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  2. 2. Contents: Fibre types: Source and classification of the main fibre groups Students should know the qualities of the fibres and understand how they affect the end use. Natural fibres • Plant/cellulose: cotton, linen, ramie – eg high absorbency, tendency to crease, good strength, cool to wear. • Animal/protein: wool, silk, hair, eg are absorbent, thermally insulating, can be difficult to care for especially wool because of the scales. Generally considered to be high quality fibres. • Cellulosic fibres: cotton, linen, ramie, viscose share common features, such as high absorbency, poor resistance to shrinking and creasing, low thermal insulation qualities. Protein fibres have fairly similar properties, such as high absorbency, good thermal insulation. Manufactured fibres • Regenerated fibres: eg viscose, acetate, modal; these are weak fibres but the continuous filaments make them soft to wear, they are highly absorbent and crease badly. Outline knowledge of the process only – detail and chemical formulae not required. Manufacturing should include reference to source, not chemical formulae, and basic knowledge of manufacture, eg carding of natural staple fibres before they are spun into yarns, wet spinning of regenerated fibres, melt spinning of synthetics gives very fine smooth continuous filaments. • Synthetic: (including microfibres): eg nylon, polyester, acrylic. These fibres are very strong, totally non-absorbent, smooth, lightweight, do not crease and are thermoplastic so can be heat-set. Elastomerics, eg Lycra, have high levels of stretch and snap-back qualities. • PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) fabrics are waterproof, have good chemical and biological resistance and have a shine. PVC is often used to make imitation leather fabrics. Materials and Components: • Commercial names of fibres and fabrics: Be aware of popular names of natural, man-made and synthetic fibres and fabrics, including Tactel®, Lyocell®, Tencel®, Lycra®, Polar Fleece® and Trevira®. Students should know which fibres they are made from and understand that the fibres have often been modified, or engineered from the standard form of the fibre to make them better suited to their typical end-uses.
  3. 3. Contents: Materials and Components:Yarns • Carding, spinning: Understand that fibres need to be made into yarns in order to hold them together so they can be manufactured into woven and knitted fabrics. Carding is necessary to align staple fibres (including filament fibres that have been cut down to staple lengths) before they can be spun together. The importance of twist in relation to strength and bulk of the yarn. • Yarn types: Knowledge of basic yarn types and how they influence the qualities of the fabrics made from them, eg staple yarns are made from staple fibres and filament fibres cut down to staple form. Filament yarns are made from continuous fibres; the main differences between single and plied yarns, textured and bulked yarns – the reasons why yarns need to be textured and the use of thermoplastic qualities to add crinkles. Fancy yarns, eg boucle, slub, chenille, metallised yarns. • Blending and mixing of fibres: Basic knowledge of how fibres are combined together to make yarns; staple fibre blends including understanding that filament fibres need to be cut to staple lengths in order to mix them with other staple fibres, twisting together of different filament fibres to give multi-filament yarns, basic knowledge of core spun yarns which include elastomeric fibre. • Fabric manufacture Knowledge of the structure of the main construction methods and the differences between them. Students should be able to draw/describe and recognise the main structures. Understanding of the qualities given to the fabrics by the construction methods, including names and typical end-uses of a range of different fabrics, some examples are given below. Woven • Plain (Tabby) weave: Fabrics include calico, canvas, chambray, chiffon, chintz, flannel, lawn, muslin, organdie, poplin, sheeting, shirting, taffeta, voile, winceyette. • Twill weaves: Fabrics include cavalry twill, denim, dog’s-tooth check, drill, gabardine, herringbone tweeds, serge, and tartan. • Satin weaves: Fabrics include satin, sateen, duchesse satin, satin-back crepe, heavy bridal satins, lighter weight satins for linings and lingerie. • Pile weaves: eg cut pile. Fabrics include velvet, needlecord, and corduroy. • Loop pile: Fabrics include terry towelling. The fabrics listed above are some of the more common examples for each construction method. There is no expectation that all of them will be covered and teachers may choose to include other examples as appropriate. • Special effects achieved with coloured yarns, eg checks and stripes, gingham, tartan. Madras; Seersucker and blister effects; broderie anglais. Jacquard patterns, brocade. Effects with blended fibres, eg crinkle and permanent creasing, metallic fibres, fibres which absorb dye differently to give multi-coloured fabric. Bouclé and crepe fabrics which use special yarns to give the desired effects in the fabrics. • Basic knowledge of how these effects are achieved, eg a simple gingham check fabric is made by arranging the warp threads in the loom in alternating white and colour blocks; the weft threads are woven in the same alternating white/colour blocks resulting in a white/colour square check pattern.
  4. 4. Contents Materials and Components: • Knitted • Weft knits: Fabrics include hand and machine knits, single jerseys (stockinette), double jerseys (interlock), rib knits, polyester fleece (has an extra yarn knitted into it and the fabric is then brushed on both sides to give a soft dense nap), Jacquard knits (complex patterns with different coloured yarns). • Warp knits: Fabrics include tricot, velour. Non-wovens • Production of felts and bonded fabrics. Importance of scales of wool fibre in producing wool felt. • Understanding that non-wovens are produced directly from fibres. Outline knowledge of web • production and bonding methods to make fabrics. • Typical applications for bonded and felted fabrics including implications of a lack of strength and • grain. • New developments involving non-woven fabrics, eg flame retardant fabrics, the use of carbon • fibres for military and filtration fabrics, fabrics used for insulation and decoration of car interiors, • Tyvek used in buildings, fabrics impregnated with beneficial chemicals such as those used in • bandages and wound dressings. • These examples are included to exemplify some different uses for non-woven fabrics; the list is not • intended to be prescriptive or exhaustive. Smart materials created to provide specific properties Students need to understand what is meant by a smart material and be aware of a range of typical applications, eg heat reactive, fabrics developed for health and safety applications, performance fabrics. Fabric finishes Knowledge of the effects of finishes and the reasons they are needed in relation to the fibre/fabric properties and end use of the product. Types of finish in common use. Detailed knowledge of the chemicals involved and methods of application is not required. Typical finishes include brushing, calendering, flame retardancy (Proban, Pyrovatex used on cotton fabrics), water resistance, non-iron/crease resistance, stain resistance (Teflon®), shrink resistance and heat setting (to give permanent pleats or crinkles, non-crease, and non- shrink). Surface decoration Dyeing; domestic and industrial methods (vat, discharge and resist, eg tie-dye, batik), stages at which dye is applied (fibre, yarn, fabric, finished product), dye fastness – different types and why they are needed. Outline knowledge only; eg when resist dyeing the fabric is printed with chemicals which prevent dye being taken up in the chemically treated areas.
  5. 5. Contents Materials and Components: Product components Students should have knowledge of a variety of components and their appropriateness for a range of products in relation to the end-user, fabric and design considerations. Fastenings Including buttons with buttonholes/loops, zips, poppers, clips, buckles, clasps, Velcro, D-rings, hooks and eyes, fabric and ribbon ties. Reasons why they are used and typical applications. Trims Including braids, ribbons, piping, edgings, petersham, bindings, fringing, lace, beads, sequins, diamantes, motifs. Reasons why they are used and typical applications. Threads Including sewing threads (eg polyester and cotton machine thread, buttonhole thread), embroidery threads (eg stranded embroidery, Madeira/viscose machine embroidery), special effect threads (eg metallic, glow-in-the-dark, multi-coloured). Choice and application according to desired effect/end product. Working properties of fibres and fabrics Knowledge and understanding of the properties of fibres and fabrics and their physical characteristics in relation to their choice for various design solutions. Students should have an understanding of basic principles underlying many fabric qualities, eg trapped air acts as an insulator, air supports combustion, smooth fibres and fabrics reflect light better than those with texture, fabrics containing non-absorbent fibres can wick moisture if there are air spaces, synthetic fibres are thermoplastic so can be heat-set. Students need to have an understanding that the fibre content and yarn/fabric construction play a part in the overall qualities of the fabric. Fibre properties Strength, extensibility, elasticity, fineness, electrostatic charge, lustre, thermal insulation, flammability, moisture absorption, shrinkage. Students should be able to make reference to typical fibres and implications for end- use. This is a development of knowledge about fibre types and is about applying knowledge to end-use. Fabric qualities Strength, durability, elasticity, flammability, thermal qualities, creasing, absorption, stretch, formability, handle, drape, weight, pattern repeat, directional pile, nap, texture, lustre. This includes reference to fabric construction as well as fibre/yarn content. Testing of materials Experience of basic testing to determine appropriate properties in relation to chosen end use, eg flammability, crease resistance, shrink resistance, colour fastness, strength, pilling. Awareness of fabric testing undertaken in industry – outline knowledge only. Awareness that fabrics are tested before their selection for a particular application. An example of this might be the use of special machines which can repeatedly and consistently rub a fabric to check how quickly it wears into a hole or starts to pill. Manipulating and combining materials Understand the need to combine materials and have outline knowledge of the main methods used. Mixtures, blends and laminates Fibre content, properties of fabric in relation to different fibre content and percentages. Typical blends and applications. Reasons for use including applications for specific products. Laminates, eg Gore-Tex®, Sympatex®. Basic understanding of how they work, eg laminates such as Gore-Tex® are membrane systems with two or more layers held together with adhesive or thermoplastic fibres. They are able to prevent water and wind from penetrating whilst allowing perspiration to escape. They are used for outdoor clothing, particularly for extreme conditions. Lace fabrics are often backed by a woven fabric to give them stability – these are also laminated fabrics. Combining materials Interfacings (eg as used to strengthen, stiffen, shape, prevent stretching of main fabric), underlinings (eg as used to strengthen, reduce transparency, thicken main fabric), linings (eg as used to add warmth, cover construction, aid wear, decorate products), interlinings (eg as used to aid insulation of product). Types and applications in relation to fabric weight and construction, and end use of product, eg a non-woven iron-on interfacing gives a crisp finish on the collar of a shirt, polyester satin linings are slippery so help the wearer put on and remove a jacket.
  6. 6. Contents Design and Market Influence: History of design Study to include some of the major developments of design throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Some examples include Op-art, art nouveau, Pop-art, Bauhaus, psychedelic, minimalism, effects of ethics and environment, punk but centres are free to choose other major design developments from the 19th and 20th centuries. Students should have an awareness of how various developments affected fashion and textile design. Understanding of influences on aesthetic attitudes to style and fashion up to the present day. The most important examples include the impact of women’s emancipation, world events such as war, rise of youth cultures and disaffection, technological developments, music and media, royalty and celebrities, leisure activities, ethical and environmental considerations. Students should have some knowledge of how some of these influences have impacted on fashion – this will be a foundation for study of fashion influences at A2 level. Product evolution and product analysis A study of manufactured products to illustrate the way in which the demands of a product have evolved as a result of new materials and technologies. Some examples include the introduction of regenerated and synthetic fibres during 20th century, development of fabric finishes and smart materials, new methods of manufacturing clothing and textile materials, including mass production as opposed to bespoke, automated manufacture including CAD and CAM, new decorative techniques such as laser printing, developments in the care of textiles. Students should consider how textiles and products have developed during the 20th and 21st centuries in order to fully understand where current products have come from. Schools/colleges are free to choose other important developments. Appraisal of functional, aesthetic, technical and economic considerations in the design and manufacture of products, eg analysis of a range of existing products to consider the design, materials used, requirements of typical end users, manufacturing methods, care of the product, ethical issues. Consideration of aspects of physical surroundings as shaped by designers, craftsmen and technologists. For example, interior textiles in the home and public buildings. Design in practice Design methodology Analysis, research, inspiration, idea generation, illustration, modelling, planning, evaluating and testing. Much of this will form the basis of coursework activities but students should also have formal knowledge of these design methodologies for Unit 1. It may include the use of trend forecasts, sales figures, moodboards, a study of existing products, the use of templates, using prototypes, samples and models to test and evaluate ideas, planning of work including the manufacture of products, testing and analysing finished outcomes and suggesting appropriate modifications and developments. The role of the designer An understanding of the varying roles of the commercial designer, eg responsibilities in relation to the client and end user of a product, budget, health and safety constraints, opportunities for innovative ideas. Exploring different approaches to designing. Understanding of manufacturing constraints on product design. An awareness of the environmental issues in relation to the design of textile products. Social and moral implications of product design. Design sources Candidates should be able to respond to a variety of stimuli drawing from direct observation of natural and man-made forms, secondary sources in relation to specified design briefs. Aiding the design process Use of inspirational moodboards, designer sketchbooks. Analysing working and aesthetic characteristics of a range of materials and surface decoration techniques. Understand industrial process used to produce these effects. Recognising design faults in existing products, eg through the analysis of existing products and the application of theoretical knowledge from Section A.
  7. 7. Contents Design and Market Influence: Market research Client profiling, identifying target market, consumer and product research, eg opinion polls and questionnaires. Printing (screen, roller, transfer, ink jet, stencilling). Outline knowledge of how they work; eg screen printing uses mesh screens through which the dye paste is pushed. A different screen is prepared for each colour in the design. Rotary screen printing and flat screen printing are variations of the same process. Embroidery (hand and machine), quilting (construction of quilted fabrics, reasons for use). The marketing function Customer identification. An awareness of the use of new technology in the marketing of textile products. This should include developments throughout the 20th and 21st century including the rise of fashion magazines, radio and television advertising, the internet, mobile phone applications, special promotions. Product costing, calculation and profit. Presentation of colourways. Product life cycles Understanding the expected life cycle of products, eg in relation to intended use, fashion seasons, cost. Copyright protection The issue of copyright, patenting and their importance to the designer and manufacturer. Students should be aware of what is meant by copyright and patenting and implications for designers but do not need detailed knowledge of the copyright laws. Communication methods Students should be able to communicate the detail and form of products, environments and systems so that they may be manufactured. They should be able to identify and use appropriate means to communicate ideas, design proposals and evaluations to a range of audiences, including clients and potential users of the product, eg presentation boards, fashion illustration, interior sketches, swatches, colourways. This terminology is used by professional designers and should be understood by students. Illustration Selection and use of appropriate 2D/3D techniques, eg sketching, drawing, use of mixed media, collage. Enhancement Rendering – use of line/tone/colour/form. Texture – to represent materials, surface finishes and applied decoration Presentation – two-dimensional and three-dimensional products. Information drawing Quantitative – graphs, pie charts, bar charts, pictograms Organisational and topological – flow charts, sequential/schematic. Modelling Using three-dimensional form – mock-ups, prototypes, scale models. Use of ICT Selection and use of CAD, word processing/DTP, spreadsheets, databases and modelling software. Design in the human context Human needs Designing to meet physiological, psychological and sociological needs of various groups of people, eg young, elderly, and physically handicapped in different environments and communities. Human factors Ergonomic and anthropometric influences and constraints. The relationship between people, products and the environment.
  8. 8. Contents Design and Market Influence: Health and safety Risk assessment in relation to the design and manufacture of products. Safety standards imposed by The British Standards Institution (BSI), recommended by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) for product design. The work of the BSI in providing advice on the safety and other standards for a wide range of products. Students should have outline knowledge of the existence of different standards (eg with regard to the sizing of standard bedding, testing for colourfastness) but are not required to have knowledge of individual standards, for example, BS7907, 1997 relating to the safe design and manufacture of children’s clothing. Knowledge of the basic legal requirements relating to the flammability of textiles used for children’s nightwear, for furnishing products in public buildings, seating in the home, and the design requirements for children’s clothing. Recommendations for health and safety at work for employees and the implications for the employer. For information, the 4 main effects of The Health and Safety at work Act (1974) are; 1. It makes employers criminally liable for failure to meet regulations. 2. It set up the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which is responsible for checking that the Act is being followed. HSE and local authority inspectors visit workplaces to make sure that health and safety regulations are being followed. 3. It gives employees the right to be represented on health and safety matters. 4. It places an obligation on employees to use safety equipment. The Act requires businesses to make a risk assessment of their activities. The company must appoint a Health and Safety officer who will check the workplace for possible risks, and put into place the necessary procedures and/or equipment to reduce risks for employees. Many chemicals are used in the textile industry, and these may be dangerous to health if not stored and used correctly. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations (1994) form part of the risk assessment. All workplaces should appoint a person to be in charge of first aid and should have a clearly marked and well stocked first aid kit. Applications/material areas Apparel fabrics to satisfy basic clothing requirements, eg protection, adornment, fashion, utility, sportswear (performance sport and leisurewear), footwear, accessories. Household fabrics, eg table/bed linen, furnishing accessories, furnishings, floorings. Industrial textiles, eg fire protective wear, components for vehicles/machines, automotive fabrics, tents, awnings, harnesses, medical textiles. Students should understand that textile materials are used in a wide variety of products and be able to refer to various materials in relation to the needs of the end user. Environmental concerns Use of natural resources, materials utilisation, conservation, waste disposal/management, pollution in broad terms, recycling. Green technology, environmental problems. Students should have knowledge and understanding of the issues relating to the source (eg natural fibres compared with man-made fibres), manufacture and processing of fibres, fabrics and products (eg use of polluting machinery, water use, dyes, chemical finishes, energy use), transport (eg use of fossil fuels/nuclear energy, pollution from CO2/nuclear waste, impact on infrastructures), use and care (eg use of water, energy, detergents, chemicals to wash or dry clean, dry, bleach, iron products), and disposal of textile products. Students should be aware of developments aimed at minimising the environmental effects of textile manufacture and use.
  9. 9. Contents Industrial and Commercial Practice: Manufacturing systems One-off (also called bespoke or job production), batch, mass/line production (sometimes called progressive bundle), vertical, in-house production. Understanding of the differences between them, the sort of products made using each system, the advantages and disadvantages. Pre-manufactured components, manufacturing specifications. Response to market demands (eg information collected through EPOS) Manufacturing sub-systems (sub assembly as a separate line of manufacture for certain parts of a product). Just in time production (JIT) – includes stock control, manufacture of goods as and when needed, delivery of goods to retailer as needed. ICT application Knowledge and understanding of CAD/CAM for designing and manufacturing processes, fabric production, pattern production, embroidery, and garment manufacture. Advantages and disadvantages of using CAD and CAM. CAD (Computer Aided Design); design of fabrics, products, colourways, product modelling pattern construction. Students should be able to give specific examples of where CAD could be used, eg when developing a print pattern for fabric, virtual modelling and prototyping. CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture); understanding of fabric manufacture, lay planning, computer controlled cutting, sewing, pressing, decoration. Students should be able to refer to specific processes used in the manufacture of textile products, eg automated buttonholing, the making and sewing of pockets, automated seam stitching. ICT used in the integration of manufacture (CIM). Students should understand that ICT is used to link the systems so that different automated systems can talk to each other and work together. Pattern drafting Basic pattern/template drafting, including the knowledge and use of technical terms (basic block, labelling and notching, balance marks, seam allowance and ease). Students should be able to work from a set of basic block patterns (bodice front and back, sleeve, skirt and trouser front and back), developed for individual measurements or from commercial basic blocks. Principles of grading. Basic adaptation to create unique individual styles – manipulation of the basic templates to develop patterns as required. Moving of darts to create new fullness or shaping, creating yokes. The raglan, kimono and princess developments are not required. Product manufacture Fabric preparation, lay planning, marking and cutting out, methods of joining, shaping, finishing of edges, selection of construction techniques appropriate to the fabric being used and the product being made. Much of this knowledge will be developed through coursework activities and students should be given opportunities to work with a wide range of different products and materials. Areas not covered through coursework activities will need to be taught elsewhere. Pressing – use of correct tools, eg iron, pressing cloth, needleboard for pile fabrics. Labelling and packaging; their functions, information typically found on labels including that required by law, and Quality Assurance symbols, eg wool mark, 100% cotton logo, Tencel logo, Teflon fabric finish logo. Environmental impact of packaging. To plan appropriate methods and processes for the manufacture of chosen products, including amendments and adaptations of prototypes and the use of industrial manufacturing processes. Product maintenance Care and maintenance of products. Information shown on care labels, including symbols used. Students should be able to recognise symbols in current use and understand what they mean. Relationship between care recommendations and fibre/fabric properties. This involves application of fibre and fabric knowledge to the recommended care.
  10. 10. Environmental concerns An awareness of the environmental issues in relation to fibre/fabric production and the dyeing of fabrics and piece goods, eg energy use, use and disposal of dyes, water use. Health and safety Risk assessment and health and safety issues related to the manufacture of textile products. For example, safety for the textile workers, such as the use of specific Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), guards on machines, lighting and ventilation in the factory. Systems and control Quality assurance and quality control The concept of quality assurance as an over-arching system of which quality control is a part. Quality control checks throughout the manufacturing process. This should include the different stages of manufacture when quality might be checked, specific examples of what the checker would be looking for, implications of not checking quality. Systems diagrams – input, process, output. Loop feedback systems which ensure quality. For example, faulty stitching of seams can be due to faulty machine settings or inadequate training of machinists. Regular QC checks help identify the specific workstation producing the inferior stitching and the underlying problem can them be rectified. Awareness of quality and finish in the manufacture of own products. Contents Industrial and Commercial Practice:
  11. 11. Section 1 Materials and Components:
  12. 12. Natural fibres
  13. 13. Knowledge and Understanding Audit… Go through the list of knowledge you need to learn for your exam. Rank from 1-5 on how well you know the topic. 1-2: is Very confident and could answer questions already. 3-4: is needs a re-cap and then could have a go at answering questions. 5: is I can’t remember a thing and would freak if I had to answer a question!
  14. 14. What do you know about fibres already? 1. In groups, brainstorm all of the information you can remember about fibres. 2. Now write down as many questions or queries you have about the topic. What do you fell you still need to learn?
  15. 15. The basics… Manufactured Fibres Natural Fibres
  16. 16. http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/q-guide.htm Commercial names of Fibres
  17. 17. Question?????????????
  18. 18. Manufactured Fibres
  19. 19. What do these all have in common?
  20. 20. They all use Smart Fabric Technology
  21. 21. Aim: To understand the creation and developments of modern materials, smart fabrics and performance textiles 1 2 3 4 Smart materials provide specific properties What are the benefits and disadvantages of modern and smart textiles? The BIG ? Have an awareness of a range of smart fabrics Know the commercial names of a range of smart fabrics Understand the uses of a range of smart fabrics Know a range of finishes used for certain functions
  22. 22. Definition: Modern and smart fabrics are designed to maximise characteristics such as lightness, breathability, waterproofing etc, or to react to heat or light. They are usually manufactured using microfibres.
  23. 23. It will be impossible to learn and remember all of the smart and modern fabrics developed to date but there are some key contenders you should remember for your exam. There are many areas of development within Textiles and they spread to a wide range of industries • Sportswear • Fashion • Medicine • Military • Agriculture • Aerospace • Police • Transport • Protective wear • Interiors • + many many more You should already be aware of some commercial names of smart fabrics… Can you name any? ? ? ? ? ?
  24. 24. • Sportswear • Fashion • Medicine • Military • Agriculture • Aerospace • Police • Transport • Protective wear • Interiors • + many many more
  25. 25. Kevla r Tence l Nome x Many developments today rely on blends so it is difficult to ignore products which include Lycra. This would be acceptable to discuss in an exam answer as long as you reference other smart fabrics with it.
  26. 26. Some key definitions Modern Materials This includes regenerated cellulose fibres Lyocell and Tencel, the synthetics fibres Kevlar and Nomex as well as Chlorofibre (PVC), Fluorofibre (PTFE) and Polyolefin (polypropylene). These fibres have been engineered to produce fabrics with special properties. Fibres can also be developed using blended Smart Fabrics They provide added characteristics such as breathable, waterproof and windproof. Some smart fabrics are said to be ‘intelligent’ because they respond to the needs of the user and the environment. Can often incorporate microelectronics. Performance Textiles Textiles which relate to a products performance in a specific end-use. Performance textiles include products used for outdoor pursuits or sport. Industrial Textiles Manufactured to meet specific technical requirements. Used for functional end-use in industry, either as part of an industrial process or incorporated into industrial products. Technical Textiles Mainly for technical performance and finctional properties rather than aesthetics. Used for protective clothing, upholstery, furnishings, buildings, civil engineering, sports, leisure, agricultural, medicine and health care.
  27. 27. The main reason for fabric innovation includes; Aesthetics – handle, drape, softness, lustre, weight, texture, pattern Performance – easy-care, stretch, shape retention, durability, waterproofing Spinning and weaving – blended yarns (lyocell/lycra) or microfibres Finishing – bio-stoning denim, using resin treatments, peach skin effects Garment Finishing – non-iron, easy- care When developing new smart materials a range of considerations have to be taken into account. For example; garments – aesthetics, versatility, fashion and performance-in- use
  28. 28. Task: You have been asked to design a range of protective clothing for the workers on a new building site. You need to consider the specification points for the wearer as well as the employer For the user, the safety wear must be: For the employer, the product must:
  29. 29. For the user, the safety wear must be: • Highly visible • Flexible • Comfortable to wear • Easy fastening • Durable • Waterproof • Lightweight • Non-flammable • Resistant to real – life wear conditions (soiling, extreme heats etc) • Attractive in style and colour For the employer, the product must: • Meet safety and performance requirements to the British and EU Legislation • Carry the CE mark • Provide life long functional performance and be easy to maintain • Withstand industrial washing at extreme temperatures • Be high quality • Value for money • Available in a range of sizes • Provide a quality design
  30. 30. Lyocell Generic name for a high performance staple viscose fibre produced from renewable sources of wood pulp. It is environmentally friendly because it recycles non-toxic solvent amine oxide. Products made from Lyocell can also be recycled after use by incinerating, landfilled or digested in sewage. In anaerobic digestion (sewage farm) the fibre degrades completely in eight days to leave only water and carbon dioxide. This is then used to power the sewage plant.
  31. 31. Lyocell Characteristics Fibrillation The ability for fibres to split to give micro-fine surface hairs. Can be manufactured to suit different needs. Surface effects A variety of finishes can be applied ; dyeing, milling (rolling fabric to create a denser handle), sueding, sanding and brushing Strength Lyocell is stronger than other cellulose fibres including cotton and out-performs many types of polyester Absorbency Lyocell is easy-care, dyes well, has good ‘wicking’ properties so is breathable Disposal Totally biodegradable and can be recycled Versatile fibre which can be used on it’s own or blended
  32. 32. Lyocell End uses Technical Textiles • Protective clothing • Workwear • Coated fabrics • Sewing threads • Tents • felts Nonwovens • Medical wipes and dressings • Wet wipes • Leather substitutes • Filters • interlinings Special Papers • Tea bags • Air/smoke/oil/coffee filters • Map papers • Printing papers • High-strength envelopes
  33. 33. Tencel Brand name for a high performance viscose fibre, made from 100% regenerated cellulose from trees in managed forests. Similar to Lyocell in the way it is manufactured It is: • Stronger than cotton when wet and dry • Easy-care with very low shrinkage • Durable, luxurious and practical • Very absorbent and breathable • Totally biodegradable and recyclable When blended with fibres such as wool, linen, cotton or elestane Tencel provides enhanced softness, lustre, drape for clothing. It can be woven or knitted and easily dyed or finished. The fact that it fibrillates (splits) means it can look completely different ie looks like tough denim but feel like velvet
  34. 34. Aramid Generic name for a family of synthetic polymer fibres made from petro-chemicals. Expensive high tech aramid fibres can be engineered to produce woven, knitted, non-woven or cabled technical textiles, which provides high strength and heat resistance
  35. 35. Kevlar Brand name for a family of aramid fibres which are high strength, lightweight, flame and chemical-resistant, flexible and comfortable. An important synthetic fibre because it’s unique properties make it suitable for a wide variety of industrial uses. 5 times stronger than steel of an equivalent weight. Flexible, comfortable and chemical- resistant making it suitable for a range of protective wear. End uses: • Bullet proof vests • High risk activity equipment – hot air ballooning • High-tension cables and ropes for bridges • Gloves to protect against cuts and injuries • Strong, lightweight skis, helmets, tennis racquets • Tyres, car hoses, aircraft structures and boats https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1KGF onmZzQ
  36. 36. Nomex Brand name for a family of aramid fibres that are high temperature resistant. They have a unique combination of heat and flame resistance, durability, anti-static, low shrinkage, easy-care, comfort and aesthetic qualities. Resistant to most industrial oils, solvents and chemicals. Can be dyed easily and used for protection in iundustry for the Police, and armed forces, fire fighters and high risk sports. In motor sports Nomex is used for protective overals, underwear and head cover. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0G6y MFN0RE
  37. 37. Polyvinylchloride PVC Made from petro chemicals Can be manufactured as filament or spun fibres Can be manufactured as a coating Advantages: Strong Flexible Durable Breathable Easy-care Waterproof Insulator Thermoplastic Can be blended End uses Raincoats, shower curtains, floor coverings, architectural tyextiles, underwear, jumpers, hats, scarves, gloves, active wear, fleece Disadvantage: Non-renewable resource
  38. 38. Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE) Generic name for synthetic fluorofibre, made from petochemicals Hydrophobic – Water hating Used in high tech fabrics such as Gore-Tex Oleophobic – Oil hating
  39. 39. Teflon Brand name for a high- performance fabric-care product made from PTFE. It protects fabrics and leather against water, stains and oil- based spills. Teflon works by surrounding each fibre with an invisible barrier so the fabric doesn’t attract soiling or soak up wet stains. Safe, gentle, effective, water- based and CFC free so it doesn’t harm the environment. Teflon coated fabrics are windproof, waterproof, stain- resistant, breathable and easy-care. Developed as part of the American space programme http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/i -didnt-know-that/idkt-teflon
  40. 40. Goretex Brand name for smart microporous membrane made from a composite of oil-hating substance and PTFE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5dqKe2 IuNZs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9LoE Mkl700 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pH2J VseKms
  41. 41. Aim: To understand the creation and developments of modern materials, smart fabrics and performance textiles 1 2 3 4 Smart materials provide specific properties What are the benefits and disadvantages of modern and smart textiles? The BIG ? Have an awareness of a range of smart fabrics Know the commercial names of a range of smart fabrics Understand the uses of a range of smart fabrics Know a range of finishes used for certain functions
  42. 42. Exam Practice 5 marks AS A2
  43. 43. Yarns
  44. 44. What will I learn today? • Source and classification of main fibre groups • Understand the commercial names of fibres and fabrics • Know different types of yarns and processes used
  45. 45. Classification of fibres Source Properties Finishing used Blends Typical fabrics End uses Aftercare Task: Use the internet to complete this chart with information to use as a revision tool. Include commercial names too. Stick in the samples of some of the fabrics. Complete for H/W
  46. 46. Q. AS
  47. 47. What is the definition of a yarn? A yarn is defined as a fine continuous length of fibres or fillaments, with or without twist. To be useful, yarns need to be strong enough to be made into fabric. Fibres are generally produced by the process of spinning in to a variety of of different yarn types; Single, ply, cabled, corespun or a fancy yarn
  48. 48. Twist… Twist is put into yarns during spinning to make them stronger, so they are suitable for weaving and knitting. Yarns can be spun clockwise (Z twist) and Anti clockwise (S twist) Fabrics made from spun yarn are usually Z twist in the warp and S twist in the weft. Light reflects in opposite directions creating a striped effect.
  49. 49. Task: Investigate the different types of twisted yarns, recording appearance, texture, functions and products it could be used for. Give visual examples to prompt you when revising.
  50. 50. Question Time… AS
  51. 51. Question Time… A2
  52. 52. A2 – Outside reading and research on: • Inorganic • Special woven effects including – plaids, tartans, brocades, doublecloth, pique, checks, madras and checks. • Knitted stuctures – plain, single, double jersey, pique, rib knits, jaqcuard knits, locknit, lace and net construction.
  53. 53. Knitted
  54. 54. Woven
  55. 55. What will I learn today? • Understand how different fabrics are created using different techniques and processes • Identify different finishes used on fabrics and their purpose • Understand the importance of function of different fabrics and their end use
  56. 56. Task: Examine a selection of fabric samples. 1. Pull off a few of the warp and weft yarns 2. Cut two of the yarns to the same length and count the number of twists in each. 3. Feel the yarns and describe their properties. 4. Untwist the yarns and describe their structure. See if you can pull out a single fibre – is it a staple or filament? 5. Try to decide if any of the yarns are made from blended fibres – do all of the fibres look the same? Make a record of your findings in your book.
  57. 57. Weave Plain weave – the most used weave construction, provising endless design variations through using plain, thick and thin, coloured and fancy yarns. It is hardwearing, strong and firm and used for lots of different types of fabric. Calico – low cost cotton fabric made in different weights and lengths. Often used for toiles and experimental work. Voile – is light weight and sheer made from cotton, silk, rayon, nylon. Used for blouses, dresses, childrens’ wear and curtains. There are many more different types of fabric which is produced using a plain weave. Investigate as many different types as you can, using your samples as examples. Sketch the design of the weave to identify what it is.
  58. 58. Weave Twill Weave – produces diagonal lines in the fabric, which usually run bottom left to top right on the fabric face. Weaving twills in different directions produces fabrics with different patterns for example; herringbone or chevron Twill weave drapes well and is one of the most used weave constructions for denim and gabardine. Twill is used for products such as trousers, jackets, suits and curtains. Viyella is a 2/2 twill fabric woven from wool/cotton blend fibres in the warp and weft. 55% wool, 45% cotton and can be plain, checked or stripe.
  59. 59. Weave Satin Weave – warp faced, which makes it strong warpwise and drapes well. Has a smooth and shiny face and the weft shows only on the back. Used for curtain linings, evening wear, upholstery, ribbons and trims, depending on the fibre, for example; Cotton, polyester/cotton, acetate, polyester or silk. Sateen – weft faced so that the warp shows only on the back. Often used for a base for more complex weave constructions such as a crepe. Damask – more expensive mercerised cotton, which is sometimes used for tablecloths. The pattern is made by interchanging satin and sateen weave.
  60. 60. Plain Weave Twill Weave Satin Weave
  61. 61. What might I be asked in the exam?
  62. 62. 6 marks
  63. 63. 6= A 5= B 4= C 3= D 2= E 1= F
  64. 64. Cotton is a strong fabric which would last a long time when worn by children. Cotton is also easy care and can be machine washed easily. Towelling is textured giving the garment a warm and comfortable handle. What Grade would you give this answer?
  65. 65. 6= A
  66. 66. A2 4= B 5= A 2= D 3= C 1= E
  67. 67. Silk chiffon is a fine fabric which is translucent. A French seam could be used on the seams to create a neat finish. The fabric is delicate and would need care taken when cleaning. How many marks would you give this answer?
  68. 68. Now compare the two answers to see how they compare?
  69. 69. Weave Task- Now investigate and research the following weave structures in the same way; • Crepe fabric • Jacquard • Pile weaves • Needlecord and corduroy • Terry towelling • Fabric Mixture • Colour woven Fabrics Record the design, handle, properties and explain the end uses for the fabric.
  70. 70. Non-Woven
  71. 71. Non – Woven Fabrics Non - Woven Felts Bonded webbs Wool felt Needle felt Adhesive Bonded Thermally Bonded Solvent Bonded
  72. 72. Research Felt and Bonded webbs. Record the design, handle, properties and explain the end uses for the fabric.
  73. 73. Fabric Finishes
  74. 74. Aim: Have a knowledge of commercial and hand methods of finishing processes in Textiles The BIG ? What suitable method of printing could you use for a women’s cotton blouse? 1. Be able to name and describe at least 1 commercial method of dyeing and printing 2. Understand a range of surface decorative techniques 3. Have an understanding of a variety of finishes used in the textiles industry H/W: Due Mrs Temples lesson ‘Answer the exam practice questions’
  75. 75. Dyein g Fabrics often need to be washed, bleached and dyed before being transformed into textiles products Before the fabric is dyed it is mercerised, which means the yarns treated to improve the strength, lustre and receptivity to dye. Commercial dyeing Fabric can be continuous dyed or batch dyed. Continuous Dyeing - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =3Oau0QvCwOk Batch Dyeing Fabrics are dyed to order in large batches according to the colours required. Batch dyeing is used for fabrics that have to change in colour due to high turnaround in fashion.
  76. 76. Hand Dyeing
  77. 77. Now experiment dyeing your own piece of fabric You will need: Gloves Calico fabric Water based dyes Newspaper Drying rack
  78. 78. Printing There are different types of printing; Block Printing Screen printing Industrial flat-bed screen printing Rotary screen printing Block printing Created using metal or wooden blocks, one used for each colour. The background shapes are cut away to leave a raised design on the block (think of potato printing). Dye is applied and stamped onto the fabric. It is a slow process and used by mainly specialist craft industries. Screen Printing (machine) Created by printing a pattern on to fabric by using a stencil held in place by a screen. Each screen prints out the design in one colour. Once printed the design must be fixed with steam or dry heat. Manual screen printing is created by hand and is a longer process and used for bespoke or small runs. http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/ind ian-block-printing/917.html
  79. 79. Manual Screen printing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6c_7AP 7n7GA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhH6eo CbXPQ
  80. 80. Industrial Flat-bed screen printing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0BS Wp9BnTE Fabric is moved through a machine on a conveyor belt and printed repeating very quickly. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FCarX RadOnk
  81. 81. Rotary screen printing This is created by using CAD and roller squeeges. One roller is used for each colour, making it a very fast and effective continuous printing method. Suitable for furnishing and clothing fabrics. https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=R04Dbm3ZRAE
  82. 82. Surface decoration In pairs/groups, create a list of all of the surface decoration techniques you can think of with a brief explanation of what they mean.
  83. 83. Surface decoration Applique Reverse Applique Patchwork Quilting Machine Embroidery
  84. 84. Surface decoration Hand embroidery CAD/CAM embroidery Beading Shisha Mirrorwork
  85. 85. Surface decoration Resist – tie dyeing Resist – Batik
  86. 86. Task: Create a design for a children’s wall hanging which uses at least 4 of the decorative techniques described in the lesson. Use annotations to explain the techniques and how you have used them in your design. Complete for homework – due in next lesson.
  88. 88. • Understand, in depth, the preparing, Processing and Combining of materials • Be able to explain the properties of different processes and the reasons for use • Have a good understanding of which processes are suitable on a variety of fabrics What you will learn in this presentation
  89. 89. • Most widely produced and used natural fibre • Cotton plants need a tropical environment and climate to grow in • Harvested by hand or by cotton harvesting machines • The fibres are separated from the seeds by a process called GINNING • The separated fibres are called LINT Cotton Production
  90. 90. • Page 88 scan
  91. 91. • The whole fleece is shorn from the sheep using electric shears • Its then graded into qualities of fineness, crimp, length, impurities and colour • About 40% is the sheeps grease LANOLIN, dirt and burs it is removed by gently scouring • Vegetable matter is removed by using sulphuric acid • The fibres are then spun into fine, smooth yarn using the WORSTED process or into more coarse bulky yarns using the woollen process Wool Production
  92. 92. • Scan page 89
  93. 93. • Scan page 90
  94. 94. • Woollen yarns are coarse, hairy, irregular, rustic appearance made from shorter staple fibres • Worsted yarns are smooth, uniform, regular, fine and lustrous made from longer types of staple fibres Wool Production
  95. 95. • Viscose is produced by using chemicals that cannot be recovered or re- used. • The raw material for VISCOSE is CELLULOSE extracted from eucalyptus, pine or beech wood chips • The cellulose is purified, bleached, pressed into sheets and dissolved in sodium hydroxide • It is then pressed again, shredded and aged • CARBON DISULPHIDE converts the cellulose into a fluid honey like liquid which extruded through a spinneret into a spinning bath • The cellulose solidifies and is drawn into filaments • Washed to remove the chemicals and lubricated for supleness, dried and wound onto spools as a filament viscose • Staple fibres are made by cutting the filaments into shorter lengths Regenerated Fibre Production
  96. 96. • Scan page 40
  97. 97. • 3 similar processes which all use a reservoir to hold the synthetic polymer, a metering pump, a spinneret, a fluid in which the filaments are formed and a take – up mechanism which draws the filaments ready for winding • The spinneret size and shape together with the spinning and drawing processes determine the diameter of the filament. Synthetic Fibre Production
  98. 98. • Scan page 91
  99. 99. • Compare the manufacture of regenerated and synthetic fibres, noting any similarities and differences • Explain why woollen and worsted yarns have different properties Task…
  100. 100. • Used to improve the properties and appearance of the fibre type • It can make it more cost effective to manufacture • E.g. polycotton – the polyester provides crease- resistance and the cotton is absorbent • They can give added comfort to a fabric Blended Fibres Task – Suggest two different fibre blends suitable for workwear, justifying your choice Discuss the benefits for a suiting fabric, of using a polyester/elastane/woolen blend
  101. 101. • Finishing is part of a quality assurance system to ensure that textiles: 1. Meet quality requirements 2. Are fault-free and clean 3. Match the manufacturing specification 4. Are safe for users 5. Are fit for the intended purpose Finishing Processes for Function and Decoration
  102. 102. • Gives quality and added value to a product • Physical finishes provide aesthetic characteristics such as handle or drape • Chemical finishes enhance functional or performance characteristics, such as waterproofing There are 4 classes of finishing; 1. Permanent – chemical finish such as flame resistance 2. Durable, lasting the life of the product, like permanent pleating 3. Semi durable, lasting several launderings, like shower proof 4. Temporary removed by laundering, like pressing or calendaring Reasons for finishing
  103. 103. • Pictures of examples
  104. 104. 1. Cotton fabrics can be singed to remove short fibres protruding from the fabric. Makes the fabric smoother and reduces pilling 2. Scouring is a wash treatment to remove natural fats and waxes, dirt and oil. Washing also relaxes the fabric 3. Shrinking is a mechanical treatment to achieve dimensional stability so fabric wont shrink later on 4. Bleaching cellulose fabrics is a chemical process using hydrogen peroxide to destroy the natural colour for dyeing 5. Mercerising is a chemical process used for cotton yarn or fabric held under tension in a solution of caustic soda. causes fibres to swell and become rounder making textiles stronger and more lustrous Preparation
  105. 105. Colouration Task Investigate the following techniques, creating a revision tool to share in class. • Dyeing • Tie-dyeing • Batik • Printing
  106. 106. Raising This is a technique used for brushing fabric, passing fabric over rollers covered in fine flexible wire brushes. This lifts the fibres from the fabric to form a soft fibrous surface called a NAP IMAGE page 100 Finishing Processes - Mechanical (physical)
  107. 107. Calendering Fabric is passed between heated heavy rollers under pressure – a bit like ironing It; • Smooth the surface • Improves lustre and shine • Water marked fabrics – moire • Embossed patterns
  108. 108. • Scan page 101 Chemical finishing
  109. 109. Laminating Combing two layers together, one must be a textile fabric They are bonded by adhesives or by thermoplastic quality of one or other material Iron on vilene van be bonded to another fabric to stiffen Gore-tex can be laminated to any other fabric for use in all weather wear Foam can be laminated to upholstery
  110. 110. • Give three reasons why it is important to finish fabrics • Explain the difference between physical and chemical finishing with examples of how and why they are used Task…
  111. 111. • video Printing at Liberties
  112. 112. • Applique • Batik • Silk painting • Tie-dyeing • Printing • Embroidery • Quilting • patchwork Decorative and Stitch techniques Create a portfolio of samples to help you remember the techniques and processes
  113. 113. Surface Decoration
  114. 114. Product Components
  115. 115. Fibre Properties
  116. 116. Fibre Properties and Fabric Characteristics
  117. 117. Testing Materials
  119. 119. Gathering
  120. 120. Pleating
  121. 121. Using newspaper, create 5 different manipulated techniques which could be transferred to fabric
  122. 122. Investigation.. Create a style book which investigates and researches different types of fabric manipulation. Think about; • Fabric choices • Techniques • Functions • Properties • Uses • Links to trends/designers/eras
  123. 123. Practical task… Use your investigation research booklet to experiment recreating some of the techniques you have found. Use newspaper and scraps of fabric to experiment with the samples. Document your samples with photographs or stick them into your books
  124. 124. Section 2 Design and Market Influence:
  126. 126. FashionthroughtheEras Be able to identify different fashion from historical eras. Make links between periods of fashion and past & present designers. Be able to discuss confidently in an exam question, justifying your answers/opinions with examples.
  127. 127. 1890-1900’s
  128. 128. 1910-1920’s
  129. 129. 1920-1930’s
  130. 130. 1930-1940’s
  131. 131. 1940-1950’s
  132. 132. 1950-1960’s
  133. 133. Punk – 1980’s Marie Antoinette – Film culture Marie Antoinette Bustles Volume Tartan Corsetry 1800’s influence
  134. 134. Research into a chosen era. Make links between past and present designers and how different time periods have influenced their collections. You can also discuss how culture, media, music etc has also influenced their designs. • Show lots of examples with annotations. • You could even sketch out some designs yourself. • Try to link the research with your current coursework so you could use along side. • Be creative in your presentation! Use the website to help you get started.
  135. 135. A21 2 (2 x 9 marks)
  136. 136. AS
  137. 137. Product evolution and product analysis
  138. 138. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
  139. 139. Purpose? A starting point for a new design. It provides information about existing products to help develop new and improved ones to the market.
  140. 140. Reasons to Analyse • Properties of materials used in existing products • Quality of design and manufacture of the product • Fitness – for – purpose • Why it’s selling/not selling • How well a product meets requirements • Develop new product designs based on changed or new British/international standards • Develop product design specifications and design ideas for new products
  141. 141. Factors to consider… • Aesthetic characteristics – drape and handle • Functional requirements – strength or water resistant • Scale of production – justify • Cost of fabrics and components in relation to quality • Availability of a continuous supply for high volume production – quality control Product Analysis gives the design the ability to make informed decisions when analysing a textile product.
  142. 142. What questions should I ask? What is the fibre content? What is the fabric structure? Has a finish been applied during manufacture to enhance the properties?
  143. 143. Task: Choose a product to analyse and create a report which would help you to create a detailed design specification for a new product. Remember to look at: • Aesthetic characteristics – drape and handle • Functional requirements – strength or water resistant • Scale of production – justify • Cost of fabrics and components in relation to quality • Availability of a continuous supply for high volume production – quality control Remember! A design specification is a detailed list of criteria which your new product should meet.
  144. 144. Fabrics Used: Blends Strengths/weaknesses Reasons for use Aesthetic appeal Fabric Characteristics: Suitability Possible alternatives Strengths weaknesses Trims and Components: Functions Aesthetics Strengths/weaknesses Scale of Production: One off Batch Mass production Justifications Suitability Alternatives with justifications Cost implications: Fabrics Trims Components Pros/cons Alternatives Production costs Care label: Easy/high maintenance Cost Justifications Alternatives Environmental Issues: Processes used Manufacture Sustainable fabrics Organic Fair trade etc Details of the product: Construction methods Suitability Alternatives Functional purpose Aesthetics Conclusion: A summary of your findings to help with writing a design specification for a new product.
  145. 145. Task You have been asked to write an essay/article for a fashion magazine about ‘The work of past and present textile designers’. The article must be 500words or more. Discuss/explain: • How it’s related to textile and fashion products • To include design movements • Influences on product design • Trends • Street culture • Music • Media • World events • Have an understanding of the developments of fashion in clothing, accessories and furnishings. • Appreciate the influence and contribution of leading fashion and textile designers.
  146. 146. Design methodology
  147. 147. The role of the designer
  148. 148. Design sources
  149. 149. Aiding the design process
  150. 150. Market research
  151. 151. The marketing function
  152. 152. Product life cycles
  153. 153. Copyright protection The doorstop design is copyrighted. Why is this important? ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ..................................................................................... (2 marks) Aim: At the end of this section you will be able to answer this question.
  154. 154. Communication methods
  155. 155. Illustration
  156. 156. Enhancement
  157. 157. Information drawing
  158. 158. Modelling
  159. 159. Use of ICT
  160. 160. Human needs
  161. 161. Human factors
  162. 162. Health and safety
  163. 163. Applications/material areas
  164. 164. Environmental concerns
  165. 165. Section 3 Industrial and Commercial Practice:
  166. 166. Manufacturing systems The doorstop is in the shape of a caravan. The manufacturer wants to extend the range of these doorstops to include different forms of transport. Using this page and the next page, show how you could modify the basic design shown on page 13 to make another doorstop in the range. Include information about fabrics, components and decorative techniques to be used. 8marks Aim: By the end of this section you will be able to answer this question.
  167. 167. Question The skirt will be commercially manufactured using a sub- assembly system. Explain the reasons why sub-assembly systems are used in industrial manufacture. 6marks
  169. 169. Processes and Manufacture Content • The production systems and their processes. • The range of hand tools, equipment and machines used in textile production. • CAD/CAM • Production Flowcharts • Quality Control and Quality Assurance
  170. 170. The production systems and their processes There are three main types of production system. •One-off •Batch •Mass Objectives •Understand what is meant by one- off, batch, and mass production. •Understand line production and subassembly systems •Consider cost implications when selecting method of production
  171. 171. One-off • One-off production is designing and making a single textile product to a client's specification. The garment design is developed from a basic block pattern, with a prototype made from inexpensive fabric to test the drape, fit and assembly of the garment.
  172. 172. One-off Haute-couture fashion: models at London Fashion Week Task •Look in magazines and cut out pictures to make a collection of designer outfits from catwalk shows. Why are these garments made by one-off production? How much do these clothes and accessories cost to buy?
  173. 173. Batch Production • Batch production is manufacturing set quantities of a textile product to order. The prototype is made up in a medium size from the intended fabric. The prototype is checked for quality of design and manufacture, then put into production in a range of standard sizes. The quantity of products can vary from a set of four cushions made by a designer-maker, to 20,000 jumpers made for a department store.
  174. 174. Mass production • Mass production is industrial-scale manufacture of large quantities of products, usually on a production line. Mass production is suitable for products that seldom need to be redesigned and are needed in very large numbers, eg socks or jeans.
  175. 175. Production system Product market Design and production Skill level and cost One-off Made-to-measure, eg suit, wedding dress; Made-to-measure garments are made to fit the measurements of an individual client; the garment design is developed from a basic block pattern and a toile is made to test the fabric drape, the fit and order of assembly Very high-level skills in design and manufacture; high-cost materials; high labour costs One-off Haute Couture, eg made by fashion houses Fashion designers such as John Galliano design Haute Couture garments for individual clients Very high-level skills in design and manufacture; high-cost material and labour costs Batch production Ready-to-wear (RTW) designer label, eg Designers at Debenhams Garments are designed to fit a range of standard sizes and shapes. Garment patterns are developed from a basic block using CAD. A sample garment is made up in a medium size, from the intended fabric. Once the design has been approved it is put into production in a range of standard sizes. They are sold through up-market retailers. High-level design, pattern making and sampling skills; cost-effective materials and lower manufacturing costs Mass production Mass-market retailers, eg Top Shop Similar production methods to batch production: garments produced in limited range of sizes; standardised production methods are used to produce a wide range of styles. Most fashion products are batch produced in large batches eg 20,000. Some classic products like jeans are mass produced for a world market. High-level design, pattern making and sampling skills; cost-effective materials; products often made overseas where labour costs are low
  176. 176. Systems and sub-systems In a production system, a number of different designing and manufacturing processes or sub- systems take place at the same time. Examples of sub-systems are: • Lay-planning is the laying out of pattern pieces of a fabric to work out the quantity and cost of material required for a product. • Costing is working out how much each product costs in terms of including materials, labour, rent and energy costs.
  177. 177. Just-in-time stock control (JIT) This is a cost effective method of ordering components and sub-assemblies to arrive just before they are needed. Stock storage time is reduced but any mistakes and deliveries will hold production up. Summary •Hand-crafted, exclusive products are made individually using the one-off production system. •For a fixed number of identical products, batch production is cost effective. •Mass production usually includes production lines •Subassemblies are made separately before they are joined to the main product.
  178. 178. The range of hand tools, equipment and machines used in textile production. Objectives •Have an understanding of the variety of machines used in textile manufacture •Appreciate the difference between sewing and the embroidery machines. Plotter/Cutting machines Computers are used for producing Lay plans which work out exactly where to place each pattern piece to best use the fabric. Remember wasted fabric is wasted money! A plotter would mark out the pattern pieces and any construction instructions such as darts. A CAM cutting machine automatically cuts out the pieces following the lay plan. It cuts the fabric quickly and accurately using vertical knives, high pressure water jets or lasers. Many layers can be cut out at once which means less labour costs and more efficiency A Band saw can be used by a skilled operator. It is used for cutting through multiple layers of fabric quickly. Metal chain mail gloves are worn to protect the workers hands.
  179. 179. Sewing machines. These range from simple machines to ones that do specialist tasks such as buttonholes, overlocking fabric edges or CAD CAM machines that stitch out motifs • · Lockstitch –Used for sewing seams (Straight stitch) • · Over locker—Stitches, cuts and finishes seams in one process • · Seam cover—Used for sewing belt loops • · Automatic buttonhole—Used for sewing buttonholes • · CAD/CAM—Multihead embroidery machine
  180. 180. Hand tools and equipment Tools & equipment for • Designing, colouring and embellishing • Measuring and marking • Cutting • Heating and pressing Identify and make a list of all the tools and equipment in your textiles classroom Summary •Appropriate tools and equipment should be selected, used correctly and safely, and stored in the designated place. •A wide variety of tools and equipment are required when designing and making •Efficient and accurate use of tools and equipment will help ensure that high-quality products are made.
  181. 181. Industrial Machinery Below are some of the main types of machines used in the manufacture of textile products. Objectives •Have an understanding of the variety of machines used in textile manufacture •Appreciate the difference between sewing and the embroidery machines. Digital jet printer Knitting machine Band saw Multi-head embroidery machine Machinery can be operated by hand, be semi-automatic fully automatic and can also be computer controlled
  182. 182. Summary •Machines speed up the process of making and can be used to ensure high-quality products •Many machines have fast moving parts and sharp needles. Great care must be taken to follow safety rules to avoid injury while operating such a machine. •Machinery can be operated by hand, semi-automatic or fully automatic and can also be computer controlled. Industrial sewing machines In industry a range of different sewing machines are used for stitching seams, embroidery, buttonholes etc. The main ones are listed in the table below: Industrial machine Method of control Joining process Used for Lockstitch Electric Lockstitch Straight seams Lockstitch Electric Zigzag stitch Stretchy knits; finishing edges Overlocker Electric Stitches, cuts and finishes seams in one process Non-fraying seams; stretchy seams Seamcover Electric Flat seam Knitted hems; belt loops on jeans Linking Electronic; CAM Joins knitted fabric stitch by stitch Knitted seams Automatic buttonhole Electronic; CAM Lockstitch; chainstitch Buttonholes Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Computer software; Electronic; CAM Lockstitch; zigzag; embroidery Making collars; labels; logos; embroidery
  183. 183. Exam Tips • Make sure that you understand the different roles of clients, designers, manufacturers and users. • You need to know what a production plan and work schedule are - and the difference between them. • Make sure that you know the difference between one- off, batch and mass production.
  184. 184. Production Plan Production planning • Production plans and work schedules are important planning tools in batch and mass production. • The production plan should set out information about all the stages of production, so that every product is made to the same quality. See example below:
  185. 185. Each production plan should include the following stages: • The preparation stage details the amount of materials to buy-in, preparation of garment patterns, templates and lay plans. • The processing stage details the fabric spreading, cutting, labelling and bundling of the fabric pieces. • The assembly stage contains instructions for fusing, joining and pressing the separate product parts. • The finishing stage gives instructions for decorative/functional finishing and final pressing. • The packaging stage explains how to label, hang, fold, and cover the product ready for transport to the retailer. Some manufacturers use computer software to handle the detailed information in the production plan. Any changes made to the plan are quickly available to each member of the production team
  186. 186. Work schedule A work schedule sets out instructions about the order of assembly, the stitch type, the processes to be used, the time each process will take and the seam allowance. See the example of a work schedule below:
  187. 187. Work schedule below for a skirt Order of assembly Stitch type Process Process time in minutes Seam allowance 1 Lockstitch Stitch pockets 2.00 1.00cm 2 Lockstitch Stitch pockets to front 2.00 1.00cm 3 Overlock Join back seam 1.00 1.00cm 4 Lockstitch Insert zip 2.00 0.20cm 5 Overlock Join side seams 1.50 1.00cm 6 Lockstitch Join waistband to top 2.50 0.60cm 7 Blind hemming Turn up hem 1.50 0.20cm N/A N/A Total process time 12.50 N/A
  188. 188. ICT application Aim: By the end of this section you will be able to answer this question.
  189. 189. CAD • USING COMPUTERS TO DESIGN AND PRESENT • Computers are used by designers for: • Writing documents and creating display boards, including artwork, text, spreadsheets, graphs and tables • Putting together slide show presentations • Digital photography and video making • Designing and sampling • Supplementing drawing and colouring with use of specialist fashion software, e.g. Speed Step. Objectives •Understand the benefits of using computers in manufacturing. •Appreciate the link between CAD & CAM
  190. 190. PROGRAMMES USED BY DESIGNERS These include: • Microsoft Office - Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher • Drawing packages – Paint, Adobe illustrator, CorelDraw • Image editing – Photoshop • Specialist Fashion software, e.g. Speed Step
  191. 191. DRAWING USING SOFTWARE • Drawing software can be used to design, illustrate and show working drawings. Drawn lines and shapes or photographic images can be imported and edited, or scanned to manipulate and develop ideas. Collections with a range of coordinating products can be developed from one initial idea. • With some specialist software it is possible to get a 3D impression of the design by rotating the design and seeing it from different viewpoints. The designer can use the computer to simulate draping and shadowing to create a realistic image of the design. Also, ideas for different colourways can be tested and a variety of printed, knitted or woven fabric designs can be trialled on screen, to see the effect of each different combination of colour and texture.
  192. 192. USE OF ICT FOR PRESENTATION The designer can present ideas to the client on screen or printed on to presentation boards, or via e-mail, and then quickly modify them according to client feedback. Promotional material developed from design work can be adapted for use on websites, business stationery and advertising and marketing materials, such as point of sale literature and display posters. Computers make this development of related design work a quicker process
  193. 193. DESIGNING AND SAMPLING USING COMPUTERS • Computers can be used to pass detailed design information to machinery quickly so that samples can be made during the design and development stages, often without the designers even leaving their workstations. • Designers can use computers to design new woven or knitted fabrics on screen and then show the new fabric in use on a drawn model, on screen or on printed copy. • Printed fabric design developed on screen can be digitally printed on to actual fabric for sampling. • Embroidered motifs and patterns can be designed on the computer and then stitched directly onto fabric. • A design process that previously took weeks or months can now take less than 24hrs. The images on colour monitors and those reproduced by colour printers are so realistic that they can be used to present ideas to fashion buyers. In the past buyers have demanded to see and touch actual sample garments, before deciding to place orders, but with the new computer technology they now have the confidence to buy from screened or printed presentations.
  194. 194. ICT and CAM ICT and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) • ICT and CAM play a vital role in modern textiles production. For example, they enable : • designs to be sent electronically to the print manufacturer and stored on computer to ease repeat printing orders. • colours to be matched to the design, dyes weighed and dispensed and the fabric printed automatically • ICT makes possible the just-in-time ordering of materials and components so they arrive at the factory as they are needed, ie just- in-time for production to start. • ICT enables companies to transmit information between plants, and manufacture on a global scale Objectives •Understand the benefits of using computers in manufacturing. •Appreciate the link between CAD & CAM
  195. 195. Summary •Computers can be used to increase efficiency and accuracy in manufacturing •Costs can be reduced if efficiency is increased •Health and safety of workers can be monitored and working conditions made safer using computers •Flexibility is increased as changes in production can be made more rapidly Mass-produced clothing: jeans in a clothes shop window
  196. 196. CNC • Computer-numerical control • Computer-aided manufacturing involves the use of CNC machines for printing, cutting, joining and many other textiles processes. CNC-automated machines can repeat processes with accuracy and reliability, and are easily re-programmed when changes to design or production run are needed. The graphic shows some of the uses of CNC machines.
  197. 197. CIM Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems integrate or link CAD and CAM systems. These combined systems link design development, production planning and manufacturing systems together. Companies that use CIM are able to design a product in one country and manufacture it overseas where labour costs are lower.
  198. 198. Pattern drafting Aim: By the end of this section you will be able to answer this question. For this question you need to refer to Figures 1 – 6 on the insert sheet. In the space below, show how the templates (Figures 1 and 2) can be adapted to make a pattern for the fashion skirt (Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6). 8marks Lesley Cresswell Pages: 106 - 107
  199. 199. Pattern drafting Figure 3 Front of fashion skirt Figure 4 Back of fashion skirt
  200. 200. AS Mark Scheme
  201. 201. A2 Question
  202. 202. A2 Mark Scheme
  203. 203. Pattern Drafting • Basic pattern/template drafting, including the knowledge and use of technical terms (basic block, labelling and notching, balance marks, seam allowance and ease). Students should be able to work from a set of basic block patterns (bodice front and back, sleeve, skirt and trouser front and back), developed for individual measurements or from commercial basic blocks. Principles of grading. Task: Use the pattern pieces to identify the key terms and explain their functions. Sketch out the pattern pieces as a revision tool.
  204. 204. Pattern Symbols
  205. 205. Useful websites • http://www.taunton.com/threads/pages/nmt037_31.asp • http://www.idiotsguides.com/hobbies-and- crafts/sewing/sewing-basics-how-to-read-and-interpret- pattern/ • https://textilesgillies.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/producti on__assembly_helpsheets.pdf • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTIp0b-RzPc
  206. 206. Skirt Pattern
  207. 207. Bodice Pattern
  208. 208. Trouser Pattern
  209. 209. Label the pattern pieces using the key terms and symbols
  210. 210. Product manufacture Aim: By the end of this section you will be able to answer this question. Lesley Cresswell Pages:28-49
  211. 211. Product manufacture • Fabric preparation, lay planning, marking and cutting out, methods of joining, shaping, finishing of edges, selection of construction techniques appropriate to the fabric being used and the product being made. • Much of this knowledge will be developed through coursework activities and students should be given opportunities to work with a wide range of different products and materials. • Areas not covered through coursework activities will need to be taught elsewhere. • Pressing – use of correct tools, eg iron, pressing cloth, needleboard for pile fabrics. • Labelling and packaging; their functions, information typically found on labels including that required by law, and Quality Assurance symbols, eg wool mark, 100% cotton logo, Tencel logo, Teflon fabric finish logo. • Environmental impact of packaging. • To plan appropriate methods and processes for the manufacture of chosen products, including amendments and adaptations of prototypes and the use of industrial manufacturing processes.
  212. 212. Lay Plans
  213. 213. Digital Lay Plan's that suit your every need. Gradeplan takes great pride in offering a lay planning service that is not only highly effective in saving you fabric, but is relevant to the ever changing and challenging demands of today's UK high street. More and more stripes, checks, border prints, placement prints and laces are being used, all of which require an engineered lay plan to ensure the finished garment reflects the designers original sketch. CMT or FOB we will save you money. • Gradeplan will work with you from the design stage to ensure absolute minimum wastage • Highly efficient lay marker planning service available for plain, stripes, checks, placement prints and tubular fabrics • Lay markers planned according to customer specification sensitive to fabric type/width and cutting table length • Full marker specification sheet produced with suggested optimum ply depth relative to order size • Costings provided enabling accurate raw material purchase ordering • Production planning option available converting customer sales orders into detailed weekly cutting and dispatch plans
  214. 214. Have a go at making your own lay plan using pattern pieces and a table top/floor
  215. 215. AS Question
  216. 216. A2 Question • Discuss the ways in which a computerised lay plan system assists in the manufacture of batch produced suits made from a range of fabrics, including checks and stripes. (6 marks)
  217. 217. Joining Techniques Lesley Cresswell Pages: 37-38 & 107- 109 Seams are the fundamentals of sewing and there are many different types, the basic seams work well for most purposes but knowledge of others can help you to make a more professional job of a textiles product. Before starting to join fabric and forming a seam, you have to know about the seam allowance, that is the space between the sewn line and the raw edge of the fabric. Many patterns allow for 1.5cm (1/4 inch) or 1cm, some even require 2cm and allow for trimming down afterwards - read pattern instructions carefully. When sewing the seams on the machine, there is an additional guide on the machine throat plate, with incremental markings for you to guide the raw edge of the fabric in order to make seam a consistent distance from the edge. Hem finishes • Neatening • Pinked • Stitched and pinked • Zigizag • Fusing • Curved seams • Piping Seams • When sewing a seam match up the raw edges as accurately as possible, and use pins to secure the two pieces of fabric • plain (lockstitch) • lap French • double stitching • topstitching • overlocked
  218. 218. Task • You should make samplers for each of the above techniques - clearly labelling them, taking photos of the processes, tools and equipment, and sewing machine settings. Use calico and coloured thread to make each of the samplers. Extension Task • Repeat some of the seams with different samples of fabric: • Cotton • Denim • Cotton jersey • Satin • Corduroy • Chiffon • Polyester • Nylon jersey • Make notes of settings, techniques, and suitability for the fabrics.
  219. 219. Labelling and packaging Key legislation Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 EU Regulation (EU) No 1007/2011 on textile fibre names and related labelling and marking of the fibre composition of textile products Textile Products (Labelling and Fibre Composition) Regulations 2012
  220. 220. How should the product be labelled? • All items must carry a label indicating the fibre content, either on the item or the packaging. This label does not have to be permanently attached to the garment and may be removable. • The label should be durable, easily legible, visible and accessible. If the product is supplied to a wholesaler the indication may be contained within business documents - for example, the invoice. A textile product consisting of two or more fibres accounting for 85% of the finished product should be marked with the fibre followed by a percentage - for example, cotton 80%, polyester 15%, nylon 5%. • If a product consists of two or more components with different fibre contents - for example, a jacket with a lining - the content of each must be shown. Any decorative matter that makes up 7% or less of the product is excluded from the indication of fibre content. The word 'pure' should only be used where the garment is made up of only one fibre. The word 'silk' cannot be used to describe the texture of any other fibre - for example, 'silk acetate' is not permitted. Only certain names can be used for textile fibres, and these are listed in annex I of EU Regulation (EU) No 1007/2011 on textile fibre names and related labelling and marking of the fibre composition of textile products. • This list may be updated as new technology produces new fibres. Since the Regulation was published only one addition has been made (polypropylene/polyamide bicomponent). Any further additions will be shown in the 'Amended by' section of the Regulation's page on the Eur-Lex website and you are advised to check this. • If you are using, buying or selling a fibre product with a name that does not appear on this list, contact your local trading standards service for advice. • The use of non-textile parts of animal origin must be clearly labelled or marked using the phrase 'contains non-textile parts of animal origin'.
  221. 221. Use the internet to find out what each symbol means
  222. 222. Quality
  223. 223. Product maintenance Lesley Cresswell Pages:107- 109
  224. 224. Symbols The CE marking is required for many products. It states that the product is assessed before being placed on the market and meets EU safety, health and environmental protection requirements. Through this website the European Commission provides economic operators and consumers with information on how the process of affixing the CE marking on a product works.
  225. 225. Environmental concerns
  226. 226. Health and safety
  227. 227. Quality assurance and quality control