provide aesthetic value to landscape design. It should be easy to use and safe to build, and located at suitable areas without causing damages.
  • 8. B. steps: Steps link areas of different levels and indicate access. Normally use uniform steps and avoid any design that can cause tiredness or discomfort with well-thought safety precautions. Landing should be provided for high staircases. 4. Furnishings: Structures that are added to spaces, to enhance and make complete the spaces like seating,dustbin,signage,lighting,sculptures and kiosk. A. seating: Seating could attract and highlight some garden design. It can be used for relaxed viewing the surrounding or reading books or similar such activities. Seating design is normally based on the garden design concept. B. Dustbin: The dustbin should have easy access for garbage disposal and collection. There are different types of dustbins like wall mounted, free standing,removable, big sized where population is high. Dustbins are generally located near pedestrian access with other facilities such as toilets and recreation area,where people gathers,picnic or relax. They should not be located too close to each other to avoid bad odour or flies or bad view.
  • 9. C. signage: All signage should have standardised design,colour lettering. It should be located at an appropriate place. It should of suitable size to convey information. Signage should not obstruct aesthetic value of other elements. D. lighting: Lighting is meant to illuminate dark and insecure areas. It also illuminates and enhances a focal element or dangerous objects. It provides suitable mood for occasions. There may be three types of lighting. a)roads and highways lighting b)pedestrian lighting c)decorative lighting E. sculpture
  • 10. E. sculptures: Carvings and sculptures act as an attraction conforming to the design concept. They also indicate owner’s wealth. As a principle avoid using symbols or forms which offend culture, religion or the owner. It should be placed at safe and strategic place relating to the scale of park or garden. F. kiosk: A shelter or kiosks is normally meant for relaxing and gathering, as a viewing place, as an attraction or as a node or focal point. It should be located in a secure and pleasant place having a nice view. The architecture or image of a shelter or kiosks is normally related to existing landscape,building design,national identity or situation. The material should be waterproof and easily available to construct.
  • 11. SOFTSCAPING: There are three basic aspects that soft landscaping include,namely plantation, turfing and water features. All these features are required to complete a thriving garden. 1. plantation: The plantation process involves the planning and assessment of the garden design. Preparation of the surface area, planting the shrubs, trees and identifying the various plant breeds are keys to ensure a balanced and compatible garden environment. The finishing layer is done with the use of pebbles,stones wood chips and many other materials,which can be chosen. 2. turfing: This process involves the grass being cut into various patterns to adorn the garden. At the same time identification of various plant breeds is done through turfing.
  • 12. 3. Water features: Strategically placed water fountains and waterfalls improve the garden atmosphere. Flowing water fountains and waterfalls enrich the garden and create a vivid atmosphere. Various garden ponds, lagoons and small pools can be built right into the garden. The water also brings in moisture, which in turn attracts birds and small wildlife. Properly designed and constructed soft landscape treatments such as shrub beds, tree planting and grassing can create intersecting and dynamic public spaces. Their design and construction should be carefully considered to ensure that they serve their intended purposes like: a. Providing safe and accessible public spaces with solar screening around buildings. b. Give distinct landscape character for recreational areas directing the flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic along paths and roadways. c. Providing habitat for wildlife and reduce noise giving privacy for properties. d. Creating interest and visual stimulation in public spaces. e. Defining boundaries between two or more facilities and screening of undesirable objects.
  • 13. IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF HARDSCAPING AND SOFTSCAPING 1. Design to reduce maintenance: There is no maintenance-free landscape.however, proper planning can keep maintenance to minimum. The following guidelines seek to do this. a) Keep grass areas large enough to guide mowing equipment. b) Provide adequate surface drainage to shrub beds and grass areas. c) Plant trees and shrubs in masses and in beds with a minimum 75-100 mm depth of mulch. d) Choose sturdy plants of long life requiring minimal maintenance. e) Design paths and paving to accommodate desire lines. f) Allow for adequate preparation of soil for planting and grassing. 2. Soil selection and protection: Soil selection for plants is an important factor when designing for soft landscape elements. In many cases, the existing soil cannot provide trees and shrubs with sufficient nutrients and water penetration for survival. In such cases soil needs to be imported to supplement the existing site soil.
  • 14. 3. Porous paving: Porous paving is useful where a hard surface is required to be installed near trees. Using structural soils and porous paving together allow water to filter through the paving surface to the soil layers below providing water and nutrients to the plant’s root system. Adequate drainage must be installed with permeable paving. 4. Root barriers: Root barriers can provide protection to the surrounding infrastructure against disruption from tree roots with minimal impact on the tree. Properly installed root barriers can protect pavement, footings and kerbs from cracking and lifting. Root barriers should be installed vertically in a continuous length in a narrow trench with the top edge flush with the finished ground surface. The trench should be backfilled and tamped sufficiently to avoid later caving. The barrier should not be torn or pierced.
  • 15. 5. Mulching materials: Mulching material for planting areas should be selected on the basis of its general purpose and location of the bed within the environment. The settled depth should be 75-100 mm, when applying mulch to newly constructed shrub beds. This will prevent most seed germination in the soil. Fine mulch should not be used, as it is prone to decompose or washed away rapidly. 6. General design considerations: During the design process,information on all established trees should be recorded showing species type,height,canopy spread and trunk circumference and location. When established trees are designed for keeping in development areas the canopy,trunk and roots must be protected from damage. In any condition keeping of large trees in confined areas such as courtyards should be carefully considered in view of the public safety and maintenance implications.