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ASSESSMENT
Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 1
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 2
# Type Weightage
1 End Term 40 Marks
2 Assignment - 1 5 Marks
3 Assignment - 2 5...
Business Model and
Marketplace analysis for
e-commerce
Business Model
• Timmers (1999) defines a ‘business model’ as:
• An architecture for product, service and information flow...
Storefront Model
• The storefront combines transaction processing, security, online
payment and information storage to ena...
Auction Model
• Auction sites act as forums through which Internet users can log-on
and assume the role of either bidder o...
Auction Model
• As a bidder, you may search the site for availability of the item you are
seeking, view the current biddin...
Portal Model
• Portal sites give visitors the chance to find almost everything they are
looking for in one place.
• They o...
Dynamic Pricing Model
• The web has changed the way business is done and the way products
are priced.
• In the past, barga...
Name Your Price Model
• The name your price model empowers customers by allowing them to
choose their price for products a...
Comparison Pricing Model
• It allows the customer to poll a variety of merchants and find a desired
product or service at ...
Demand Sensitive Pricing Model
• The more people who buy a product in a single purchase, the lower
the cost-per-person bec...
Bartering Model
• Offering one item in exchange for another.
• The seller makes an initial offer with the intention of bar...
Offering Free Products and Service
• They offer their products for free on the web.
• Many of these sites also form partne...
Revenue Models
• In business, revenue typically consists of the total amount of money
received by the company for goods so...
Revenue Models
• Many online companies generate revenues from multiple income
streams such as
• advertising,
• subscriptio...
Advertising Revenue Model
• Fees are generated from advertisers in exchange for advertisements,
which is ultimately the cl...
Affiliate Revenue Model
• In exchange for bringing business to your affiliates, you receive a
commission, or a percentage ...
Licensing Revenue Model
• Assume you have created a product. Companies would pay you a
licensing fee for the right to mark...
Subscription Revenue Model
• Users are charged a periodic (daily, monthly or annual) fee to subscribe
to a service.
• Many...
Transaction Fee Revenue Model
• A company receives commissions based on volume for enabling or
executing transactions
• Th...
Sales Revenue Model
• Wholesalers and retailers of goods and services sell their products
online.
• The main benefits for ...
Analysis of
E-Commerce Industry in India
Friday, 05 February 2016 23
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
2012 2013 2014 2015(Est.) 2016(Est.) 2017(Est.)
Online travel sales volume in India fro...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
Overview of the industry
Domain wise
Market Penetration
Market Trends Market Potential
Competitive
Analysis
Value Chain
An...
E- Business Infrastructure
What Is the Internet?
• It is a worldwide telecommunications system that provides connectivity
to other smaller networks
•...
Friday, 05 February 2016 39Ajith Sundaram
How internet works : TCP/IP
• The Internet uses TCP/IP (developed by Vicent Cerf and Robert Kahn)
to handle network commun...
ISO OSI & TCP/IP
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 41
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
P...
Information exchange between a web browser and a web
server
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 42
Internet Standards
• Email related standards
– IMAP, POP, X.400, SMTP, CMC, MIME, binhex, uuencode
• Web related standards...
A five-layer model of e-business infrastructure
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 44
Key management issues of e-business infrastructure
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 45
Key management issues of e-business infrastructure
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 46
Physical and network infrastructure components of the
Internet
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 47
Fragmented applications infrastructure, Integrated
applications infrastructure
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 48
Fragmented applications infrastructure, Integrated
applications infrastructure
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 49
Differing use of applications at levels of management
within companies
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 50
Elements of e-business infrastructure that require
management
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 51
Impact of Internet
Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 52
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 53
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 54
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 55
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 56
Major Industry trends
• Consumer trends
• Service/process trends
• Organizational trends
• Enterprise technology trends
Fr...
Consumer Trends
• Speed of service
• Self-service
• Integrated solutions, not piecemeal products
Friday, 05 February 2016 ...
Service/Process Trends
• Convergence of sales & service: customization and integration
• Ease of use: make service consist...
Organizational Trends
• Contract manufacturing: becoming brand intensive, not capital
intensive
• Retain the core, outsour...
Enterprise Technology Trends
• Enterprise applications: Connect the corporation
• Infrastructure convergence: Increasing m...
Indian Scenario
Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 62
63
Online Travel
• India’s travel industry was pegged at over USD 2.8
Bn (Rs. 140 bn) by end of March 2010, comprising of
...
64
Online Matrimony
Online matrimony segment is driven by 2 main factors:
1) Arranged Marriages is still a norm in India
2...
65
Online Jobs
USD 0.5 bn (1000 cr market) Dominated by a
few big players such as:
Naukri.com – leader with over 10 millio...
66
Online Real Estate
Indiaproperty.com– maximum number of
unique visitors in FY 2010 (65 mn ) unique
visitors,150 mn page...
67
B2B biz Networks/Directories
Free and cost-effective online applications
are available for all typical business
process...
68
Online Retail Portals
Mark
Driven by India’s increasing internet and credit
card penetration. Provide a wider reach and...
69
Online books
Mark
Sachin Bansal,CEO FlipKart India:
Market size of whole of book industry in India is
estimated at 6000...
70
Online Gifts
Driven by India’s increasing internet and credit
card penetration. India’s corporate gifts market is
over ...
71
Online Shoes
India’s online footmarket is estimated to be
800 cr+ (Business world April 2009). Online
shoe selling cons...
72
Online Kids shopping
India’s online baby care is estimated to be
1000 cr+ (Business India Dec 2009). Online
segment con...
73
Payment Gateways
Problem area: Low credit card penetration, also
online payment is unreliable making ecommerce
difficul...
74
Customer Online Billing solutions
Problem area: Enable individuals/customers to
pay bills online.Top two players:
1) Bi...
75
mPayments
Problem area: PC and Internet on PC penetration in India is low
but mobile penetration is high. For mCommerce...
76
Challenges with order fulfillments: Logistics
Problem area: Order Fulfillment is an important
part of ecommerce Value c...
77
Ecommerce Software/Solution Providers
Many front-end ecommerce portals use
ecommerce solution/platform providers for th...
Project
Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 78
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 79
Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 80
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Pandora is the Internet’s most successful subscription radio service. As
o...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
At Pandora, users select a genre of music based on a favorite musician, and ...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Create a radio station on Pandora with Taylor Swift as the artist and you ...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Facing stiff odds, Pandora’s first business model was to give away 10
hour...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Facing financial collapse, in November 2005 Pandora introduced an ad-
supp...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• In 2008, Pandora added an iPhone app to allow users to sign up from
their ...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Still not giving up on its premium service, in late 2009, the company
laun...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Pandora is an example of the “freemium” business revenue model. The
model ...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• While it clearly has worked for Pandora, there is ongoing debate among e-
...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• In 2009, CEO Ben Chestnut decided that it was time to implement new
strate...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• In just over a year, MailChimp went from 85,000 to 450,000 users. E-mail
v...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Marc Andreessen, co-author of Mosaic, the first Web browser, and
founder o...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• In May 2010, Ning announced the impending end of the freemium model.
The c...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• So when does it make sense to include freemium in a business plan? It
make...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• For example, Evernote, a personal note-taking service, added freemium to
i...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• Companies also face challenges in terms of what products and/or
services t...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
• A freemium strategy makes sense for companies such as Pandora,
where there...
P a n d o r a
and the Freemium Business Model
1. Compare Pandora’s original business model with its current business
model...
Friday, 05 February 2016 99Ajith Sundaram
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  1. 1. ASSESSMENT Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 1
  2. 2. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 2 # Type Weightage 1 End Term 40 Marks 2 Assignment - 1 5 Marks 3 Assignment - 2 5 Marks 4 Mini Project 20 Marks 5 Presentation 10 Marks 6 Case Analysis -1 5 Marks 7 Case Analysis -2 5 Marks 8 Attendance 10 Marks Total 100 Marks
  3. 3. Business Model and Marketplace analysis for e-commerce
  4. 4. Business Model • Timmers (1999) defines a ‘business model’ as: • An architecture for product, service and information flows, including a description of the various business actors and their roles; and a description of the potential benefits for the various business actors; and a description of the sources of revenue. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 4
  5. 5. Storefront Model • The storefront combines transaction processing, security, online payment and information storage to enable merchants to sell their products on the Web. • This is a basic form of e-commerce where the buyer and the seller interact directly. • To conduct storefront e-commerce, merchants need to organize an online catalogue of products, take orders through their Web sites, accept payments in a secure environment, send merchandise to customers and manage customer data Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 5
  6. 6. Auction Model • Auction sites act as forums through which Internet users can log-on and assume the role of either bidder or seller. • As a seller, you are able to post an item you wish to sell, the minimum price you require to sell your item and a deadline to close the auction. • Some sites allow you to add features, such as a photograph or a description of the item’s condition. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 6
  7. 7. Auction Model • As a bidder, you may search the site for availability of the item you are seeking, view the current bidding activity and place a bid (bids are usually in designated increments). • Some sites allow you to submit a maximum bidding price and will continue bidding for you. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 7
  8. 8. Portal Model • Portal sites give visitors the chance to find almost everything they are looking for in one place. • They often offer news, sports and weather, as well as the ability to search the Web. • Search engines are horizontal portals, or portals that aggregate information on a broad range of topics. • Other portals are more specific, offering a great deal of information pertaining to a single area of interest these are called vertical portals. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 8
  9. 9. Dynamic Pricing Model • The web has changed the way business is done and the way products are priced. • In the past, bargain hunters had to search out deals by visiting numerous local retailers and wholesalers. Today it just few click away. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 9
  10. 10. Name Your Price Model • The name your price model empowers customers by allowing them to choose their price for products and services. • Many of the businesses that offer this services have formed partnerships with leaders of industries such as travel, lending and retail. • These industry leaders receive the customer’s desired price from the intermediary and decide whether or not to sell the product or service. • If the customer price is not reasonable then that customer can ask for another price. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 10
  11. 11. Comparison Pricing Model • It allows the customer to poll a variety of merchants and find a desired product or service at the lowest price. • These sites gets their revenue from the partnerships with particular merchants. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 11
  12. 12. Demand Sensitive Pricing Model • The more people who buy a product in a single purchase, the lower the cost-per-person becomes. • Selling products individually can be expensive because the vendor must price a product so that it covers selling and overhead cost while still generating a profit. • When customers buy in bulk, the cost is shared and the profit margin is increased. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 12
  13. 13. Bartering Model • Offering one item in exchange for another. • The seller makes an initial offer with the intention of bartering to reach a final agreement with the buyer. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 13
  14. 14. Offering Free Products and Service • They offer their products for free on the web. • Many of these sites also form partnership with companies to exchange products and services for advertisement space and vice versa. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 14
  15. 15. Revenue Models • In business, revenue typically consists of the total amount of money received by the company for goods sold or services provided during a certain time period. • Therefore, revenue models are a part of the business model. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 15
  16. 16. Revenue Models • Many online companies generate revenues from multiple income streams such as • advertising, • subscription, • affiliate marketing etc. • Online models not only sell goods or services • also contacts (e.g. banner) • information (e.g. user-data) Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 16
  17. 17. Advertising Revenue Model • Fees are generated from advertisers in exchange for advertisements, which is ultimately the classic principal among the revenue models besides sales Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 17
  18. 18. Affiliate Revenue Model • In exchange for bringing business to your affiliates, you receive a commission, or a percentage of the sales they make on that business. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 18
  19. 19. Licensing Revenue Model • Assume you have created a product. Companies would pay you a licensing fee for the right to market, copy, or use the product. • Licensing is the granting of permission to use intellectual property, such as music, photos, software programs, and inventions Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 19
  20. 20. Subscription Revenue Model • Users are charged a periodic (daily, monthly or annual) fee to subscribe to a service. • Many sites combine free content with premium membership Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 20
  21. 21. Transaction Fee Revenue Model • A company receives commissions based on volume for enabling or executing transactions • The revenue is generated through transaction fees by the customer paying a fee for a transaction to the operator of a platform. • The company is a market place operator providing the customer with a platform to place his transactions. • During this process the customer may be presented as a buyer as well as a seller. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 21
  22. 22. Sales Revenue Model • Wholesalers and retailers of goods and services sell their products online. • The main benefits for the customer are the convenience, time savings, fast information etc. • The prices are often more competitive. • In terms of online sales there are different models such as market places as common entry points for various products from multiple vendors Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 22
  23. 23. Analysis of E-Commerce Industry in India Friday, 05 February 2016 23
  24. 24. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis The e-commerce sector in India has grown by 34% since 2009 to touch 16.4 billion USD in 2014. The sector has 22 billion USD in 2015 $ 22 Bn 2015 $ 3.8 Bn 2009 Asia-Pacific emerged as the strongest business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce region in the world in 2013 • Sales of around 567.3 billion USD, a growth of 45% over 2012 • Ranked ahead of Europe (482.3 billion USD) and North America (452.4 billion USD). India’s internet penetration with total e-households at 46 million against China’s 207 million is one of the reasons behind India’s poor B2C sales growth. • The US, UK and China together account for 57% of the world’s total B2C e-commerce sales in 2013 with China having total sales of 328.4 billion USD. • As against this, India had sales of only 10.7 billion USD.
  25. 25. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 2012 2013 2014 2015(Est.) 2016(Est.) 2017(Est.) Online travel sales volume in India from 2012 to 2017 Source: eMarketer Series 1 Column1 Column2 Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis • Currently, e-Travel comprises 70% of the total e- commerce market. • It has been observed that online travel sales are maturing in most of the major economies. Same trend is observed in India as well.
  26. 26. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis By 2020, eTail in India is expected to account for 3% of total retail. orders per million are expected to more than double from five million in 2013 to 12 million by 2016 it is still miniscule compared to the figure in China, where the share is 8-10%.
  27. 27. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis By 2020, eTail in India is expected to account for 3% of total retail. orders per million are expected to more than double from five million in 2013 to 12 million by 2016 it is still miniscule compared to the figure in China, where the share is 8-10%.
  28. 28. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis • Different e-commerce companies follow different models for functioning. • Amazon India follows Online Marketplace model. • Amazon India has two fulfilment centers in Mumbai and Bangalore. • And it plans to start five new fulfilment centres across the country. Sources: ASSOCHAM India, PwC
  29. 29. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis M-Commerce There is a traffic to revenue gap on mobile e-commerce in India Sources: Accel estimates, Accel portfolio companies, CNNIC and other industry sources
  30. 30. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis Women Shoppers – A Growing Force • Working women segment grew 43% in 2013 and constitutes nearly 10% of Active internet users in India according to i-Cube & IAMAI • Categories like baby care, home décor, jewellery etc have traditionally been influenced by women decision makers. As more choice become available more women are shopping online. Sources: Accel estimates, Accel portfolio companies & comScore
  31. 31. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis • A significantly low (19%) but fast-growing internet population of 243 million in 2014 is an indicator of the sector’s huge growth potential in India. • It is evident that in absolute terms India’s internet users are short by only 36 million as compared with 279 million in the US. High Scope For Internet Penetration • In coming years, as internet presence increases in rural areas, rural India will yield more e-commerce business.
  32. 32. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis E-commerce Friendly States Top 3 e-commerce states • Delhi-NCR • Karnataka • Maharashtra Large states with very little ecommerce presence: • Bihar • Uttrakhand • Chhattisgarh Top 10 cities: 1. Delhi 2. Bangalore 3. Mumbai 4. Pune 5. Hyderabad 6. Chennai 7. Kolkata 8. Ahmedabad 9. Jaipur 10. Panaji Central & North-Eastern India appears to have low adoption of e-commerce Sources: Accel estimates, Accel portfolio companies, Google
  33. 33. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis Sources: Accel estimates, NSSO, Facebook Young India Will Become Dominant Presence In E-Commerce Young Indians (19-24yrs) are more comfortable with online services e.g. FB and thus could potentially add up to 40M new shoppers in next 3 years – if we just take the Facebook users
  34. 34. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis Major difference between various companies is the way they maintain their inventory, Whilst Flipkart follows the inventory led model, Amazon India and Snapdeal, the other two major players follow marketplace model. Flipkart (inventory-led model) • It started with a consignment model where goods were procured on demand • And turned into inventory e-retailer supported by registered suppliers • This provides better control on the logistics chain. • Manages a fine balance between inventory and cost of delivering goods. Amazon India (marketplace model) • Amazon started practicing the market place model by launching its site in early 2013 in India. • It started registering electronics goods sellers and ended FY 2013 offering nearly 15 million products. • Known for its strong last-mile delivery network • Amazon India has set up a logistics arm named Amazon Logistics and started offering same day delivery. Sources: ASSOCHAM India, PwC | Forbes India, Jun 24, 2014
  35. 35. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis Company Name Alexa Popularity Rank in India Flipkart.com 6 Amazon.in 8 Snapdeal.com 13 Quikr.com 17 Amazon.com 18 Jabong.com 21 Ebay.in 28 Paytm.com 30 Olx.in 37 Naukri.com 43 Alibaba.com 46 Shopclues.com 50 Myntra.com 52 Popularity Comparison of Various E- Commerce Websites in India Source : Alexa.com accessed on 28 Mar 2015 Top 10 Parameters The E-Commerce Companies In India Should Be Evaluated Upon Customer Experience Tax And Regulatory Environment Technological Advancements Operational Framework Convergence Of Online And Off Line Channels Customer Acquisition Delivery Experience Digital Infrastructure Payments And Transactions Addressable Markets
  36. 36. Overview of the industry Domain wise Market Penetration Market Trends Market Potential Competitive Analysis Value Chain Analysis E-products/Services Software Platform/Tech tools Payment integration Logistics & Fulfillments Customer Service and CRM Source: Emerald Insight Every e-commerce company has to evaluate itself on various parameters. These parameters are as diversified as of the conventional Value chain analysis on one hand. On the other hand it would also has to take care of some specialized instruments as depicted in the above diagram. Indian e-commerce industry is still in the inception to growth stage, so most of the companies make negative margins on each product that they sell. All companies are innovating on all the primary and support activities for their firm, to reduce their losses, but due to fierce competition, all major firms are still loss making.
  37. 37. E- Business Infrastructure
  38. 38. What Is the Internet? • It is a worldwide telecommunications system that provides connectivity to other smaller networks • Can be referred to as a network of networks • It allows users to communicate across distances and computer platforms • It never closes and anyone can access it any time from anywhere Friday, 05 February 2016 38Ajith Sundaram
  39. 39. Friday, 05 February 2016 39Ajith Sundaram
  40. 40. How internet works : TCP/IP • The Internet uses TCP/IP (developed by Vicent Cerf and Robert Kahn) to handle network communications between network nodes. • Transmission control protocol (TCP)- manages the movement of data between applications – Controls disassembly of message into packets at the origin – Reassembles at the destination • Internet Protocol (IP) -handles the movement of data between host computers – Specifies the addressing details for each packet • Each packet is labeled with its origin and destination Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 40
  41. 41. ISO OSI & TCP/IP Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 41 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Transport Internet Network Interface
  42. 42. Information exchange between a web browser and a web server Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 42
  43. 43. Internet Standards • Email related standards – IMAP, POP, X.400, SMTP, CMC, MIME, binhex, uuencode • Web related standards – http, CGI, html/xml/vrml/sgml • Internet directory standards – X.500, LDAP • Application standards – http, FTP, telnet, gopher, wais • Videoconferencing standards – H.320, H.323, Mpeg-1, Mpeg-2 Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 43
  44. 44. A five-layer model of e-business infrastructure Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 44
  45. 45. Key management issues of e-business infrastructure Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 45
  46. 46. Key management issues of e-business infrastructure Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 46
  47. 47. Physical and network infrastructure components of the Internet Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 47
  48. 48. Fragmented applications infrastructure, Integrated applications infrastructure Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 48
  49. 49. Fragmented applications infrastructure, Integrated applications infrastructure Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 49
  50. 50. Differing use of applications at levels of management within companies Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 50
  51. 51. Elements of e-business infrastructure that require management Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 51
  52. 52. Impact of Internet Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 52
  53. 53. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 53
  54. 54. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 54
  55. 55. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 55
  56. 56. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 56
  57. 57. Major Industry trends • Consumer trends • Service/process trends • Organizational trends • Enterprise technology trends Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 57
  58. 58. Consumer Trends • Speed of service • Self-service • Integrated solutions, not piecemeal products Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 58
  59. 59. Service/Process Trends • Convergence of sales & service: customization and integration • Ease of use: make service consistent and reliable • Flexible fulfilment and convenient service delivery: streamline your supply chain Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 59
  60. 60. Organizational Trends • Contract manufacturing: becoming brand intensive, not capital intensive • Retain the core, outsource the rest: Business process outsourcing • Increasing process transparency and visibility • Continuous innovation and employee retention Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 60
  61. 61. Enterprise Technology Trends • Enterprise applications: Connect the corporation • Infrastructure convergence: Increasing melding of voice, data and video • Multichannel integration: computer telephony integration and voice recognition • Wireless applications enter the mainstream • Leveraging legacy investment: The rise of middleware for systems integration Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 61
  62. 62. Indian Scenario Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 62
  63. 63. 63 Online Travel • India’s travel industry was pegged at over USD 2.8 Bn (Rs. 140 bn) by end of March 2010, comprising of Tour Operators, Railways, Hotels and other such entities. • The online travel industry size currently is about 25% amounting to USD 700 mn by year 2010. • Top 5 players: MakeMyTrip, Cleartrip, Yatra, Travelguru,IRCTC • The current growth rate of India’s online travel industry is 45%. The operating margins of most online travel operators are about 8-12%. Makemytrip had a successful IPO in July2010 • The current growth rate of India’s online travel industry is 45%. The operating margins of most online travel operators are about 8-12% • Growth is driven by Indian professionals traveling within India and abroad, Company Revenues Make My Trip US 83.56 mn Travel Guru US 4 mn ClearTrip US 9.6 mn Yatra US 15.6 mn IRCTC US 34mn
  64. 64. 64 Online Matrimony Online matrimony segment is driven by 2 main factors: 1) Arranged Marriages is still a norm in India 2) Online matrimony provides a much larger database of grooms/brides unlike local match makers. Dominated by 4 key players: 63 million by 2010-11( Empower research 2010) Shaadi.com – is the leader with maximum visitor traffic in FY 2010.Revenues (USD 18 mn) Jeevansathi.com – is second in terms of unique visitor traffic in the same year however, it is the leader in terms of page-views (133 million) as compared to Shaadi (75 million). (USD 14 mn) Bharatmatrimony.com – is number 3 in terms of unique visitors but it is also experiencing a decline in traffic like Shaadi.com (USD 10 mn) Indiamatrimony.com with over 1 million profiles is a significant player. (USD 4 mn) Simplymarry.com, LifepartnerIndia.com, Indiabestmatch.com, vivahabandhan.com, shubhlagan.in are some of the other upcoming sites. Company Revenues Shaadi.com 18 mn JeevanSathi .com 14mn Bharatmatri mony.com 10 mn Indiamatri mony.com 4mn
  65. 65. 65 Online Jobs USD 0.5 bn (1000 cr market) Dominated by a few big players such as: Naukri.com – leader with over 10 million unique visitors during FY 2008. Monster.com – 2nd website in terms of visitor traffic with around 6.5 million unique visitors in fiscal 2010. Timesjobs.com – fastest growing recorded a 40% jump in visitor traffic during FY 2010. Clickjobs.com- Fourth largest with 2 mn unique visitors Driven by: Strong growth in India’s Services sector, IT/ITES/ boom. (Naukri is part of infoedge, monster is not listed in India , Times jobs is part of Times of India group. Individual revenue numbers are not available directly)
  66. 66. 66 Online Real Estate Indiaproperty.com– maximum number of unique visitors in FY 2010 (65 mn ) unique visitors,150 mn page views 99acres.com – is number two in terms of visitor traffic but leads in terms of page- views. 58 mn unique visitors, 180 mn page views Magicbricks.com – 45 mn unique visitors,120 mn page views Makaan.com – 35 mn unique visitors,102 mn page views Driven by: Strong growth in India’s Services sector, IT/ITES/ boom, real estate boom in boom towns. (99acres is part of infoedge. )
  67. 67. 67 B2B biz Networks/Directories Free and cost-effective online applications are available for all typical business processes of SMEs. Revenue Model: Bulk Purchase orders and Product search listing. Registered with more than 40,000 product listings and 10,000 vendors Top 3 leading b2b networks are: • IndiaMART.com: Biggest B2B Market place. Comprehensive directory of all major B2B players with the contact details. • Tradeindia.com: Second largest B2B Market place. Registered with more than 25,000 product listings and 8,000 vendors • BizXchange.in: Third largest B2B Market place. Registered with more than 20,000 product listings and 6,000 vendors
  68. 68. 68 Online Retail Portals Mark Driven by India’s increasing internet and credit card penetration. Provide a wider reach and even cover tier2 and tier 3 cities. Primarily cater to professional working class and youth. Top 5 players are: IndiaPlaza: Revenues of US$ 12mn in 2010 ( to be confirmed). Claims to have the largest collection of books and gift items Infibeam: Launched India’s first ereader. Major source of revenue from books though they started out a shopping site across all categories Rediff Shopping: Overall rediff revenues in March 2010 USD 18.84 mn. Claim that 25% revenues come from shopping (to be verified) eGully India: Online retailer across all categories (launched in 2008). Revenues of 4 crores. Naaptol India: Online retailer across all categories (launched in 2007). Expected Revenues of 3.5 crores in 2010
  69. 69. 69 Online books Mark Sachin Bansal,CEO FlipKart India: Market size of whole of book industry in India is estimated at 6000 crores and is growing at a very quick pace. Market size for online book shopping in India is expected to be between Rs. 70 crore for 2010 and growing at a healthy rate 50-60% Year on Year ( to be verified). It is driven by growing middle class, better internet access and higher comfort of Indians with online shopping Top 5 players (Based on Alexa rankings) are: FlipKart: Aims to be Amazon of India. Posted revenue of Rs 5 crore in 2008-09 and its site attracts 5 million visitors a month. In 2009, they grew to 8 crores with 8.5-9 mn visitors. Bookshopindia: Claim to be second largerst book store. In 2009, they claim to post revenues of 3 crores with 4.5 mn visitors. IndiaPlaza: Largest shopping portal of India. Claim to have the biggest collection of books (8 lakh titles ) Indiatimes shopping: Largest information portal of India. Claim to get over 30% of total revenues by books (to be verified)
  70. 70. 70 Online Gifts Driven by India’s increasing internet and credit card penetration. India’s corporate gifts market is over US$ 1.2 billion with online gifting constituting 1% of overall share (Source: Business India news, Jan 2010) Top 5 players (Based on Alexa rankings) are: India Gifts Portal: Claim to have the largest market share (20%) of Corporate gifting market. Expected Revenues of over 20 crores in 2010 (to be confirmed) GiftsIndia.com: Expected revenues of 6-7 crores in 2010. claim to be the second largest player IndiaPlaza: Indiatimes shopping: Rediff Shopping:
  71. 71. 71 Online Shoes India’s online footmarket is estimated to be 800 cr+ (Business world April 2009). Online shoe selling constitutes only 1% of the total market. Driven by increasing internet and credit card penetration BigShoeBazaar: Claim to be Largest online authorized shoe store in South Asia. Claim Revenues of 8.5 crores in 2009 (to be confirmed) IndiFootwear: Claim Revenues of 4.5 crores in 2009 and seem to have highest number of unique visitors in their category (requires confirmation) Playgroundonline: Cater to sports and outdoor apparel market. Likely to do 1.3 crores this year
  72. 72. 72 Online Kids shopping India’s online baby care is estimated to be 1000 cr+ (Business India Dec 2009). Online segment constitutes less than 3% of the total market. Driven by increasing internet and credit card penetration BabyIndia: Claim to be fastest growing online babycare store in India. Expected revenues 4 crores 2010 (to be confirmed). Shopmania: Claim to derive largest share of revenues from baby care segment (40% ). Revenues for 2010: 2.8-3 crores KidStudtio: Expected revenues of 1.5 crores in 2010
  73. 73. 73 Payment Gateways Problem area: Low credit card penetration, also online payment is unreliable making ecommerce difficult. online fraud and account breaches are the biggest barriers to eCommerce. Online shoppers are apprehensive and unwilling to provide their credit card and bank details (Business world survey June 2008) Payment gateways provide a solution. Leading Payment gateways: CCAvenue: Biggest payment gateway provider in India. Revenues: 280 crores (March 2009).Tie-ups with all leading banks, 30,000 merchants. Part of Avenues group with multiple online business interests( Events, Online travel services EBS-Payments:online payments system offers payment options; credit cards, prepaid cards and online bank transfer. neonePay: Offer Pay Seal (from ICICI Bank) Axis Payment Gateway:
  74. 74. 74 Customer Online Billing solutions Problem area: Enable individuals/customers to pay bills online.Top two players: 1) BillDesk: Direct relationship model. One time. Authentication of credit card/debit card. Small Fee for every transaction. Investors: SIDBI ventures 2) Bill Junction (Tech Process Solutions Ltd):Use Electronic Clearing Services where the customer specifies the amount to be debited in his account for every bill generated. Flat Subscription fee for users. Even allow Enterprise and Corporate Bill payment. Investors : ICICI Ventures, GreyLock Ventures 3) Timesofmoney.com: Allow bill payment through credit card/debit card services. Service product: “DirectPay”. Subscription based model for users. 4) Easy2Pay: electronic bill presentation and payment (EBPP) service. It enables the user to view, store and pay the bills. It is India’s first real- time EBPP service provider that offers multiple bill payment modes. It only charges a one-time fee and no annual charges. It has some big Corporate firms as its clientele.
  75. 75. 75 mPayments Problem area: PC and Internet on PC penetration in India is low but mobile penetration is high. For mCommerce to succeed, mobile payments platform should be successful. Recent regulation by RBI : Leading Mobile payment providers: 1) mChek: Signed up with all leading telcos, banks, ticket providers, insurance companies. Enable bill payments, ticket purchases. One time credit card authentications setup. Investors: DFJ 2) Paymate: Like mChek, allows users to link mobile phone with a credit card, bank account. Tie ups with mobile phone operators, banks but smaller coverage 3) Obopay India: Part of Obopay group,California. Partnered with Nokia for mobile payment platform. Revenues less than $1mn. 4) ATOM Tech: Part of Financial Technologies India group. Providing a mobile app which includes a credit card on mobile. Any payment requires a password authentication.
  76. 76. 76 Challenges with order fulfillments: Logistics Problem area: Order Fulfillment is an important part of ecommerce Value chain. Most ecommerce providers use a combination of their own logistics teams and also tie-ups with leading local logistics. Based on Interviews, the following leading names in logistics names were revealed: 1. DTDC logistics (part of DHL ,all India presence) 2. Gati (Maharashtra, Karnataka) 3. BlueDart (part of DHL ,all India presence) 4. VRL Logistics (Karnataka) 5. Aramex logistics (Maharashtra, Karnataka) 6. Vichare courier( Maharashtra) Most of these provide tracking services for customers and people are willing to pay a premium for proper delivery.
  77. 77. 77 Ecommerce Software/Solution Providers Many front-end ecommerce portals use ecommerce solution/platform providers for their services. Advantage is that these eCommerce solution providers have proven expertise and the front-end companies do not have to re-invent the wheel in all areas. Company Expertise Verchaska Travel platform. Clients: cleartrip,eezego,eToursOnline Binary semantics Maruti Udyog Ltd, automartindia.com ProSolutions Software India Plaza, rediff-shopping, indiatimes eStoreGroup Merchant integration
  78. 78. Project Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 78
  79. 79. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model Friday, 05 February 2016Ajith Sundaram 79
  80. 80. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 80
  81. 81. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Pandora is the Internet’s most successful subscription radio service. As of June 2013, it had over 200 million registered users (140 million of which access the service via a mobile device) and over 70 million active listeners. Pandora now accounts for more than 70% of all Internet radio listening hours and a 7% share of total U.S. radio listening (both traditional and Internet). Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 81
  82. 82. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model At Pandora, users select a genre of music based on a favorite musician, and a computer algorithm puts together a personal radio station that plays not only the music of the selected artist but also closely related music by different artists. A team of professional musicians listens to new songs each day and classifies the music according to more than 400 musical criteria including male or female vocal, electric vs. acoustical guitar, distortion of instruments, presence of background vocals, strings, and various other instruments. These criteria are used in a computer algorithm to classify new songs into five genres: Pop/Rock, Hip-Hop/Electronica, Jazz, World Music, and Classical. Within each of these genres are hundreds of sub-genres. Like Taylor Swift? Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 82
  83. 83. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Create a radio station on Pandora with Taylor Swift as the artist and you can listen all day not only to some Taylor Swift tracks but also to musically related artists such as Carrie Underwood, Rascal Flatts, Anna Nalick, and others. • Pandora’s founders, Will Glaser and Tim Westergren, launched Pandora in 2005. Their biggest challenge was how to make a business out of a totally new kind of online radio station when competing online stations were making music available for free, many without advertising, and online subscription services were streaming music for a monthly fee and finding some advertising support as well. • Online music illegally downloaded from P2P networks for free was also a significant factor, as was iTunes, which by 2005 was a roaring success, charging 99 cents a song with no ad support, and 20 million users at that time. The idea of a “personal” radio station playing your kind of music was very new. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 83
  84. 84. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Facing stiff odds, Pandora’s first business model was to give away 10 hours of free access, and then ask subscribers to pay $36 a month for a year after they used up their free 10 hours. The result: 100,000 people listened to their 10 hours for free and then refused to use their credit cards to pay for the annual service. People loved Pandora but were unwilling to pay for it, or so it seemed in the early years. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 84
  85. 85. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Facing financial collapse, in November 2005 Pandora introduced an ad- supported option. Subscribers could listen to a maximum of 40 hours of music in a calendar month for free. After the 40 hours were used up, subscribers had three choices: (a) pay 99 cents for the rest of the month, (b) sign up for a premium service offering unlimited usage, or (c) do nothing. If they chose (c), the music would stop, but users could sign up again the next month. • The ad-supported business model was a risky move because Pandora had no ad server or accounting system, but it attracted so many users that in a few weeks they had a sufficient number of advertisers (including Apple) to pay for their infrastructure. In 2006, Pandora added a “Buy” button to each song being played and struck deals with Amazon, iTunes, and other online retail sites. Pandora now gets an affiliate fee for directing listeners to Amazon where users can buy the music. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 85
  86. 86. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • In 2008, Pandora added an iPhone app to allow users to sign up from their smartphones and listen all day if they wanted. This added 35,000 new users a day. By 2009, this “free” ad-supported model had attracted 20 million users. • All of Pandora’s plans come with restrictions required by the music companies that own the music, including the inability to hear a song on demand, no replay, and a skip limit of six skips per hour per station. • Also, the music cannot be used commercially or outside the United States. After struggling for years showing nothing but losses, threatened by the music companies who wanted to raise their Internet radio rates, Pandora finally had some breathing room. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 86
  87. 87. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Still not giving up on its premium service, in late 2009, the company launched Pandora One, a premium service that offered no advertising, higher quality streaming music, a desktop app, and fewer usage limits. The service cost $36 a year. By July 2010, Pandora had 600,000 subscribers to its premium service, about 1% of its then 60 million users. • Pandora reported $55 million in annual revenue for 2009 and $137 million for 2010. Pandora’s “new” business model proved so successful that it went public in June 2011. Revenues again doubled in 2011, to $274 million, and in 2012, to $427 million with about 88% ($375 million) coming from advertising and the remainder from subscriptions and other sources. However, Pandora has not yet shown a profit, and does face competition from services such as Spotify, which also is using the freemium strategy. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 87
  88. 88. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Pandora is an example of the “freemium” business revenue model. The model is based on giving away some services for free to 99% of the customers, and relying on the other 1% of the customers to pay for premium versions of the same service. • As Chris Anderson, author of Free: The Future of a Radical Price, has pointed out, since the marginal cost of digital products is typically close to zero, providing free product does not cost much, and potentially enables you to reach many more people, and if the market is very large, even getting just 1% of that market to purchase could be very lucrative. • There are many other examples of successful freemium model companies. For many traditional print media like newspapers and magazines, the freemium model may be their path to survival. But it won’t work for every online business. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 88
  89. 89. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • While it clearly has worked for Pandora, there is ongoing debate among e- commerce CEOs and venture capitalists about the effectiveness of the freemium model. The crux of the issue is that while freemium can be an efficient way to gather a large group of potential customers, companies have found that it’s a challenge to convert eyeballs into those willing to pay. Absent subscriber revenue, firms need to rely on advertising revenues. MailChimp’s story is both a success and a cautionary tale. The company lets anyone send e-mail newsletters to customers, manage subscriber lists, and track the performance of an e-mail marketing campaign. Despite the powerful tools it gives marketers, and its open applications programming interface, after 10 years in business, the company had only 85,000 paid subscribers. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 89
  90. 90. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • In 2009, CEO Ben Chestnut decided that it was time to implement new strategies to attract additional customers. MailChimp began giving away its basic tools and charging subscription fees for special features. • The concept was that as those customers’ e-mail lists grew, they would continue using MailChimp and be willing to pay for enhanced services. • These services included more than just the ability to send e-mails to a greater number of people. Clients would pay to use sophisticated analytics to help them target their e-marketing campaigns more efficiently and effectively. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 90
  91. 91. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • In just over a year, MailChimp went from 85,000 to 450,000 users. E-mail volume went from 200 million a month to around 700 million. Most importantly, the number of paying customers increased more than 150%, while profit increased more than 650%! Sounds great, but there was also a price to pay. • Although the company also saw a significant increase in abuse of its system, they developed an algorithm that has helped them to find and eliminate spammers using their service. • For MailChimp, freemium has been worth the price. It currently supports more than 3 million subscribers worldwide, sending 35 billion e-mails a year. However, Ning, a company that enables users to create their own social networks, tried freemium and came to a different conclusion. They abandoned it in July 2010. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 91
  92. 92. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Marc Andreessen, co-author of Mosaic, the first Web browser, and founder of Netscape, launched Ning in 2004. With his assistance, the company has raised $119 million in funding. Despite being the market’s leading social network infrastructure platform, Ning was having a common problem—converting eyeballs into paying customers. • While 13% of customers were paying for some premium services, the revenue was not enough. The more free users Ning acquired, the more it cost the company. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 92
  93. 93. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • In May 2010, Ning announced the impending end of the freemium model. The company shed staff, going from 167 to 98, and began using 100% of its resources to capture premium users. Since shifting to a three-tier paid subscription model, Ning has experienced explosive growth, increasing the number of paying customers from 17,000 to more than 100,000 and growing revenue by more than 500%. • By September 2011, Ning had more than 100 million registered user social profiles and its social networks reached more than 60 million monthly unique users. In December 2011, Ning was acquired by Glam Media, a leading social media company, for $200 million. In March 2013, Glam relaunched Ning as a personal blogging platform for brands and individuals to bring all of their social media followers together in one place. This version of Ning will attempt to intertwine content publishing with community. Glam intends to charge users a fee, rather than returning to a free or freemium strategy. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 93
  94. 94. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • So when does it make sense to include freemium in a business plan? It makes sense when the product is easy to use and has a very large potential audience, preferably in the millions. A solid customer value proposition is critical. It’s helpful if a large user network increases the perceived value of the product (i.e., a dating service). • Freemium may work when a company has good long-term customer retention rates and the product produces more value over time. An extremely important part of the equation is that the variable costs of providing the product or service to additional customers for free must be low. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 94
  95. 95. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • For example, Evernote, a personal note-taking service, added freemium to its business model and has since grown its user base to over 65 million, adding about 100,000 users a day. The company has over 1.4 million paying users. Evernote reportedly has a conversion rate of about 3.7%, which is considered to be quite high in the freemium business world. Evernote has also discovered that the longer a subscriber remains an active user, the more likely he or she is to convert to a premium subscription. • For instance, 12% of those who continue to use Evernote for at least two years become premium subscribers. Evernote currently is taking in about $75–$80 million in revenues and has raised over $250 million in funding, the most recent round of which has valued the company at $1 billion, clear proof that the freemium model can add tremendous value. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 95
  96. 96. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • Companies also face challenges in terms of what products and/or services to offer for free versus what to charge for (this may change over time), the cost of supporting free customers, and how to price premium services. • Further, it is difficult to predict attrition rates, which are highly variable at companies using freemium. So, while freemium can be a great way to get early users and to provide a company with a built-in pool for upgrades, it’s tough to determine how many users will be willing to pay and willing to stay. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 96
  97. 97. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model • A freemium strategy makes sense for companies such as Pandora, where there is a very low marginal cost, approaching zero, to support free users. It also makes sense for a company where the value to its potential customers depends on a large network, like Facebook. • Freemium also works when a business can be supported by the percentage of customers who are willing to pay, like Evernote and Pandora, especially when there are other revenues like affiliate and advertising fees that can make up for shortfalls in subscriber revenues. Freemium has also become the standard model for most apps, with over 75% of the top 100 apps in Apple's app store using a freemium strategy. Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 97
  98. 98. P a n d o r a and the Freemium Business Model 1. Compare Pandora’s original business model with its current business model. 2. What’s the difference between “free” and “freemium” revenue models? 3. What is the customer value proposition that Pandora offers? 4. Why did Mail Chimp ultimately succeed with a freemium model but Ning did not? 5. What’s the most important consideration when considering a freemium revenue model? Friday, 05 February 2016 Ajith Sundaram 98
  99. 99. Friday, 05 February 2016 99Ajith Sundaram

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