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Research Designs - Quantitative Research Design

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Research Designs - Quantitative Research Design

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Research designs is a broader plan to conduct a study. The research design is the framework and a systematic plan of what is to be done, how it will be done and how the data will be analyzed. • It includes the description of the research approaches, dependent and independent variables, sampling design and a planned format for the data collection, analysis and presentation. • In short as a single research design may be fall short to answer all the research or hypothesis, investigation may use a combination of different research designs.
  3. 3. DEFINITION:  The research design is the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information in a research study. - SURESH K SHARMA  Research design is a plan of how, when and where data are to be collected and analyzed.
  5. 5. SELECTION OF RESEARCH DESIGN  Research design are plans and the procedure for research that span the decisions from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection and analysis. In order to meet the aims and objectives of a study, researchers must select the most appropriate design. The selection of a research design largely depends on the, Nature of the research problem. The resources available (cost, time, expertise of the researcher). Accessibility of subjects . Research ethics.
  6. 6. FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF RESEARCH DESIGNS @ Nature of research problem. @ Purpose of study. @ Researchers knowledge and experience. @ Researchers motivation and interest. @ Researcher ethics and principles. @ Subjects/participation. @ Resources and availability of time. @ Possible control on extraneous variables. @ Users of study findings.
  7. 7. VALIDITY OF RESEARCH DESIGNS: • There are two important criteria for evaluating the creditability and dependability of the research results. They are Internal validity External validity.
  8. 8. CONTD., INTERNAL VALIDITY: • It validates whether the independent variables actually made a difference. Did the interventions or treatment lead to the results or were the results a response to the other factor. • Internal validity will be helpful in making the inferences that the independent variable influences the dependent variable.
  10. 10. Contd., EXTERNAL VALIDITY: • It refers to the extent to which the results can be generalized to a large population. • External Validity explores the generalization beyond specific treatments to check the results and findings come out to be same with other setting with other subject population but with related variables.
  11. 11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EXTERNAL VALIDITY: Hawthorne effect. Experimental effect. Reactive effect of pretest. Novelty effect. People. Place. Time.
  12. 12. TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS: • Research designs are classified in two broad categories and further they have several subtypes. They are, QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
  13. 13. QUANTITATIVE DESIGNS:  Experimental research design.  Non-experimental research designs.  The additional research designs.
  14. 14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS ACCORDING TO RILEY: Experimental research design is a powerful design for testing hypotheses of causal relationship among variables. Ideally in the experimental design the investigator throw in a sharp relief of explanatory variables in which he is interested, controlling and manipulating the independent variable and observing its effect on the dependent variables and minimize the effect of extraneous variables, which might confound his results.
  15. 15. TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS MAIN FEATURES TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:  Post test only control design.  Pretest-posttest control group design.  Solomon four group design  Factorial design  Randomized block design.  Crossover design  Latin square. Manipulation of independent variable, in the presence of control group randomization QUASI EXPERIMNENTAL DESIGN  Non-randomized control group design  Time-series design Manipulation of independent variable but absence of either randomization or control group. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS  One-shot case design  One group pretest-posttest design. Manipulation of independent variables but limited control over extraneous variables, no randomization and control group.
  16. 16. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS True experimental research designs are those, where research have complete control over the extraneous variables and can predict confidently that observed effect on the dependable variables is only due to manipulation of the independent variables. ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS: The experimental research design must essentially consists the following three characteristics. Manipulation. Control. Randomization.
  17. 17. CONTD., MANIPULATION: Refers to conscious control of the independent variable by the researcher through treatment or interventions to observe its effect on dependent variable.
  18. 18. CONTD., CONTROL:  Control refers to the use of control group and controlling the effects of extraneous variable on the dependent variable, in which researcher is interested.  In control group number and characteristics of the subject taken are same as that of experimental group, but these subjects receive no experiments treatment or intervention at all and merely observation of dependent variable is made to compare with the experimental group. Where experimental group receives planned treatment or intervention.  Some of the measures ensures the control on extraneous variables are: – Matching – Counter balancing. – Homogeneity by statistical test.
  19. 19. CONTD., RANDOMIZATION:  Randomization means that every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any group either experimental or control group. This is also known as random assignment of subjects, which involves the placement of study subjects on a random basis.  Randomization is used in true experimental research designs to minimize the threat of internal validity of the study and to eliminate the effect of extraneous variable on dependent variables.  Chances of systemic bias is eliminated.
  20. 20. TYPES OF TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Post test only control design. Pretest-posttest control group design. Solomon four group design Factorial design Randomized block design. Crossover design Latin square.
  21. 21. CONTD., POST TEST ONLY CONTROL DESIGN  Composed of two randomly assigned groups (i.e) experimental and control but neither of which on pre tested before the implementation of treatment on the experimental group. For example, “To study the effect of an educational intervention related to urinary incontinence on the subsequent help seeking behavior of older adults”.
  22. 22. CONTD., PRETEST-POSTTEST ONLY DESIGN  In this research design subject are randomly assigned to experimental and control group and before treatment observation is made on dependent variable among both the groups (pre-test). For example, “An experimental study to assess the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy interventions for patients with breast cancer”.
  23. 23. CONTD., SOLOMON 4 GROUP DESION  Four groups can be used one experimental and three are control, sometimes are divided equally two control and the other are experimental. It is a stronger design than the post test only but require so complicated statistical analysis. For example. A study to assess the effects of a caring-based counseling intervention on the emotional wellbeing of women who had a miscarriage. ADVANTAGES  Allow the examiner to examine the effect of the pre test on the post test. DISADVANTAGES  Mortality can affect the results.
  24. 24. CONTD., FACTORIAL DESIGN  In factorial design researcher manipulates two or more independent variables simultaneously to observe their effects on dependent variables.  This design is useful when there are more than two independent variables, called as factor to be tested. For example: “A researcher wants to observe the effects of two different protocols of mouth care on prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia when performed at different frequency in a day”.
  25. 25. CONTD., RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN: • When there are large number of experimental comparison groups, the randomized block design is used to bring homogeneity among selected different groups. • This is simple method to reduce the variability between the treatment groups by a more homogeneous combination of the subjects through randomized block design. • For example, “A researcher wants to examine the effect of three different antihypertensive drugs among patients with hypertension. In this example to ensure the homogeneity among the subjects under treatment. Researcher randomly places the subjects in homogeneous group like patients with primary hypertension, diabetic patients with hypertension and renal patients with hypertension.
  27. 27. CONTD., CROSSOVER DESIGN  In this design, subjects are exposed to more than one treatment, where subjects are randomly assigned to different orderings of treatment. It is also known as repeat measures design.  Through crossover design is considered as extremely powerful research design but some time it is not effective because when subjects are exposed to two different conditions, they may be influenced in the second condition by their experience in the first condition.
  28. 28. CONTD., For example, “We are comparing the effectiveness of the chlorohexidine and saline mouth care protocol, first we implement the chlorohexidine mouth care protocol on group1 and saline mouth care protocol on subjects of group II. Later treatment is crossover; where group I receives the saline mouth care and group II receive the chlorohexidine mouth care”. GROUPS PROTOCOLS OF THE MOUTH CARE GROUP I CHLORHEXIDINE (A) SALINE (B) GROUP II SALINE (B) CHLORHEXIDINE (A)
  29. 29. CONTD., ADVANTAGES • Most powerful designs to establish the casual relationship between independent and dependent variables. • Controlled environment in which the study s conducted can yield a greater degree of purity in observation. • Conditions not found in a natural setting can be created in an experimental setting where the independent variable is manipulated by investigator.
  30. 30. CONTD., DISADVANTAGES • Most of the use of experimental research design is not possible in studies conducted on human due to ethical problems. • Danger to physical and psychological health of the human subjects. • Many of the human variables do not have valid criterion measure them like patient welfare or level of wellness. • In natural setting like hospital or community, it is not possible to impose the control over extraneous variables. • Experiments are often impractical where the effect of independent variable may require a lengthy period of time before it emerges as a response in the criterion measures. • Very difficult to get cooperation from the study participants
  31. 31. CONTD., LATIN SQUARE DESIGN • A class of experimental designs that allow for two sources of blocking. • Can be constructed for any number of treatments, but there is a cost. If there are t treatments, then t2 experimental units will be required. • If one of the blocking factors is left out of the design, we are left with a design that could have been obtained as a randomized block design. • Analysis of a Latin square is very similar to that of a RBD, only one more source of variation in the model. • Two restrictions on randomization.
  32. 32. CONTD.,
  33. 33. Contd., ADVANTAGES • Most powerful designs to establish the casual relationship between independent and dependent variables. • Controlled environment in which the study s conducted can yield a greater degree of purity in observation. • Conditions not found in a natural setting can be created in an experimental setting where the independent variable is manipulated by investigator. DISADVANTAGES • Most of the use of experimental research design is not possible in studies conducted on human due to ethical problems. • Danger to physical and psychological health of the human subjects. • Many of the human variables do not have valid criterion measure them like patient welfare or level of wellness. • In natural setting like hospital or community, it is not possible to impose the control over extraneous variables. • Experiments are often impractical where the effect of independent variable may require a lengthy period of time before it emerges as a response in the criterion measures. • Very difficult to get cooperation from the study participants.
  34. 34. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH STUDY • Quasi experimental research involved the manipulation of inadequate variable to observe the effect on dependent variable but it lacks randomization. • Quasi experimental designs have properly of manipulation. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS • Manipulation of the independent variables to observe the effects on the dependent variable. • Lack of randomization.
  35. 35. TYPES OF QUASI EXPERIMENTAL RESEACH DESIGNS QUASI EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN Non Randomized control group design Time series research design
  36. 36. NON RANDOMIZED CONTROL GROUP DESIGN • It is also knows as non-equivalent control group design. • This degree as identical to the pre-test control group design, except there is no random assignment of subjects in experimental and control group. • Experimental and control groups are selected without randomization and dependent variables are observed in experimental as well as control groups. • Later experimental group receive treatment and after that post- test assess the effect of treatment on experimental group.
  37. 37. TIME SERIES DESIGN • This design is useful when experimenter want to measure the effects of a treatment over a long period of time. • Experimenter would continue to administer the treatment and measure the effects a number of times during the course of the experiment. • Single subject research in which researcher carries out an experiment on one individual or on a small number of individuals by alternating between administering a treatment and then withdrawing the treatment to determine the effectiveness of the intervention.
  38. 38. ADVANTAGES • More practical, feasible to conduct research studies in nursing. • More suitable for real word natural setting than true experimental research designs. DISADVANTAGES • There is no control over the extraneous variable influencing the dependent variables. • Absence of control group or lack of control over the research setting, make the results of this design less reliable and weak in establishment of casual relationship between independent and dependent variables.
  39. 39. PRE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN  This research design is considered as very weak because researcher has very little control over the research. It includes,  One shot case design.  One group pre test/post test design.
  40. 40. TYPES OF PRE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN ONE SHOT CASE DESIGN: In this research design, a single experimental group is expressed to an experimental treatment and observations are made after the implementation of treatment and observation are made subjects to experimental group and no control group.
  41. 41. ONE GROUP PRE TEST/POST TEST DESIGN • It is the simplest type of quasi experimental design, where only one group of study subjects is selected as an experimental group. Than pre test observation of the dependent variables is made before implementation of the treatment to the made to assess the effect treatment on the group.
  42. 42. NON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN  The researcher design in which variables are not deliberately manipulated, not the setting is controlled.  In non experimental research, researchers collect data without making changes or introducing treatments. Data obtained are analyzed and the results may lead to the formation of hypothesis that can then be tested experimentally.
  43. 43. NEED FOR NON EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN • Non-experimental research design is frequently used by the nurse researchers. • Following are the main situation only non-experimental designs can be used to conduct a study. • The studies in which the independent variable is not manipulable. • The studies in which it is unethical to manipulate the independent variable (i.e) manipulation may cause physical or psychological harm to subjects. • The studies or research situation where it is not practically to conduct an experimental.
  44. 44. TYPES OF NON EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS MAIN FEATURES DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN  Univarient descriptive design  Exploratory research design  Comparative design Phenomenon occurs in natural setting while imposing any control or manipulation. CORRELATIONAL/EC-POSTFACTO  Prospective design  Retrospective design Cause and effect relationship DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN  Cross sectionl design  Cohort studies Examining the phenomenon in respect to the time. EPIDEIOLOGICAL  Case control studies  Cohort studies Epidemiological is the investigation of the distribution and causes of diseases inb a population. SURVEY RESEARCH Investigation in which self reported data are collected from sample with the purpose of describing population on some variables of interest.
  45. 45. CONTD., DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN • The purpose is to observe describe and document aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs and sometimes to serve as a starting point for hypothesis generation or theory development.
  46. 46. CONTD., MAIN FEATURES • Used to observe, documenting and describe a phenomenon occurring the natural setting without any manipulation or control. • Designed to gain more information about characteristics within a particular field of inquiry. • Provide a picture of a situation as it occur in natural setting. • Do not involve the manipulation of variables and variables are studies in as they exist in real world. • Used to develop theories, identify problems with current practices, justify current practices, make judgments or determine what practices are doing in similar situations. • Bias is prevented through operational definition of variables, large sample size, random sampling technique, valid and reliable research tools and formal data collection methods. • Descriptive designs include identification of a phenomenon of interest identifying the variables within phenomenon, developing operational definitions of the variables and describing the variables.
  47. 47. TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN: Univarient. Exploratory. Comparative. Correlation.
  48. 48. CONTD., UNIVARIENT DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN: • Univarient descriptive designs are undertaken to describe frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon. this design is not necessarily focus on the study of a single variable. The may be study of one or more variables in a study. For example, A researcher is interested in assessing the experience of patient suffering with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study researcher may describe the frequency of different symptoms experienced by the patients suffering with rheumatoid arthritis and type of treatment they had during the course of disease etc. there are multiple variables in this research study.
  49. 49. CONTD., EXPLORATORY DESIGN: • Exploratory design is used to identify, explore and describe the existing phenomenon and its related factors. • In other words, it is not the simple description of the frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon but it is exploration of phenomenon and its related factors in-depth to improve further understanding about a less understood phenomenon. • Example, An exploratory study to assess the multifactorial dimensions of fall and home safety measure for elderly people living in selected communities in city Ludhiana.
  50. 50. CONTD., COMPARATIVE DESIGN • Comparative design involves comparing and contrasting two or more samples of study subjects on one or more variables, often at a single point of time. • This design is used to compare two distinct groups on the basis of selected attribute such as knowledge level, perceptions and attitudes, physical or psychological symptoms and so on. Example, A comparative study on health problems among rural older people in district Bikaner, Rajasthan.
  51. 51. CONTD., CORRELATIONAL/EX-POST FACTO RESEARCH DESIGN • This is non experimental design where researcher examines the relationship between two or more variables in a natural setting without manipulation or control. MAIN FEATURES: • Researchers examine the strength of relationship between variables. • Effect of independent variable is observed on dependent variable without manipulating the independent variable. • No difficulty in identifying dependent and independent variables. • Magnitude and direction of relationship of independent and dependent variable is measured by using the correlation coefficient statistical average, where results rage bet6ween -1 to +1. • Theoretically a positive relationship means increase in one variable leads to increase in another variable. While negative relationship means increase in one variable leads to decrease I another variable or vice versa. • In epidemiological language these studies are known as cause and effect study where cause and effect relationship is investigated in natural setting without experimental interventions.
  52. 52. CONTD., TYPES OF CORRELATION RESEARCH DESIGN  Prospective research design  Retrospective research design.
  53. 53. CONTD., PROSPECTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN: • Prospective research design is a design in which researcher related the present to future. • Starts with presumed cause and then go to presumed effects. In this research design, researchers observe phenomena from cause to effect. • Example, “A researcher is conducting a prospective study on affect of maternal infection during pregnancy on fetal development and pregnancy outcome”. • In this study research starts observing the pregnant women and collects the data from pregnant women regarding any history of infection among women during pregnancy, later observe fetal development and pregnancy outcome.
  54. 54. CONTD., RETROSPECTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN • Under the influence of substance abuse?” Retrospective research design is a design in which researcher study the current phenomenon by seeking information from past. • Researcher linked the present phenomenon with the past phenomenon. • Researcher has background approach to study a phenomenon, where researcher moves from effect to identify the cause. • Example “A retrospective study on substance abuse related high risk factors among traumatic head injury patients admitted in neurosurgery ICU of DMCH, Ludhiana. In this study first researcher approach head injury patients and than try to identify that how much many head injuries were happened
  55. 55. CONTD., DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN • Developmental research design examines the phenomenon in respect to the time. • Developmental research designs are generally used as adjunct research design with other research designs such as cross- sectional descriptive, longitudinal correlation research designs and so on.
  56. 56. CONTD., TYPES OF DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN  Cross sectional research design.  Longitudinal research design.
  57. 57. CONTD., CROSS SECTIONAL RESEARCH DESIGN • Cross sectional research design in which researcher collects data at one point of time (one period of data collection). • These studies are more easy and convenient to carry out. Example, “A researchers is interested in assessing the awareness about swine flu among people of an area. Here researcher interactions only once to collect awareness related data from respondents”.
  58. 58. CONTD., LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH DESIGN: • Longitudinal research design is used to collect data over an extended time period (long time study). Its value is ability to demonstrate change over time. • Example, “A researcher is interested in perception of nursing students towards nursing professions from beginning of nursing program to the end of the nursing program. In this example, it is approoriate to use the longitudinal research design to study this phenomenon”.
  59. 59. CONTD., EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH DESIGN • Epidemiological is the study to investigate the distribution and cause of the diseases in population. • Epidemiological studies are generally conducted to investigate causes of different diseases in either prospective approaches (cause to effect) or retrospective approach (effect to cause). • However in epidemiology different terminology is used to prospective and retrospective designs. Prospective studies are called cohort studies and retrospective studies are called as case control studies.
  60. 60. TYPES OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH DESIGN  Case Control  Cohort Study.
  61. 61. CONTD., CASE-CONTROL STUDIES: • In this design, causes of a disease are investigated after the occurrence of a disease. Example, “A researcher investigates the history of smoking in patients diagnosed with lung cancer”. COHORT STUDIES: • In this design, a longitudinal approach is used to investigate the occurrence of a disease in existing presumed causes. Example, “A researcher longitudinally observes the smokers for developmental of lung cancer”.
  62. 62. CONTD., SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN • A survey research design, which is used to collect information from different subjects within the total population having same characteristics of interest. • If a survey is conducted on a sample of population it is named as sample survey. • If conducted on entire population it is called a population survey such as censuses etc. • Survey helps to collect wide range of data from sample such as action, attitude, opinion, perception, behavior, awareness, practices etc.,
  63. 63. CONTD., MAIN FEATURES: • It enables the investigation to collect current information about whatever it is wish to study. • Information is collected from a variety of subjects who resembles the total population. • Mode of inquiry that relies heavily upon the validity of verbal reports. • The information is obtained directly fro the respondent by self reporting questionnaires. • Personal interviews are registered as most useful method of collecting survey data, because of the in-depth and quality of information can be obtained.
  64. 64. CONTD., TYPES OF SURVEY: Descriptive survey Exploratory survey Comparative survey. Correlational survey.
  65. 65. CONTD., DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY: • Survey is undertaken to describe the frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon rather than to study relationship. EXPLORATORY SURVEY: • Survey of a phenomenon and its related factors about which is not much known. COMPARATIVE SURVEY: • Comparing and contrasting the existence of phenomenon two or more groups. CORRELATIONAL SURVEY: • Study of relationship between two or more variables in a natural setting without manipulation or control.
  66. 66. CONTD., BASED ON METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: – Written survey – Oral survey – Electronic survey
  67. 67. CONTD., ADVANTAGES • They tend to be more close to reality. • Most suitable for the nursing research studies. • Number of the human characteristics are inherently not subject to experimental manipulation (E.G blood type, personality, health beliefs, medical diagnosis) the effects of these characteristics on other phenomena cannot be studied experimentally. • Variables that could technically be manipulated. • There are many research situations in which it is simply not practical to conduct a true experiment.
  68. 68. CONTD., DISADVANTAGES • They leave the actual reason for the association found quite unclear. • Non experimental studies are conducted for comparative purpose used the non randomly selected groups, which may not be homogeneous and tend to possess the different traits or characteristics which may affect the authenticity and generaliability of the study results.
  69. 69. OTHER ADDITIONAL RESEARCG STUDIES TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS MAIN FEATURES METHODOLOGICAL STUIES Research conducted to develop, test and evaluate the research instruments and methods. META-ANALYSIS Quantitatively combining and integrating the findings of the multiple research studies on a particular topic. SECONDARY DATAANALYSIS A research design in which the data collected in one research in re-analyzed by another researcher, usually to test new hypothesis. OUTCOME RESEARCH Outcome research involves the evaluation of care practice an systems in place. It is used in nursing to develop evidence-based practice and improve nursing actions. EVALUATION STUDIES It is research design the involves the judgment about success of programmes, practices, procedure or policies. OPERATIONAL RESEARCH Operational research involves the study of complex human organizations and services to develop new knowledge about institutions, programmes, use of facilities and personnel in order to improve working efficiency of an organization.
  70. 70. METHODOLOGICAL STUDIES  The main problem in nursing research is to find appropriate measurement tools or techniques to measure nursing-related phenomena. Nurses frequently use tools developed by other disciples, such as psychology, sociology etc. these tools from other discipline can be useful it they are found appropriate to measure the nursing related phenomena, but most of the time tools are used because of the unavailability of the reliable and valid tools to measure the nursing related phenomena. Methodological studies are conducted to develop validate, test and evaluate the research instruments and methods. Basically, a methodological research includes the following steps, however these steps require sound, specified and exhaustive literature review to identify the theories and understand the construct,
  71. 71. CONTD.,  Defining the behavior or construct to measure.  Formulating the items for tool.  Developing instruments for users and respondents.  Testing the reliability and validity of research tool. FOR EXAMPLE, “A Researcher may conduct a methodological study to develop a pressure sore risk assessment tool for patients admitted in orthopedic studies”.
  72. 72. METAANALYSIS  A Meta analysis statistically merges the outcomes studies that hint a research hypothesis that is shared. Just as individual studies summarizes data collected from many participants in order to answer a specific research question (i.e) each participants in a separate data point in the analysis, a meta analysis summarizes data from several individual studies that concern a specific research question.  Meta analysis is considered as the statistical analysis of a large amount of analyzed results from individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings. It is believed that the decisions affecting clinical practices. However, when results of the several similar studies are analyzed together, the findings of such studies may be more effective or powerful. Meta analysis studies start with selecting studies with similar variables and population samples, followed by identifying and coding study characteristics, and finally statistically analyzing and reporting the assessed findings of the meta-analysis study.
  73. 73. STEPS IN CONDUCTING A META- ANALYSIS It includes 5 steps; Define hypothesis. Locate the studies. Input data. Calculate effect sizes Analyze variables
  74. 74. SECONDARY DATAANALYSIS Secondary data analysis is a research design in which the data collects by one researcher is reanalyzed by another researcher, usually to test new hypotheses. Sometimes researcher collect lots of data in a study; out of which some of the data is left unused or unanalyzed that is later taken up and utilized by another researcher, which is called the secondary data analysis research. in this research design, researchers analyze data collected in previous studies are considered as most convenient, time saving and costly affair in a research activities A secondary analysis can be performed with the qualitative and quantitative.
  75. 75. EXAMPLES QUANTITAIVE STUDY: A Researcher utilized data from a past study of patients having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to test an analytical model of factors affecting functional status in the disorders. QUALITATIVE STUDY: The client with end stage renal disease, a researcher did a secondary analysis of data. The initial study was devised to evaluate how and by whom was the decisions about treatment modality done the secondary study evaluated factors, influencing those decisions.
  76. 76. EVALUATION STUDIES  In the era of evidenced based practice and client centered care, evaluation studies assume treat importance. Evaluation research studies are an applied form of research design, which involves the judgment about how well a specific programmed, practice, procedure or policy is working. Evaluation studies may also be used to determine the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, equipment and the material used in a particular setting.  Nurses can evaluate their practice by reflecting on what they do. The evaluation studies are generally carried out when the researcher wants to find out that how and to what extent the objectives on a particular activity have been of are being met.  The aim of the evaluation studies is to improve the particular activity; it makes sense that the original aims objectives of an activity the benchmark against which effectiveness or success is evaluated.
  77. 77. CONTD., It is of two types,  Formnative Evaluation  Sumative Evaluation FORMATIVE EVALUATION: It refers to the assessment of a programme as it is being implemented; the focus is on evaluation process of a programme rather than the outcome. SECONDARY EVALUATION: Refers to the assessment of the outcome of a programme that is conducted after the completion of the progrmme. EXAMPLE OF EVALUATION RESEARCH: “A evaluation study on the effectiveness of an indigenous nursing service and nursing education integration model at AIIMS, Rishikesh”.
  78. 78. OPERATIONAL RESEARH Operational research is the application of scientific method of investigation to the study of complex human organizations and services. While conducting operational research, one is concerned all the time with the activities of a group of people with the purpose of inducing some changes. The main objectives of operational research are to develop new knowledge about institutions, programmes, use of facilities, and personnel in order to improve working efficiency of an organization. Operational research translates research concepts into measureable phenomena. It is very useful in nursing studies as we require evidence based practices to improve nursing services. It may be helpful in effectively designing a hospital or ward for an efficient flow of man and material, constructing communication systems at low cost, computerizing patient information storage for efficiency etc.
  79. 79. CONTD., • In operational research studies, researchers assess the effectiveness of different programmes, facilities and personnel models in natural setting as they are implemented to improve work efficiency of an origination. FOR EXAMPLE: “An operational research study on patients satisfaction with and awareness of single and double-corridor ward designs in selected hospitals at New Delhi”.
  80. 80. OUTCOME RESEARCH  Outcome research involves the evaluation of care practices and system in place. It is used in nursing develop evidence based practice and to improve nursing services. It is a research that is planned to assess or record the end result of health care services. These studies are conducted in response to the increasing demand from public to justify care practices and systems that impertinent treatment outcome and reduce costs of care. Structure Processes Outcome FOR EXAMPLE: “An outcome research study on patients satisfaction with existing nursing care model in DMCH, Ludhiana”.