IDA JEAN ORLANDO – THE NURSING PROCESS
• Ida Jean Orlando was a nurse and nursing theorist who
developed the "nursing process theory" in the 1950s and 1960s.
This theory is a systematic, patient-centered approach to
nursing that emphasizes assessment, diagnosis, planning,
implementation, and evaluation. The nursing process theory
views the patient as an active participant in their own care
and promotes collaboration between the nurse and patient
to achieve mutually agreed upon goals. It is based on the belief
that the nurse can use critical thinking and decision-making
skills to provide individualized care and meet the specific needs
of each patient.
• The nursing process theory is widely used in nursing practice
and education as a framework for providing quality health care.
CONCEPTS OF THE NURSING PROCESS THEORY
Nursing process is an interaction of three basic elements that
• The first step in the nursing process theory is assessment. During this
step, the nurse gathers data about the patient's condition by
conducting a physical exam, reviewing laboratory results, and
interviewing the patient and their family. The data gathered during
the assessment is used to develop a nursing diagnosis and plan of
• The assessment process also involves identifying the patient's goals
and developing a plan to help the patient achieve those goals. The
nurse must be aware of the patient's cultural, spiritual, and emotional
needs in order to provide the best possible care.
• The second step in the nursing process theory is diagnosis.
During this step, the nurse uses the data gathered during the
assessment to develop a nursing diagnosis. A nursing
diagnosis is a statement that identifies a patient's actual or
potential health problems. The nursing diagnosis is based on
the patient's symptoms and the nurse's clinical judgment.
• The nursing diagnosis is used to develop a plan of care that is
tailored to the patient's individual needs. The plan of care
outlines the interventions that the nurse will use to help the
patient achieve their desired outcomes.
The third step in the nursing process theory is planning. During this
step, the nurse develops a plan of care based on the nursing diagnosis.
The plan of care outlines the interventions that the nurse will use to
help the patient achieve their desired outcomes. The plan of care
should be individualized to the patient's specific needs and goals.
• The plan of care should also include a timeline for when the
interventions will be implemented and how they will be evaluated.
The plan of care should be reviewed and revised as needed to ensure
the best possible outcomes for the patient.
• The fourth step in the nursing process theory is implementation.
During this step, the nurse implements the interventions outlined in
the plan of care. The nurse must be aware of the patient's cultural,
spiritual, and emotional needs in order to provide the best possible
care. The nurse must also be aware of any potential risks associated
with the interventions.
• The nurse must also collaborate with other healthcare professionals
to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient For example the
Nurse can collaborate with a nutritionist to ensure the nutritionist
needs are met.
• The nurse must be aware of any changes in the patient's condition
and adjust the plan of care as needed.
• The fifth and final step in the nursing process theory is evaluation.
During this step, the nurse evaluates the effectiveness of the
interventions by comparing the patient's actual outcomes to the
desired outcomes. The nurse must also assess the patient's response
to the interventions and make any necessary changes to the plan of
• The evaluation process also involves assessing the patient's overall
progress and making any necessary changes to the plan.
MERITS OF THE NURSING PROCESS THEORY
• The Nursing Process Theory is beneficial for both the nurse and the
patient, in that ;
• The nurse is able to use their knowledge and expertise to come up
with the best plan of care for the patient, while the patient is able to
receive tailored care that meets their individual needs.
• The Nursing Process Theory also allows the nurse to be more involved
in the patient's care, which can lead to better outcomes and
improved patient satisfaction.
DEMERITS OF THE NURSING PROCESS THEORY
The Nursing Process Theory does have some limitations:
1. It can be time-consuming and resource-intensive, as the nurse has
to spend time gathering information and formulating a plan of care.
It also requires the nurse to have a good understanding of the
patient's needs and the resources available.
2. In addition, the Nursing Process Theory can be difficult to
implement in a busy hospital setting, as the nurse may not have the
time to adequately assess the patient's needs and develop a plan of
APPLICATION OF THE NURSING PROCESS THEORY
1. Increases the therapeutic effectiveness of nurses by the expression
of empathy, warmth and genuiness.
2. This framework will be important for nurses assigned in special
clinical areas that require quick decision making and critical
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE NURSING PROCESS THEORY
1. Nurses have a responsibility to actively and fully seek out and
understand patients' needs and experiences.
2. Nurses apply critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assess
patients' needs, make diagnoses, and develop plans of care for
3. Patients have unique and specific needs and experiences that
must be considered in their care so as to achieve the desires
goals of healthcare
4. Nurses work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals to
provide comprehensive, complete and effective care to patients.
5. Care is ongoing and dynamic, which needs ongoing assessment,
monitoring, and adaptation.
6.The patient is an active participant in their care, and the nurse is a
facilitator of the patient's self-care abilities and decision making.
7.The nursing process is a systematic and cyclical method of
care provision, which is a way of thinking, not a set of
8.The nursing process is a scientific and evidence-based method
of care, which is constantly evolving and improving with the
advancement of medical knowledge.
Korzier and Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing
Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care
Online Research Guide For Nursing Students | NurseJournal.org
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