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Gamification & Smart Cities

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Use of Gamification techniques in app for smart cities projects

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Gamification & Smart Cities

  1. 1. “Use of gamification techniques in app for smart cities projects” Alina Gnerre
  2. 2. Our goal Our goal today is the analysis of gamification techniques and their use in smart city projects. We will analyze the relationship between smart city and gamification and how you can apply gamification techniques in your app, thanks to the example of NotiCity, a smart city app developed by KES ( www.kesitaly.it ). NotyCity has the purpose of the management and the reporting of critical events on the territory of Verona, Viterbo and Avellino city. Then we’ll see the implementation of the technical choices and the creation of a new prototype version of a gamified NotiCity .
  3. 3. Game “we are all players”
  4. 4. Gamification The origins of the term“gamification” dates back to 2010.
 The term“gamification”indicates 
 “the application of game-design elements and game principles in non- game contexts”…
 …in attempts to engage and motivate people to achieve their goals. There are two kinds of gamification: intern or extern. 
 Very important: not to be confused it with“serious game”!
  5. 5. Things are changing… There are several reasons why games and gamification are becoming more common: • Games are easier to build than ever before. • The average age of a person who plays video games is getting older. • Games are available on smartphones.
  6. 6. Games are no longer a dirty word at the office It is not unreasonable to believe that 
 within a short amount of time, 
 the idea of games and gamification 
 will be common in all workplaces 
 and educational institutions.
 Not convinced? 
 Listen to this analogy that might help…
  7. 7. Five wrong reasons 1. Game and gamification are cool/awesome/fun
 2. Everyone is doing it
 3. Things will be effortless
 4. Everyone loves game
 5. It’s easy to design them
  8. 8. Five right reasons 1.Creating interactivity
 2. Engagement
 3.Opportunities for reflection
 4.Positively change behavior 
 5.Authentic practice
  9. 9. Success stories: education, marketing and tourism
  10. 10. Success stories: eco-sustainability
  11. 11. Success stories: transport, health and wellness
  12. 12. Gamification techniques 1) Points -> reward 2) Levels -> status 3) Challenges -> achievement 4) Virtual Goods -> self expression 5) Leaderboards -> competition Feeling of ownership, epic meaning and calling: the desire of participation is the desire to be part of something much bigger than us, to contribute to the creation of a common good.
  13. 13. A smart city creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple areas like mobility, environment, people and living. Excelling in these key areas can be done so through strong human capital, social capital and/or ICT infrastructure. “We should try to take a step forward to the theme of ‘smart city’ that is already innovative: when you think to a smart city, you think to all its services, but you have to have citizens who volunteer and emotionally are involved. How you can achieve this? Through videogames: using a number of techniques that make it a fun experience”
 F. Viola
  14. 14. I-City • iCity is an IoT ready solution by KES with a set of innovative services and tools to monitoring the main areas of a smart city. iCity gathers and analyzes data from the city through smart objects (cameras, sensors, ...) and offers applications for security, mobility, environment and energy. Target: - Public administrations, to ensure smart services for more livable cities; 
 - Citizens, to take active part in the city life;
  15. 15. A video shows I-City
  16. 16. NotiCity has been designed in a dual role: one to make people active part of the
 city with the ability to report critical events, the other in support of those 
 who must take action to resolve the critical issues .
  17. 17. NotiCity: main functions • Creating different types of geo-referenced reports ( accident , potholes , ... ) with an attached image • Display lists of reports awaiting action and those stored • Ability to change the flag status by staff authorizing intervention (new - work in - resolved) • Integration with iCity
  18. 18. NotiCity architecture NotiCity is an hybrid app, adaptable to different OS . The architecture is client-server. Server's responsibilities are to receive queries from clients and return the result. The server is based on REST principles . The clients provide a user friendly interface which will facilitate the construction of the query and displays the results received from the server.
 Requests to the server are made through Ajax and jQuery.
  19. 19. Gamifying NotiCity Gamification can influence citizens’ behaviour in relation to many Smart Cities concerns, such as participatory gover- nance, tourism, culture, education, etc. The “human” part of the city is gaining a prominent position as a decisive factor in good city policies. ACTION/SCORE Sign in +20 points New valid report +50 points Report with photo +10 points New invalid report - 70 points “bonus malus”
  20. 20. LEVELS 1 0 points 2 over 50 points 3 over 200 points 4 over 350 points 5 over 550 points 6 over 800 points TOP over 1050 points “signaller” “guardian” “duke” “ancient roman” “knight” As his experience as a smart city citizen will go on , he will increase his score, he will win a higher level and will scale leaderboard. “sentinel”
  21. 21. The work done To apply gamification techniques, and make the necessary changes, it was necessary to work on two fronts : • Server side • Client side
  22. 22. Server side 
 In order to keep track of new informations introduced by gamification techniques, it was necessary to update the tables in the existing database designed with MySql. It was added the column "score" in the "user" table. And it was created the table "level" with the maximum and minimum values for each level and the table "action" that describes the score associated with each activity.
  23. 23. Server side pt.2 These are the four methods added to API Rest: • UserRanking(User id) called to show users ranking. It generates a group of arrays key- value that will be the leaderboard. • UserInformation(User id) called to show the score of a single user. It returns all the informations about the user, for example his score. • DeleteEvent(Event request) called by system to add a score after a valid report. • ApproveEvent(Event request) called by system to subtract a score after an invalid report, that will be deleted.
  24. 24. Client side 
 It was made a graphic restyling of UI with the aim of making the user experience more immersive and captivating. The easy of use, the attractive graphic, but also any sounds to be added to highlight the sending of a report or reaching an higher level, are all key factors for success, as we learn from the world of videogames.

  25. 25. Restyling it’s very important before…
  26. 26. Restyling it’s very important …and after
  27. 27. NotiCity
  28. 28. The future of Gamification Studies show that by 2020 there will be significant advances in the use of gamification and that more than half of all companies will have “gamified” the innovation processes, and that gamification is the area where most large companies have plans to invest in the short term. Certainly one of the major application development areas of gamification will be precisely that of "citizen engagement", as demonstrated by the importance that the theme plays as part of Horizon2020 program of the European Commission. In the long run, gamification may just become the normal way we design, implement and interact with the world around us. Research believes that gamification will continue to evolve.
  29. 29. Also in the argument of this paper it is possible to imagine further developments in citizens engagement allowed by gamification techniques. The most significant challenge is the transition from pure report feature to the active participation to city’s problems. In other words, "close the loop" by the activation of initiatives by volunteers who take charge of a problem’s solution. From reporting to do something
  30. 30. Recommended Reading • “Actionable Gamification - beyond points, badges and leaderboards” Yu-kai Chou • “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction Fieldbook” Karl M.Kapp, Lucas Blair, Rich Mesch