2. WILL NATURE MAKE A MAN OF ME YET?
Andersson, J. (2011). Vauxhall’s Post-industrial Pleasure
Gardens: ‘Death Wish’ and Hedonism in 21st-century
London. Urban Studies, 48(1), 85–100.
Dillane, A., Power, M. J., & Devereux, E. (2014). ‘I Can
Have Both’: A queer reading of Morrissey. Journal of
European Popular Culture, 5(2), 149–163.
Rukes, F. (2017). The Disruption of Normativity:
Queer Desire and Negativity in Morrissey and The
Smiths. Gender Forum, 64.
3. A VERY IMPORTANT RESEARCH QUESTION
THAT HAS LINGERED FOR FOUR DECADES
Is Morrissey racist?
Baker, J. H. (2012). In the Spirit of ’69? Morrissey and the
Skinhead Cult. In Morrissey: Fandom, Representations and
Identities (pp. 53–72). Intellect Books.
Power, M. J., Dillane, A., & Devereux, E. (2012). A push and a
shove and the land is ours: Morrissey’s counter-hegemonic
stance(s) on social class. Critical Discourse Studies, 9(4), 375–
Devereux, E., & Hidalgo, M. (2015). ‘You’re gonna need
someone on your side’: Morrissey’s Latino/a and Chicano/a
fans. Journal of Audience & Reception Studies, 12(2), 21.
Dillane, A., Power, M. J., & Devereux, E. (2017). “Shame Makes
the World Go Around”: Performed and Embodied (Gendered)
Class Disgust in Morrissey’s “Slum Mums.” In Music as
Multimodal Discourse Semiotics, Power and Protest (pp. 47–
70). Bloomsbury Academic.
5. Exploratory/philosophical meme studies
▸ Why are memes?
▸ Do memes have politics?
Functional meme studies
▸ How and why memes circulate?
▸ Practical application: how to make a viral
Semiotic meme studies
▸ How memes produce meaning?
▸ Practical application: how to say things with memes?
Memes are a language
Shifman, L. (2013). Memes in Digital Culture. MIT Press.
Seiffert-Brockmann, J., Diehl, T., & Dobusch, L. (2018). Memes as
games: The evolution of a digital discourse online. New Media &
Society, 20(8), 2862–2879.
Wiggins, B. E. (2019). The Discursive Power of Memes in Digital
Culture: Ideology, Semiotics, and Intertextuality. Routledge.
Bown, A., & Bristow, D. (Eds.). (2019). Post Memes: Seizing the
Memes of Production. Punctum Books.
14. NOT THE GREATEST MEME, BUT A GREAT EXAMPLE OF MEME SYNTAX
Recombining ‘lexical units’
15. SEMIOTICS OF BINARIES ARE TESTED IN THEIR NEXT ITERATIONS
Third order ‘lexical’ operation +
second order ‘syntactic’ operation
16. IS IT HOW HIS REMAINING FAN BASE SEES HIM?
Morrissey’s evolution in one meme
17. JUST LIKE MORRISSEY DOES
Memes deny binary logic
▸ Memes are a language which can be used to discuss important matters
▸ Memes are inherently queer (they establish a binary and then disrupt it)
▸ Memes can tell a lot about public perception of a celebrity persona
▸ Very difficult to attribute to particular authors or audiences (same as folklore)
▸ But, if we look at memes as language units, maybe we don’t need attribution?
▸ Popular memes assume that Morrissey is racist, actually, although this
assumption is based on how media depicts him
▸ Memes also reflect on his queerness, but typically in a positive way