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Strategies for web development,
7 Cs framework
Friday, 26 February 2016 1
Components of the Strategy
Friday, 26 February 2016 2
The Charter (Who)
• Focus: Governance and Authority
– What group/person is the primary “champion”?
– Who are the stakehold...
The Web Action Plan (When)
• Focus: Timeframe and Schedule
– What time period will this strategy cover?
– What are the dev...
Guidance (Why)
• Focus: Vision and Principles
– Why will this work be undertaken? For whom?
– What are the principles that...
Direction (What)
• Focus: Goals and Strategies
– What are the goals that will achieve the vision?
– What strategies will l...
Management (How)
• Focus: Projects and Resources
– How will the strategies be accomplished?
– What staff will be required ...
User Experience (Where)
• Focus: Interfaces and Interactions
– Who are our Web users?
– Where are they using the Web (home...
Essential Web Design Strategies
• Responsive Design
• Use Software Prototyping
• The Team
• Versatility
• Customization
• ...
Implementing Strategic Design
• Establish your goals
• Identify your audience
• Determine your brand image
• Goal-driven d...
Measure results
Friday, 26 February 2016 11
Seven C’s of Website Design
• Context
• Content
• Community
• Communication
• Connection
• Commerce
• Customization
Friday...
7c’s of Website Design
Friday, 26 February 2016 13
Context (look and feel): the “How” of the site
• 2 main dimensions: Function and Aesthetics
• Function - site layout and f...
Content: the “What” of the site
• Text, pictures, sound and video
• both the type of content, and the media with which it ...
Community
• Community: the way sites build relationships between users. Strong
community encourages people to return to th...
Customization
• Customization is the site’s ability to self-tailor to different users
– The way customization can be achie...
Personalization
• Personalization is usually used to refer to customization of a site by the user
him or herself.
• Promot...
Tailoring by site
• The second type involves automatically generated customization
based on a user’s previous behavior, an...
Personalization/customization using a combination of
tools
• Amazon.com provides a very good example of this combination o...
Communication
• Communication refers to a firm’s dialogue with its customers
– Dialogue can be one-way (broadcast) or two-...
Connection: how does a firm connect to other
businesses?
• Links to other sites
• Outsourced content - eg. news feeds, sto...
Some things that really damage Customer Experience on
a commerce site
• Badly implemented search
• Not telling people an i...
Webpage Layout
• Layout of web pages is very important
• Poor layout makes for -
– Difficult navigation
– Hard to locate i...
Tables, tables, tables!
• Use tables to lay out your pages!
• Make the table borders invisible
• A 2x2 table works well
Fr...
Areas of a Web Page
Friday, 26 February 2016 26
A 2 x 2 Layout
Friday, 26 February 2016 27
Table within a table
Friday, 26 February 2016 28
Table within a table
Friday, 26 February 2016 29
Centred with three columns
Friday, 26 February 2016 30
Really complicated design!
Friday, 26 February 2016 31
Building an E-commerce
Web Site
Friday, 26 February 2016 32
Right-Sizing a Web Site
• What are the factors you should take into account when sizing a Web
site’s infrastructure?
• Why...
Building an E-commerce Site:
A Systematic Approach
• Most important management challenges:
– Developing a clear understand...
Pieces of the Site-Building Puzzle
• Main areas where you will need to make decisions:
– Human resources and organizationa...
The Systems Development Life Cycle
• Methodology for understanding business objectives of a system and
designing an approp...
Web Site Systems Development Life Cycle
Friday, 26 February 2016 37
System Analysis/Planning
• Business objectives:
– List of capabilities you want your site to have
• System functionalities...
Friday, 26 February 2016 39
Systems Design:
Hardware and Software Platforms
• System design specification:
– Description of main components of a syste...
Logical Design for a Simple Web Site
Friday, 26 February 2016 41
Physical Design for a Simple Web Site
Friday, 26 February 2016 42
Build/Host Your Own versus Outsourcing
• Outsourcing: hiring vendors to provide services involved in building site
• Build...
Choices in Building and Hosting
Friday, 26 February 2016 44
Testing, Implementation, and Maintenance
• Testing
– Unit testing
– System testing
– Acceptance testing
• Implementation a...
Factors in Web Site Optimization
Friday, 26 February 2016 46
Web Site Budgets
• From $5,000 to millions of dollars/year
• Components of budget:
– System maintenance
– System developme...
Simple versus Multi-tiered Web Site Architecture
• System architecture
– Arrangement of software, machinery, and tasks in ...
Two-Tier E-commerce Architecture
Friday, 26 February 2016 49
Multi-tier E-commerce Architecture
Friday, 26 February 2016 50
Site Management Tools
• Basic tools
– Included in all Web servers
– Verify that links on pages are still valid
– Identify ...
Dynamic Page Generation Tools
• Dynamic page generation:
– Contents of Web page stored as objects in database and fetched ...
Application Servers
• Web application servers:
– Provide specific business functionality required for a Web site
– Type of...
Friday, 26 February 2016 54
E-commerce Merchant Server Software
• Provides basic functionality for online sales
– Online catalog
• List of products av...
Merchant Server Software Packages
• Integrated environment with most or all of functionality needed
• Key factors in selec...
Building Your Own E-commerce Site
• Options for small firms
– Hosted e-commerce sites, e.g., Yahoo’s Merchant Solutions
• ...
Choosing the Hardware for an E-commerce Site
• Hardware platform:
– Underlying computing equipment that system uses to ach...
Right-Sizing Your Hardware Platform: The Demand Side
• Demand is the most important factor affecting speed of site
• Facto...
Friday, 26 February 2016 60
Right-Sizing Your Hardware Platform: The Supply Side
• Scalability:
– Ability of site to increase in size as demand warran...
Vertically Scaling a System
Friday, 26 February 2016 62
Horizontally Scaling a System
Friday, 26 February 2016 63
Friday, 26 February 2016 64
Friday, 26 February 2016 65
E-business strategy
What is strategy?
• ‘Defines how we will meet our objectives’
• ‘Sets allocation of resources to meet goals’
• ‘Selects pr...
Friday, 26 February 2016 68
Sell-Side E-Commerce Strategy
• Sell-side e-commerce is a channel strategy
• Objectives for online contribution percentage...
Buy-Side E-Commerce Strategy
• Buy-side e-commerce strategy is about maximizing operational
efficiencies while improving c...
Friday, 26 February 2016 71
What Happens Where There Is No E-Business Strategy?
• Missed opportunities for additional sales on the sell-side and more
...
A generic strategy process model
Friday, 26 February 2016 73
Dynamic e-business strategy model
Friday, 26 February 2016 74
Elements of strategic situation analysis for the e-business
Friday, 26 February 2016 75
Using the Internet to support different growth strategies
Friday, 26 February 2016 76
Matrix for evaluating e-business strategy alternatives
Friday, 26 February 2016 77
Strategic options for a company in relation to the
importance of the Internet as a channel
Friday, 26 February 2016 78
Friday, 26 February 2016 79
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  1. 1. Strategies for web development, 7 Cs framework Friday, 26 February 2016 1
  2. 2. Components of the Strategy Friday, 26 February 2016 2
  3. 3. The Charter (Who) • Focus: Governance and Authority – What group/person is the primary “champion”? – Who are the stakeholders? – What group is responsible for each phase? – Who will define success? Friday, 26 February 2016 3
  4. 4. The Web Action Plan (When) • Focus: Timeframe and Schedule – What time period will this strategy cover? – What are the development and consultation steps? – When will development of the next version begin? Friday, 26 February 2016 4
  5. 5. Guidance (Why) • Focus: Vision and Principles – Why will this work be undertaken? For whom? – What are the principles that guide the work? – How are these principles prioritized? Friday, 26 February 2016 5
  6. 6. Direction (What) • Focus: Goals and Strategies – What are the goals that will achieve the vision? – What strategies will lead to these goals? Friday, 26 February 2016 6
  7. 7. Management (How) • Focus: Projects and Resources – How will the strategies be accomplished? – What staff will be required for each? – What funding is needed? Friday, 26 February 2016 7
  8. 8. User Experience (Where) • Focus: Interfaces and Interactions – Who are our Web users? – Where are they using the Web (home, work, wireless)? – What are their needs? – Are their needs being met by our Web experience? Friday, 26 February 2016 8
  9. 9. Essential Web Design Strategies • Responsive Design • Use Software Prototyping • The Team • Versatility • Customization • Aware of the Marketplace • Look for Inspiration • Step Back • Design from a Different Perspective • Test and Validate Friday, 26 February 2016 9
  10. 10. Implementing Strategic Design • Establish your goals • Identify your audience • Determine your brand image • Goal-driven design direction • Measure results • Kaizen Friday, 26 February 2016 10
  11. 11. Measure results Friday, 26 February 2016 11
  12. 12. Seven C’s of Website Design • Context • Content • Community • Communication • Connection • Commerce • Customization Friday, 26 February 2016 12
  13. 13. 7c’s of Website Design Friday, 26 February 2016 13
  14. 14. Context (look and feel): the “How” of the site • 2 main dimensions: Function and Aesthetics • Function - site layout and functionality – Section breakdown - the way the site is organized into sub-categories • make them clear, and customer focused – Linking structures - navigation • where am I? • how do I get back to where I came from? (breadcrumbs) – Navigation tools - search functionality and methods, browse capability, site index/map • Use terminology the customer can understand • Make sure your search tool works - configure it • Aesthetics - visual characteristics such as colours, graphics, fonts etc Friday, 26 February 2016 14
  15. 15. Content: the “What” of the site • Text, pictures, sound and video • both the type of content, and the media with which it is delivered • The offering mix: products, information, services etc • The appeal mix: promotional and communications messages • The media mix: the multimedia elements included on the site – Be careful with adding too many multimedia elements that require plug-ins unless you have good market research that shows that your users expect it. • Content type: time sensitive information versus “evergreen” information – Freshness keeps bringing customers back – Archives provide a useful service to users – Watch out for “What’s New” sections Friday, 26 February 2016 15
  16. 16. Community • Community: the way sites build relationships between users. Strong community encourages people to return to the website again and again – Community can create attractive content (for free!) – Web communities can make the user feel that they are valued by the firm – Community can satisfy needs not otherwise able to be satisfied individually (eg. finding people) • Common tools are message boards, customer reviews, chat with special guests, corporate blogs, members areas • Other examples: Lands’ End “Shop with a Friend”, Friday, 26 February 2016 16
  17. 17. Customization • Customization is the site’s ability to self-tailor to different users – The way customization can be achieved is divided roughly into 2 types (although many sites use both) • Personalization - preferences actively selected by the user • Tailoring by site - automatically generated customization based on a user’s previous behaviour, and the actions of other similar users Friday, 26 February 2016 17
  18. 18. Personalization • Personalization is usually used to refer to customization of a site by the user him or herself. • Promotes stickiness and customer loyalty • Once a user has selected preferences, they must be saved and can then be accessed by use of registration/log in. • Examples of personalization: – E-mail accounts or storage space – Content and layout configurations - mytelus.com – Software agents - can be configured to notify a user when an item is in stock, or to act as an alert service • Cookies are often used in tandem with personalization, but they can identify only the machine on which the cookie is stored, not the individual person. Hence the need for log-in. Friday, 26 February 2016 18
  19. 19. Tailoring by site • The second type involves automatically generated customization based on a user’s previous behavior, and the actions of other similar users • Interface software dynamically publishes different versions of the site in order to better address users’ interests, habits, and needs. – The technologies to achieve this include cookies, and recommendation engines that use collaborative filtering. This is all completely automated, but can be improved by using active user input. Friday, 26 February 2016 19
  20. 20. Personalization/customization using a combination of tools • Amazon.com provides a very good example of this combination of methods to customize the user experience using collaborative filtering and a recommendation engine • Lands’ End - My Model (allows you to configure a model to your body type and appearance and try on clothes) and My Personal Shopper (uses “Conjoint analysis” - presents alternatives for selection) Friday, 26 February 2016 20
  21. 21. Communication • Communication refers to a firm’s dialogue with its customers – Dialogue can be one-way (broadcast) or two-way (interactive) • Broadcast communication – Mass mailings (opt in only!) – E-mail newsletter – Content update notifications • Interactive – e-commerce dialog using email to exchange information re orders etc – Customer service - email or live chat – User input - content, reviews, feedback etc Friday, 26 February 2016 21
  22. 22. Connection: how does a firm connect to other businesses? • Links to other sites • Outsourced content - eg. news feeds, stock quotes, weather etc • Affiliated sites - complementary products/services etc Friday, 26 February 2016 22
  23. 23. Some things that really damage Customer Experience on a commerce site • Badly implemented search • Not telling people an item is out of stock until late in the process • Shipping cost not given until late in the process • Asking for personal information too early in the process • No contact information • Can’t print properly Friday, 26 February 2016 23
  24. 24. Webpage Layout • Layout of web pages is very important • Poor layout makes for - – Difficult navigation – Hard to locate information on page – Visually unappealing Friday, 26 February 2016 24
  25. 25. Tables, tables, tables! • Use tables to lay out your pages! • Make the table borders invisible • A 2x2 table works well Friday, 26 February 2016 25
  26. 26. Areas of a Web Page Friday, 26 February 2016 26
  27. 27. A 2 x 2 Layout Friday, 26 February 2016 27
  28. 28. Table within a table Friday, 26 February 2016 28
  29. 29. Table within a table Friday, 26 February 2016 29
  30. 30. Centred with three columns Friday, 26 February 2016 30
  31. 31. Really complicated design! Friday, 26 February 2016 31
  32. 32. Building an E-commerce Web Site Friday, 26 February 2016 32
  33. 33. Right-Sizing a Web Site • What are the factors you should take into account when sizing a Web site’s infrastructure? • Why is peak usage an important factor to consider? • What did eBay discover from its use of OPERA? • How can operators of smaller sites deal with the right-sizing issue? Friday, 26 February 2016 33
  34. 34. Building an E-commerce Site: A Systematic Approach • Most important management challenges: – Developing a clear understanding of business objectives – Knowing how to choose the right technology to achieve those objectives Friday, 26 February 2016 34
  35. 35. Pieces of the Site-Building Puzzle • Main areas where you will need to make decisions: – Human resources and organizational capabilities • Creating team with skill set needed to build and manage a successful site – Hardware – Software – Telecommunications – Site design Friday, 26 February 2016 35
  36. 36. The Systems Development Life Cycle • Methodology for understanding business objectives of a system and designing an appropriate solution • Five major steps: – Systems analysis/planning – Systems design – Building the system – Testing – Implementation Friday, 26 February 2016 36
  37. 37. Web Site Systems Development Life Cycle Friday, 26 February 2016 37
  38. 38. System Analysis/Planning • Business objectives: – List of capabilities you want your site to have • System functionalities: – List of information system capabilities needed to achieve business objectives • Information requirements: – Information elements that system must produce in order to achieve business objectives Friday, 26 February 2016 38
  39. 39. Friday, 26 February 2016 39
  40. 40. Systems Design: Hardware and Software Platforms • System design specification: – Description of main components of a system and their relationship to one another • Two components of system design: – Logical design • Data flow diagrams, processing functions, databases – Physical design • Specifies actual physical, software components, models, etc. Friday, 26 February 2016 40
  41. 41. Logical Design for a Simple Web Site Friday, 26 February 2016 41
  42. 42. Physical Design for a Simple Web Site Friday, 26 February 2016 42
  43. 43. Build/Host Your Own versus Outsourcing • Outsourcing: hiring vendors to provide services involved in building site • Build own vs. outsourcing: – Build your own requires team with diverse skill set; choice of software tools; both risks and possible benefits • Host own vs. outsourcing – Hosting: hosting company responsible for ensuring site is accessible 24/7, for monthly fee – Co-location: firm purchases or leases Web server (with control over its operation), but server is located at vendor’s facility Friday, 26 February 2016 43
  44. 44. Choices in Building and Hosting Friday, 26 February 2016 44
  45. 45. Testing, Implementation, and Maintenance • Testing – Unit testing – System testing – Acceptance testing • Implementation and maintenance: – Maintenance is ongoing – Maintenance costs: parallel to development costs – Benchmarking Friday, 26 February 2016 45
  46. 46. Factors in Web Site Optimization Friday, 26 February 2016 46
  47. 47. Web Site Budgets • From $5,000 to millions of dollars/year • Components of budget: – System maintenance – System development – Content design & development – Hardware – Telecommunications – Software Friday, 26 February 2016 47
  48. 48. Simple versus Multi-tiered Web Site Architecture • System architecture – Arrangement of software, machinery, and tasks in an information system needed to achieve a specific functionality • Two-tier – Web server and database server • Multi-tier – Web application servers – Backend, legacy databases Friday, 26 February 2016 48
  49. 49. Two-Tier E-commerce Architecture Friday, 26 February 2016 49
  50. 50. Multi-tier E-commerce Architecture Friday, 26 February 2016 50
  51. 51. Site Management Tools • Basic tools – Included in all Web servers – Verify that links on pages are still valid – Identify orphan files • Third-party software and services for advanced site management – Monitor customer purchases, marketing campaign effectiveness, etc. – E.g. WebTrends Analytics 9, Google Analytics Friday, 26 February 2016 51
  52. 52. Dynamic Page Generation Tools • Dynamic page generation: – Contents of Web page stored as objects in database and fetched when needed • Common tools: CGI, ASP, JSP • Advantages – Lowers menu costs – Permits easy online market segmentation – Enables cost-free price discrimination – Enables Web content management system (WCMS) Friday, 26 February 2016 52
  53. 53. Application Servers • Web application servers: – Provide specific business functionality required for a Web site – Type of middleware • Isolate business applications from Web servers and databases – Single-function applications increasingly being replaced by integrated software tools that combine all functionality needed for e-commerce site Friday, 26 February 2016 53
  54. 54. Friday, 26 February 2016 54
  55. 55. E-commerce Merchant Server Software • Provides basic functionality for online sales – Online catalog • List of products available on Web site – Shopping cart • Allows shoppers to set aside, review, edit selections, and then make purchase – Credit card processing • Typically works in conjunction with shopping cart • Verifies card and puts through credit to company’s account at checkout Friday, 26 February 2016 55
  56. 56. Merchant Server Software Packages • Integrated environment with most or all of functionality needed • Key factors in selecting a package – Functionality – Support for different business models – Business process modeling tools – Visual site management and reporting – Performance and scalability – Connectivity to existing business systems – Compliance with standards – Global and multicultural capability – Local sales tax and shipping rules Friday, 26 February 2016 56
  57. 57. Building Your Own E-commerce Site • Options for small firms – Hosted e-commerce sites, e.g., Yahoo’s Merchant Solutions • Site building tools • E-commerce templates – Open-source merchant server software • Enables you to build truly custom site • Requires programmer with expertise, time Friday, 26 February 2016 57
  58. 58. Choosing the Hardware for an E-commerce Site • Hardware platform: – Underlying computing equipment that system uses to achieve e-commerce functionality • Objective: – Enough platform capacity to meet peak demand without wasting money • Important to understand the different factors that affect speed, capacity, and scalability of a site Friday, 26 February 2016 58
  59. 59. Right-Sizing Your Hardware Platform: The Demand Side • Demand is the most important factor affecting speed of site • Factors in overall demand: – Number of simultaneous users in peak periods – Nature of customer requests (user profile) – Type of content (dynamic versus static Web pages) – Required security – Number of items in inventory – Number of page requests – Speed of legacy applications Friday, 26 February 2016 59
  60. 60. Friday, 26 February 2016 60
  61. 61. Right-Sizing Your Hardware Platform: The Supply Side • Scalability: – Ability of site to increase in size as demand warrants • Ways to scale hardware: – Vertically • Increase processing power of individual components – Horizontally • Employ multiple computers to share workload – Improve processing architecture Friday, 26 February 2016 61
  62. 62. Vertically Scaling a System Friday, 26 February 2016 62
  63. 63. Horizontally Scaling a System Friday, 26 February 2016 63
  64. 64. Friday, 26 February 2016 64
  65. 65. Friday, 26 February 2016 65
  66. 66. E-business strategy
  67. 67. What is strategy? • ‘Defines how we will meet our objectives’ • ‘Sets allocation of resources to meet goals’ • ‘Selects preferred strategic option to compete within a market’ • ‘Provides a long-term plan for the development of the organization’. Friday, 26 February 2016 67
  68. 68. Friday, 26 February 2016 68
  69. 69. Sell-Side E-Commerce Strategy • Sell-side e-commerce is a channel strategy • Objectives for online contribution percentage should drive our strategy • Our e-commerce strategy defines how we should – Hit our channel leads and sales targets • Acquisition, Conversion, Retention, Service, Profitability – Communicate benefits of using this channel – Prioritize products available through channel – Prioritize audiences targeted through channel – Select partners for this channel • Channel strategy thrives on differentials • BUT, need to manage channel integration. Friday, 26 February 2016 69
  70. 70. Buy-Side E-Commerce Strategy • Buy-side e-commerce strategy is about maximizing operational efficiencies while improving customer service quality • Operational efficiency KPIs should drive our strategy • Our buy-side e-commerce strategy defines how we should – Automate internal processes – Link internal resource management systems with external purchasing systems – Prioritize suppliers/partners collaborating using this channel – Prioritize applications for E-SCM – create a roadmap • Involves selection of appropriate strategic partners. Friday, 26 February 2016 70
  71. 71. Friday, 26 February 2016 71
  72. 72. What Happens Where There Is No E-Business Strategy? • Missed opportunities for additional sales on the sell-side and more efficient purchasing on the buy-side • Fall-behind competitors in delivering online services – may become difficult to catch-up, for example, Tesco, Dell • Poor customer experience from poorly integrated channels. Friday, 26 February 2016 72
  73. 73. A generic strategy process model Friday, 26 February 2016 73
  74. 74. Dynamic e-business strategy model Friday, 26 February 2016 74
  75. 75. Elements of strategic situation analysis for the e-business Friday, 26 February 2016 75
  76. 76. Using the Internet to support different growth strategies Friday, 26 February 2016 76
  77. 77. Matrix for evaluating e-business strategy alternatives Friday, 26 February 2016 77
  78. 78. Strategic options for a company in relation to the importance of the Internet as a channel Friday, 26 February 2016 78
  79. 79. Friday, 26 February 2016 79

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