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Chapter Seven - lecture 6

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Chapter Seven - lecture 6

  1. 1. Lecture No. 6
  2. 2.  Locative Subject refers to the place that is used as a subject Ex: This path is swarming with ants. Temporal Subject refers to the time expression that is used as a subject Ex: Tomorrow is my birthday. Eventive Subject refers to arrangements or activities that are used as subjects Ex: The concert is on Thursday. 7.12 Locative , Temporal and Eventive Subjects
  3. 3.   Subject can be filled with empty “ it “ when it is empty of any content and meaningless  Ex: It is raining .  Ex: It is my birthday. 7.13 Empty ‘ it ‘ subject
  4. 4.  Direct object can be : A- Affected the object is affected by the action Ex: John killed Mary. B- Locative the object shows the location of the action Ex: The horse jumped the fence. C- Cognate the object repeats wholly or partially the meaning of the verb Ex: John sings a song. 7.14 Locative and effected object
  5. 5.  D- Effected the object exists only by the virtue of the activity indicated by the verb. The subject did not do anything to the object Ex: John invented television. 7.14 Locative and effected object
  6. 6.  The object can also be effected when it has a verbal form ( verb or infinitive ) preceded by a verb with general meaning ( do , make , have , take , give ) Ex: He did little work that day. Ex: He made several attempts to contact me. 7.15
  7. 7.  The indirect object is basically known as “ recipient “ and it can be “affected “when the sentence has two objects ( Oi & Od ) and the verb of the sentence is ( give , pay , owe ) Ex: John paid her a visit . Here , the sentence means ( John visited her ) . So her is the object that is affected by the action of the verb and for that it is known as ‘ affected ‘. 7.16 Affected indirect object

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