What are Textiles?
The word “textile” was originally used to define a woven fabric and
the processes involved in weaving.
Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibers or Yarns.
The yarn is produced by spinning raw fibers of wool, flax, cotton, or
other material to produce long strands.
Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or
pressing fibers together (felt).
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of
production has been altered almost beyond recognition by
industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing
However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin
weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern
3. Over the years the term has taken on broad
connotations, including the following:
Staple filaments and fibers for use in yarns or
preparation of woven, knitted, tufted or nonwoven
Yarns made from natural or man-made fibers,
Fabrics and other products made from fibers or
from yarns, and
Apparel or other articles fabricated from the above
which retain the flexibility and drape of the original
4. Staple fibers and filaments suitable for conversion to or use as yarns, or for the
preparation of woven, knit, or nonwoven fabrics.
Yarns made from natural or manufactured fibers.
Fabrics and other manufactured products made from fibers as defined above
and from yarns.
Garments and other articles fabricated from fibers, yarns, or fabrics when the
products retain the characteristic flexibility and drape of the original fabrics.
Textile is a very widely used term which includes:
All kinds of fibers(e.g: Cotton, Jute, Wool, Polyester, Viscose etc)
All kinds of Process(e.g: Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Dyeing, Printing,
All kinds of machineries(e.g: Spinning machineries, Weaving machineries,
Knitting machineries, Dyeing machineries, Testing machineries etc.)
To convert textile fiber into finished or end use products(e.g: Garments,
Technical textiles, Geo textiles, Medical textiles, E-textiles etc.)
It is defined as one of the delicate, hair
portions of the tissues of a plant or animal or
other substances that are very small in
diameter in relation to there length.
A fiber is a material which is several hundred
times as long as its thick.
7. TEXTILE FIBER
Textile fiber has some characteristics which differ between
fiber to Textile fiber.
Textile fiber can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by
various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting,
The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn
include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility,
cohesiveness, and sufficient strength.
Other important properties include elasticity, fineness,
uniformity, durability, and luster.
Banana fiber is one kind of fiber but it is not a textile fiber.
Because it can not fill up the above properties.
So we can say that all fiber are not textile fiber.
10. . Natural Fibers:
Natural fibers are fibers that are produced by
plants, animals and geological processes.
II . Manmade Fibers:
Man-made fibres are those fibres whose
chemical composition, structure, and
properties are significantly modified during the
11. Natural Polymer Fibers: The most common natural polymer fibre
is viscose, which is made from the polymer cellulose obtained
mostly from farmed trees. Other cellulose-based fibres are Lyocell,
Modal, Acetate and Triacetate. Less common natural polymer fibres
are made from rubber, alginic acid and regenerated protein.
2 . Synthetic Polymer Fibers: There are very many synthetic
fibres i.e. organic fibres based on petrochemicals. The most
common are polyester, polyamide (often called nylon), acrylic and
modacrylic, polypropylene, the segmented polyurethanes which are
elastic fibres known as elastanes (or spandex in the USA), and
speciality high-tenacity fibres such as the high performance aramids
and UHMwPE (Ultra High Molecular weight PolyEthylene).
3 . In-organic/ Refractory Polymer Fibers: The inorganic man-
made fibres are fibres made from materials such as glass, metal,
carbon or ceramic. These fibres are very often used to reinforce
plastics to form composites.
12. Difference between Natural Fiber
and Manmade Fiber:
S.NO NATURAL FIBER MANMADE FIBER
1 The fibers which we get
from nature re called
The fibers which are
developed by man re
called man made fiber.
2 Generally fibers are
Generally fibers are
3 No. of molecule
controlled by nature.
No. of molecule
controlled by man.
4 Length of the fiber is
Length of the fiber is
controlled by man.
5 We get fibres as staple
No question about short
or long staple fiber. It
depends on man will.
6 Less strength and
More strength and
7 No need to spinneret for
Spinneret is essential
for filament production.
S.NO NATURAL FIBER MANMADE FIBER
8 The fabric made from
natural fiber is
comfortable and good
Man made fiber is not
comfortable and not
good for health.
9 Natural fiber is not
favorable for finishing.
Manmade fibers are
favorable for finishing.
10. Comparatively less
durable than synthetic
Manmade fibers are
more durable than
11 Fineness varies from
one fiber to another
Fineness depends on
12 Natural fiber has a
great demand as
Synthetic fiber is widely
used in every day life
except humans wear.
S.NO NATURAL FIBERS MANMADE FIBERS
Natural fibers needs to
scouring and bleaching
process before wet
Scouring and bleaching
is done in very few
It is not possible to
change in fiber
It is easy to change in
15 It is expensive. It is cheaper.
16 Natural fiber is called
Manmade fibers are not
Some fibers are harmful
for the environment like:
15. HISTORY OF TEXTILE
Natural fibers have traditionally been used in all cultures of the
world to meet basic requirements of clothing, storage, building
material, and for items of daily use such as ropes and fishing nets.
People in olden times used various kinds of natural fibers
depending on their local availability.
The first composite material in history was apparently made with
clay and straw in Egypt 3000 years ago to build walls.
Hemp was cultivated in China in 2800 BC and is considered one of
the oldest natural fibers to be taken in use for making products
along with linen.
Hemp in Greek and Latin terminology was cannabis that led to the
word canvas as hemp was used for making sails of boats.
Flax or fine linen was used for burial shrouds of Egyptian
pharaohs. Similarly nettle was used for making fishing nets in olden
India is rich in plant resources and the use of a
variety of natural fibers such as banana,
pineapple, sisal, hemp, coconut, palm,
grasses etc was widely prevalent in olden
Their use became limited once cotton acquired
the prime status in plant fibers.
In cotton production, organic cotton accounts
for a very small percentage of total cotton
Silk, linen and jute are other natural fibers that
have continued to enjoy popularity.
17. HISTORY OF MANMADE
The history of man-made fibers is less than a
century old; until 1910, there were no synthetic or
Today, by mixing different components,
manufacturers can take the basic fibers listed
below and make them more waterproof or more
absorbent, warmer or cooler, thicker or thinner,
stiffer or more supple.
Some, like polyester and spandex, combine well
with natural fibers, making fabrics that wrinkle less
or are more form-fitting.
18. Properties Of Fibers:
1 . Tensile Strength: This is the breaking strength of any
material, which is commonly expressed force per unit cross-
sectional area. When a single fibre is being considered , the
strength of textile fibre is commonly described as
tanacity.which is measure of specific stress at breaking point.
2 . Elongation: When a fibre is subjected to a force, it will
stress to a certain degree. This stress is described as
3 . Elastic Properties: When a fibre is stretched by a small
amount ,it may exhibit almost perfect elasticity. That is to say,
it will return to its original length when it is realsed.
4 . Specific Gravity: This is a measure of the density of a
fibre. It is the ratio of the mass of a material to the mass of a
material to the mass of an equal volume of water at 4 degree
5 . Effect Of Moisture: All fibre tend to absorb moisture when in
contact with the atmosphere. The amount absorbed depends upon
the relative humidity of the air. In practice, the amount of moisture
absorbing properties of afire is described by a figure known as
the “Moisture regain”.
6 . Effect Of Sunlight: Almost every fibre i affected by the
powerful radiation of sunlight. Some will decompose and deteriorate
fairly rapidly, losing strength and changing color.
7 . Effects Of Acids: Textiles are commonly subjected to acid
solution of one sort or another, and the effect of different acids
under varying conditions are important.
8 . Effect Of Alkalies: From the very earliest times, alkaline
agents have been used for washing and scouring textiles.
9 . Resistance To Micro-Organisms: Cellulose is attacked by
certain moulds and bacteria ,which decompose it and make use of
the degradation products as food.
20. VEGETABLE SOURCE
Cotton: Cotton is most widely used natural fiber and consists of pure cellulose. It is
produced in China, Brazil, India, Pakistan, USA and Uzbekistan.
Flax: Flax is a lignocellulosic bast fiber, mostly present in European Union. This fiber
is mostly used to make linen.
Hemp: Hemp is also a lignocellulosic bast fiber with low quantity of lignin. The
world’s leading producer of hemp fiber is China.
Jute: Jute is the strongest vegetable fiber from India and Bangladesh. It is also a
Ramie: Ramie is also a lignocellulosic bast fiber mostly available in China and Brazil.
It is also known as China grass, with a silky luster and better elasticity.
Sisal: Sisal is a hard and coarser leaf fiber, mostly available in Brazil, Tanzania and
Abaca: Abaca is a leaf fiber, also known as manila hemp, extracted from leaf sheath
around the trunk of Musa textiles. The world’s major fibre producer is Philippines.
Lignin content in the fiber is about 15%.
Coir: Coir is a hard, short and coarse fiber extracted from the shells of coconut. It is
mostly present in India, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia and Brazil. This
fiber contains highest amount of lignin making it stronger but less flexible
21. ANIMAL SOURCE
Alpaca: Alpaca is a hair fiber like wool, comes from the Lama Pocos. This
fiber comes in approximately 22 natural colors, produced mostly in Peru,
North America, Australia and New Zealand. It is stronger than wool fiber.
Angora: Angora is a rabbit fiber, very soft, fine and silky. 90% of the fiber is
produced in China. Angora fabric is very suitable for thermal clothing.
Camel hair: Camel hair is available from the two humped Bactrian camel
mostly present with nomadic households in Mongolia and inner Mongolia,
China. It is the softest and more premium hair fiber.
Cashmere fiber: Cashmere fiber is available with Kashmir goats, in China,
Australia, India, Pakistan, New Zealand, Turkey and USA. It is a luxurious
and expensive fiber.
Mohair fiber: Mohair fiber is produced from Angora goat, available in South
Africa. It is a smooth and lustrous fiber.
Silk: Silk is the natural filament fiber, with high lustre, mostly produced in
China, Brazil, India, Thailand and Vietnam.
Wool: Wool is the most important protein fiber. It is the first domesticated
fiber, mostly produced in Australia, New Zealand, China, Iran, Argentina
22. Some general properties of
Staple and filament fibers: On the basis of
length, fibers have two categories: staple and
filament. Filament further classified as mono
filaments and multi-filaments.
Any fiber with a practically limited or finite length is
called staple fiber. These are small length fiber
like cotton, wool, jute etc. Most natural fibers are
staple fibers. Natural fibers are those fibers that
are directly collected from nature usually from
plants or animals. The common natural fibers are
cotton, wool, silk, jute and flax. Fibers from plants
and animals are constructed directly in nature
have very large molecule of polymers.
23. MICROFIBER AND LENGTH
Microfiber and nano fiber: Microfiber refers to a
(normally synthetic) fiber as fine as less than one
denier per filament. The most common types
of microfiber are made from polyesters,
polyamides and also conjugation of polyester and
polyamide. Nanofiber refers to a
synthetic/inorganic fiber which is fine nano
Length: Length is the most important factor for
assessing the value of a fiber. Most natural fiber is
of limited length, commonly a few millimeters to
several centimeters. Silk is the exception, being
formed as filament, which may be 500-2000 meter
24. STRENGTH AND ELASTIC
Strength and elongation: This is the breaking strength of
any material which is commonly expressed as force per unit
cross-sectional area (N/mm2). When a single fiber is being
considered, the strength of the fiber is commonly described
as tenacity (gm/tex), which is a measure of specific stress or
tenacity at break, i.e. breaking load/tex.
During force F is applied on the fiber length (L) then the
length variation ∆L is increased from force the rated stress
becomes σ with the cross-section area of a fiber A.
Elastic limit: This is the limit up to which the fiber is
elongated during loading and recovers its elongation after
relaxation of load. Simply fiber returns its original length
without any stretching. The deformation up to elastic limit is
called elastic deformation.
25. Permanent elongation, Breaking
Permanent elongation: The length which
extended during loading does not recover
during relaxation. It is also called plastic
Breaking elongation: This is the maximum
extension at which the fiber, yarn or fabric
Rigidity or stiffness: Rigidity or stiffness of a
material is measured by its Young modulus
and measures how much a material deflects
under transverse directional stress.