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  1. 1. E-Business & E-Commerce Management
  2. 2. The 10 Books Every eCommerce Professional Should Read Friday, 29 January 2016 2
  3. 3. Friday, 29 January 2016 3
  4. 4. Friday, 29 January 2016 4
  5. 5. Friday, 29 January 2016 5 Convert!: Designing Web Sites to increase Traffic and Conversion - Benjamin Hunt Don’t Make me Think - Steve Krug The Complete E-Commerce Book: Design, Build & Maintain a Successful Web-Based Business - Janice Reynolds Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective - Efraim Turban, Michael Chung, Jay Lee Return on Relationship - Ted Rubin and Kathryin Rose
  6. 6. Definition of Marketing • Philip Kotler • Social and Managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others. • This definition rests on the following core concepts: needs, wants, demands, products, value, cost and satisfaction, exchange and transactions, relationships and networks, markets, marketers and prospects. Friday, 29 January 2016 6
  7. 7. Definition (cont) • Needs – exist in biology they are not created by marketers – i.e. shelter, food, clothing, safety, belonging, esteem • Wants – Need food want hamburger, fries, coke. • Desire – Wants for specific products backed by an ability and willingness to buy them Friday, 29 January 2016 7
  8. 8. Definition of Commerce • The exchange of goods and services for money • Consists of: • Buyers - these are people with money who want to purchase a good or service. • Sellers - these are the people who offer goods and services to buyers. • Producers - these are the people who create the products and services that sellers offer to buyers. Friday, 29 January 2016 8
  9. 9. Elements of Commerce • You need a Product or service to sell • You need a Place from which to sell the products • You need to figure out a way to get people to come to your place. • You need a way to accept orders. • You also need a way to accept money. • You need a way to deliver the product or service, often known as fulfillment. • Sometimes customers do not like what they buy, so you need a way to accept returns. • You need a customer service and technical support department to assist customers with products. Friday, 29 January 2016 9
  10. 10. History of The Internet • Started as a US government project in 1969. • The purpose was to create a net that can function even if one center is destroyed in a military attack. • - “Hub and spokes” can be useless if the hub is destroyed. • - Network can continue to be functional even if some nodes are destroyed, as long as information can pass through other nodes. • Effective in 1971 with computers on both coasts of the US. Friday, 29 January 2016 10
  11. 11. In the 1980´s • Personal computers or terminals were connected to a server. • The server was a mainframe, or connected to a mainframe computer. • The mainframe was connected to another mainframe of the company in another location via dedicated lines. • Only large companies could afford the expense and investment in equipment. Friday, 29 January 2016 11
  12. 12. Today • Connections across countries and continents made through dedicated fast lines. • A company may have one local network (LAN) in NY, which is connected to the Internet through a Regional network. Friday, 29 January 2016 12
  13. 13. Computer classifications • Mainframes: • Midrange: • Micro-computer: Friday, 29 January 2016 13
  14. 14. Friday, 29 January 2016 14
  15. 15. What is a network • Series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths • Node is a connection point for transmitting data • Network can interconnect with other networks to form global networks Friday, 29 January 2016 15
  16. 16. Benefits of a network • Facilitates resource sharing • Provides reliability • Cost effective • Provide a powerful medium across geographical divide Friday, 29 January 2016 16
  17. 17. Different kinds of networks • Type of signal • Nature of connection • Types of physical links • Topology • Communication model • Geographical distance Friday, 29 January 2016 17
  18. 18. Geographical Distance • Local area network (LAN): small area, share a single server • Metropolitan area network (MAN): a wider network, can bridge several LAN’s • Wide area network (WAN): a broader area covered, can include several MAN’s • Internet: a network of networks that covers the entire globe Friday, 29 January 2016 18
  19. 19. TCP/IP Protocol • Allows any two computers to communicate and exchange data. • The Internet transfers data packets among computers. • Each packet is identified by the sender address and a receiver address. • The sender´s computer transfers the data packet to another computer on the Internet, which transfers it to a chain of other computers until it reaches the final destination. Friday, 29 January 2016 19
  20. 20. Internet addressing system • Internet uses TCP/IP, therefore every computer on the Internet has an IP address • IP address is numerical, separated by dots • Works with DNS: – com: for commercial purposes – net: for Internet Service Providers – org: for non-profit, non-commercial groups – gov: reserved for government – mil: reserved for military – int: reserved for international organizations Friday, 29 January 2016 20
  21. 21. Assimilation of Technology • Technology first adopted to increase efficiency – doing the same tasks faster e.g. word processing instead of typing • Technology next adopted to increase effectiveness – doing tasks not only faster but better e.g. spreadsheets transformed finance and accounting (as well as science and other fields) Friday, 29 January 2016 21
  22. 22. Introduction to E-commerce • E-Commerce, Web, Networks, Internet • The evolution of new businesses • The adoption of Brick and Mortar companies to the new economy • Market failures and economic explanations for the new economy Friday, 29 January 2016 22
  23. 23. Electronic Commerce • Activity of offering and contracting products and services via electronic ways, including all actuations which takes place before, while or after concluding the contract, such as • Distribution of catalogues • Delivery of commercial communications • Electronic payments • After-sale services (i.e. maintenance) Friday, 29 January 2016 23
  24. 24. Electronic Commerce • Every signed contract with: • offer and acceptance transmitted via electronic equipment, which itself is – used for data processing and storing and – connected to a telecommunication network. • The process of buying, selling, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks Friday, 29 January 2016 24
  25. 25. EC is defined through these perspectives • Communications • Commercial (trading) • Business process • Service • Learning • Collaborative • Community Friday, 29 January 2016 25
  26. 26. e-Business • A broader definition of EC that includes not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within an organization Friday, 29 January 2016 26
  27. 27. Pure Versus Partial EC • EC takes several forms depending on the degree of digitization (the transformation from physical to digital) – the product (service) sold, – the process, – the delivery agent (or intermediary) Friday, 29 January 2016 27
  28. 28. The Dimensions of Electronic Commerce Friday, 29 January 2016 28
  29. 29. EC organizations • Brick-and-Mortar organizations – Old-economy organizations (corporations) that perform most of their business off-line, selling physical products by means of physical agents • Virtual (pure-play) organizations – Organizations that conduct their business activities solely online • Click-and-Mortar (click-and-brick) organizations – Organizations that conduct some e-commerce activities, but do their primary business in the physical world Friday, 29 January 2016 29
  30. 30. Where EC is conducted • Electronic market (e-marketplace) – An online marketplace where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods, services, money, or information • Inter organizational information systems (IOSs) – Communications system that allows routine transaction processing and information flow between two or more organizations • Intra organizational information systems – Communication systems that enable e-commerce activities to go on within individual organizations Friday, 29 January 2016 30
  31. 31. The EC Framework, Classification, and Content • Networked computing is the infrastructure for EC, and it is rapidly emerging as the standard computing environment for business, home, and government applications – Networked computing connects multiple computers and other electronic devices located in several different locations by telecommunications networks, including wireless ones – Allows users to access information stored in several different physical locations and to communicate and collaborate with people separated by great geographic distances Friday, 29 January 2016 31
  32. 32. The EC Framework • Intranet – An internal corporate or government network that uses Internet tools, such as Web browsers, and Internet protocols • Extranet – A network that uses the Internet to link multiple intranets Friday, 29 January 2016 32
  33. 33. The EC Framework, Classification, and Content • An EC Framework—supports five policymaking support areas – People – Public policy – Marketing and advertisement – Support services – Business partnerships • Friday, 29 January 2016 33
  34. 34. Friday, 29 January 2016 34
  35. 35. E-commerce as the Networked Economy • Create value largely through gathering, synthesizing and distribution of information • Formulate strategies that make management of the enterprise and technology convergent • Compete in real time rather than in “cycle time” • Operate in a world characterized by low barriers to entry, near-zero variable costs of operation and shifting competition • Organize resources around the demand side rather than supply side • Manage better relationships with customers through technology Friday, 29 January 2016 35
  36. 36. E-commerce Today • The Internet is the perfect vehicle for e-commerce because of its open standards and structure. • No other methodology or technology has proven to work as well as the Internet for distributing information and bringing people together. • It’s cheap and relatively easy to use it as a medium for connecting customers, suppliers, and employees of a firm. • No other mechanism has been created that allow organizations to reach out to anyone and everyone like the Internet. Friday, 29 January 2016 36
  37. 37. E-commerce Today • The Internet allows big businesses to act like small ones and small businesses to act big. • The challenge to businesses is to make transactions not just cheaper and easier for themselves but also easier and more convenient for customers and suppliers. • It’s more than just posting a nice looking Web site with lots of cute animations and expecting customers and suppliers to figure it out • Web-based solutions must be easier to use and more convenient than traditional methods if a company hopes to attract and keep customers. Friday, 29 January 2016 37
  38. 38. Key Drivers of E-commerce • Technological – degree of advancement of telecommunications infrastructure • Political – role of government, creating legislation, funding and support • Social – IT skills, education and training of users • Economic – general wealth and commercial health of the nation Friday, 29 January 2016 38
  39. 39. Key Drivers of E-business • Organizational culture- attitudes to R&D, willingness to innovate and use technology • Commercial benefits- impact on financial performance of the firm • Skilled/committed workforce- willing and able to implement and use new technology • Requirements of customers/suppliers- in terms of product and service • Competition- stay ahead of or keep up with competitors Friday, 29 January 2016 39
  40. 40. Appeal of E-commerce • Lower transaction costs - if an e-commerce site is implemented well, the web can significantly lower both order-taking costs up front and customer service costs • Larger purchases per transaction - Amazon offers a feature that no normal store offers • Integration into the business cycle • People can shop in different ways. – The ability to build an order over several days – The ability to configure products and see actual prices – The ability to easily build complicated custom orders – The ability to compare prices between multiple vendors easily – The ability to search large catalogs easily • Larger catalogs • Improved customer interactions - company. Friday, 29 January 2016 40
  41. 41. Limitations of E-commerce • To organizations: lack of security, reliability, standards, changing technology, pressure to innovate, competition, old vs. new technology • To consumers: equipment costs, access costs, knowledge, lack of privacy for personal data, relationship replacement • To society: less human interaction, social division, reliance on technology, wasted resources, JIT manufacturing Friday, 29 January 2016 41
  42. 42. Technical limitations • There is a lack of universally accepted standards for quality, security, and reliability • The telecommunications bandwidth is insufficient • Software development tools are still evolving • There are difficulties in integrating the Internet and EC software with some existing (especially legacy) applications and databases. • Special Web servers in addition to the network servers are needed (added cost). • Internet accessibility is still expensive and/or inconvenient Friday, 29 January 2016 42
  43. 43. Benefits of E-commerce • To consumers: 24/7 access, more choices, price comparisons, improved delivery, competition • To organizations: International marketplace (global reach), cost savings, customization, reduced inventories, digitization of products/services • To society: flexible working practices, connects people, delivery of public services Friday, 29 January 2016 43
  44. 44. Benefits to Consumers Friday, 29 January 2016 44 Convenience Buying is easy and private Provides greater product access and selection Provides access to comparative information Buying is interactive and immediate
  45. 45. Benefits to Organizations Friday, 29 January 2016 45 Powerful tool for building customer relationships Can reduce costs Can increase speed and efficiency Offers greater flexibility in offers and programs Is a truly global medium
  46. 46. Benefits to Society Friday, 29 January 2016 46 More individuals can work from home Benefits less affluent people Third world countries gain access Facilitates delivery of public services
  47. 47. Seven Unique Features of E-commerce Technology and Their Significance • Is ubiquitous (available everywhere, all the time) • Offers global reach (across cultural/national boundaries) • Operates according to universal standards (lowers market entry for merchants and search costs for consumers) • Provides information richness (more powerful selling environment) • Is interactive (can simulate face-to-face experience, but on a global scale) • Increases information density (amount and quality of information available to all market participants) • Permits personalization/customization Friday, 29 January 2016 47
  48. 48. A simple stage model for buy-side and sell-side e- commerce Friday, 29 January 2016 48Ajith Sundaram
  49. 49. The environment in which e-business services are provided Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 49
  50. 50. Environment Constraints and Opportunities • Customers – which services are they offering via their web site that your organization could support them in? • Competitors – need to be benchmarked in order to review the online services they are offering – do they have a competitive advantage? • Intermediaries – are new or existing intermediaries offering products or services from your competitors while you are not represented? Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 50
  51. 51. Environment Constraints and Opportunities • Suppliers – are suppliers offering different methods of procurement to competitors that give them a competitive advantage? • Macro-environment • Society – what is the ethical and moral consensus on holding personal information? • Country specific, international legal – what are the local and global legal constraints, for example, on holding personal information, or taxation rules on sale of goods? Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 51
  52. 52. Environment Constraints and Opportunities • Country specific, international economic – what are the economic constraints of operating within a country or global constraints? • Technology – what new technologies are emerging by which to deliver online services such as interactive digital TV and mobile phone-based access? Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 52
  53. 53. An online marketplace map Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 53
  54. 54. Major Types of E-commerce • Business to Business. B2B • Business to Consumer. B2C • Business to Government. B2G • Consumer to Consumer. C2C • Customer to Business. C2C • Business to Employee. B2E Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 54
  55. 55. Business to Business. B2B • B2B is that model of e-commerce whereby a company conducts its trading and other commercial activity through the internet and the customer is another business itself. Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 55
  56. 56. Business to Consumer. B2C • Visiting the Virtual Mall • Customer Registers • Customer Buys Product • Merchant Processes the order • Credit/Debit card is processed • Operations Management • Shipment and Delivery • Customer Receives • After Sales Service Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 56
  57. 57. Business to Government. B2G • Professional affairs conducted between companies and regional, municipal or federal governing bodies. • Business to government typically encompasses the determination and evaluation of government agency needs, • the creation and submission of proposals and the completion of the contracted work Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 57
  58. 58. Consumer to Consumer. C2C • Customer sells directly to other customers via • online classified ads • auctions • selling personal services or expertise online. Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 58
  59. 59. Customer to Business. C2B • Consumer-to-business (C2B) is a business model where an end user or consumer makes a product or service that an organization uses to complete a business process or gain competitive advantage. Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 59
  60. 60. Business to Employee. B2E • Exchange of intra firm information with employees over the internet or an intranet. – term of employment, – benefits, – policies, – operation manuals, – company newsletter Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 60
  61. 61. B2B and B2C interactions between an organization Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 61
  62. 62. B2B and B2C Characteristics Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 62 Characteristic B2C B2B Proportion of adopters with access Low to medium High to very high Complexity of buying decisions Relatively simple – individual and influencers More complex – buying process involves users, specifiers, buyers, etc. Channel Relatively simple – direct or from retailer More complex, direct or via wholesaler, agent or distributor Purchasing characteristics Low value, high volume or high value, low volume. May be high involvement Similar volume/value. May be high involvement. Repeat orders (rebuys) more common Product characteristic Often standardized items Standardized items or bespoke for sale
  63. 63. Disintermediation of a consumer distribution channel Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 63 (a) the original situation, (b) disintermediation omitting the wholesaler, and (c) disintermediation omitting both wholesaler and retailer
  64. 64. From original situation (a) to disintermediation (b) and reintermediation (c) Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 64
  65. 65. Business Models Based on the Value Chain in the Market Place Friday, 29 January 2016 65 Raw material producer Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Consumer Exchange C2B B2C B2C C2CNew Middleman • Independent market operators Service Providers: • Logistics • Financial
  66. 66. IT Act 2000 • An Act to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as "electronic commerce", which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 66
  67. 67. Important Concepts of IT Act, 2000 • Electronic Record • Secure electronic Record • Digital Signature • Secure Digital Signature • Certifying authority • Digital signature certificate Friday, 29 January 2016 Ajith Sundaram 67
  68. 68. Friday, 29 January 2016 68
  69. 69. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven The Pirate Bay (TPB) is one of the world’s most popular pirated music and content sites, offering free access to millions of copyrighted songs and thousands of copyrighted Hollywood movies. It claims it is the world’s largest BitTorrent tracker. In June 2013, TPB reported that it had over 6 million registered users. It is in the top 500 Web sites in the world in terms of global traffic, with about 20% of the visitors coming from the United States. It even has a Facebook page and Twitter feed. Friday, 29 January 2016 69
  70. 70. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven This despite the fact that TPB has been subjected to repeated legal efforts to shut it down. In fact, the authorities pursuing TPB must feel as if they are engaged in a never-ending game of Whack-a-mole, as each time they “whack” TPB, it somehow manages to reappear. But the battle is far from over. The Internet is becoming a tough place for music and video pirates to make a living in part because of enforcement actions, but more importantly because of new mobile and wireless technologies that enable high-quality content to be streamed for just a small fee. Friday, 29 January 2016 70
  71. 71. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven TPB is part of a European social and political movement that opposes copyrighted content and demands that music, videos, TV shows, and other digital content be free and unrestricted. TPB does not operate a database of copyrighted content. Neither does it operate a network of computers owned by “members” who store the content, nor does it create, own, or distribute software (like BitTorrent and most other so-called P2P networks) that permit such networks to exist in the first place. Instead, TPB simply provides a search engine that responds to user queries for music tracks, or specific movie titles, and generates a list of search results that include P2P networks around the world where the titles can be found. By clicking on a selected link, users gain access to the copyrighted content, but only after downloading software and other files from that P2P network. Friday, 29 January 2016 71
  72. 72. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven TPB claims it is merely a search engine providing pointers to existing P2P networks that it does not itself control. It says that it cannot control what content users ultimately find on those P2P networks, and that it is no different from any other search engine, such as Google or Bing, which are not held responsible for the content found on sites listed in search results. From a broader standpoint, TPB’s founders also claim that copyright laws in general unjustly interfere with the free flow of information on the Internet, and that in any event, they were not violating Swedish copyright law, which they felt should be the only law that applied. And they further claimed they did not encourage, incite, or enable illegal downloading. Nevertheless, the defendants have never denied that theirs was a commercial enterprise. Despite all the talk calling for the free, unfettered spread of culture, TPB was a money-making operation from the beginning, designed to produce profits for its founders, with advertising as the primary source of revenue. Friday, 29 January 2016 72
  73. 73. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven However, the First Swedish Court in Stockholm declared TPB’s four founders guilty of violating Swedish copyright law, and sentenced each to one year in prison and payment of $3.5 million in restitution to the plaintiffs, all Swedish divisions of the major record firms (Warner Music, Sony, and EMI Group among them). The court found that the defendants had incited copyright infringement by providing a Web site with search functions, easy uploading and storage possibilities, and a tracker. The court also said that the four defendants had been aware of the fact that copyrighted material was shared with the help of their site and that the defendants were engaged in a commercial enterprise, the basis of which was encouraging visitors to violate the copyrights of owners. In fact, the primary purpose of TPB was to violate copyrights in order to make money for the owners (commercial intent). Friday, 29 January 2016 73
  74. 74. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven Meanwhile, the U.S. government pressured the Swedish government to strengthen its copyright laws to discourage rampant downloading. In Sweden, downloading music and videos from illegal sites was very popular, engaged in by 43% of the Swedish Internet population. To strengthen its laws, Sweden adopted the European Union convention on copyrights, which allows content owners to receive from Internet providers the names and addresses of people suspected of sharing pirated files. In France, participating in these pirate sites will result in banishment from the Internet for up to three years. As a result, Internet traffic in Sweden declined by 40%, and has stayed there. Friday, 29 January 2016 74
  75. 75. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven TPB has appealed the court judgment, has paid no fine, and its founders have, as yet, never spent a night in jail. TPB continues to operate much as before. Well, almost. In 2011, the firm moved its servers into caves in Sweden, and dispersed multiple copies of its program to other countries just in case Swedish police tried to confiscate its servers again. Since then, like the fight against the original Caribbean pirates of the seventeenth century, global forces continue to marshal against TPB. Not the British Navy this time, but a loose coalition of a number of European countries and the United States. The firm has been hounded by lawsuits, police raids, and confiscation of servers in France, Finland, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the U.K., and Greece. These countries have in some cases refused to allow Internet service providers in their countries to host TPB, or link to TPB, no matter where in the world its servers are located, although TPB has in some cases been able to circumvent this by frequently changing its IP address. In 2013, authorities shut down TPB’s top-level domains in Sweden, Greenland, and Iceland. For the time being at least, it has found a safe haven in the the Caribbean island Saint Maarten, a fitting location for a latter-day pirate organization. Friday, 29 January 2016 75
  76. 76. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven TPB has caused England, France, Malaysia, Finland, and most recently the United States to consider strong intellectual property protection laws that will prevent domestic search engines and ISPs from linking to infringing sites, or resolving their domain names. Meanwhile, the world’s largest advertising agency, GroupM, keelhauled TPB and 2,000 other sites worldwide in 2011 by putting the sites on its blacklist of copyright infringing sites where it will not buy advertising space. Pirating intellectual property is, above all, about the money, as any good pirate knows. Friday, 29 January 2016 76
  77. 77. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven The TPB case is just the latest in a saga of court cases involving the record industry, which wants to preserve its dominance of copyrighted music, and Internet users who want free music. In 2005, after several years of heated court battles, the case of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios v. Grokster, et al. finally reached the U.S. Supreme Court. In June 2005, the Court handed down its unanimous decision: Internet file-sharing services such as Grokster, StreamCast, BitTorrent, and Kazaa could be held liable for copyright infringement because they intentionally sought to induce, enable, and encourage users to share music that was owned by record companies. Indeed, it was their business model: steal the music, gather a huge audience, and monetize the audience by advertising or through subscription fees. Since the court ruling, Kazaa, Morpheus, Grokster, BearShare, iMesh, and many others have either gone out of business or settled with the record firms and converted themselves into legal file-sharing sites by entering into relationships with music industry firms. In May 2010, Mark Gorton, founder of the largest U.S. pirate site, LimeWire, lost a copyright infringement case. In May 2011, admitting his guilt (“I was wrong”), and having facilitated the mass piracy of billions of songs over a 10-year period, Gorton and his file-sharing company agreed to compensate the four largest record labels by paying them $105 million. Friday, 29 January 2016 77
  78. 78. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven These legal victories, and stronger government enforcement of copyright laws, have not proven to be the magic bullet that miraculously solves all the problems facing the music industry. The music industry has had to drastically change its business model and decisively move towards digital distribution platforms. They have made striking progress, and, for the first time, in 2011 sales of music in a purely digital format accounted for more revenue than sales of music in a physical format. To do so, the music industry employed a number of different business models and online delivery platforms, including Apple’s iTunes pay- per-download model, subscription models, streaming models and now music in the cloud. Friday, 29 January 2016 78
  79. 79. T h e P i r a t e B a y : Searching for a Safe Haven In each of these new media delivery platforms, the copyright owners—record companies, artists, and Hollywood studios—have struck licensing deals with the technology platform owners and distributors (Apple, Amazon, and Google). These new platforms offer a win-win solution. Consumers are benefitted by having near instant access to high-quality music tracks and videos without the hassle of P2P software downloads. Content owners get a growing revenue stream and protection for their copyrighted content. And the pirates? TPB and other pirate sites may not be able to compete with new and better ways to listen to music and view videos. Like the real pirates of the Caribbean, who are now just a footnote in history books, technology and consumer preference for ease of use may leave them behind. Friday, 29 January 2016 79
  80. 80. Questions • Why did TPB believe it was not violating copyright laws? What did the Swedish court rule? • How has TPB managed to continue operating despite being found in violation of copyright laws? • How has the music industry reacted to the problems created by pirates like TPB? Friday, 29 January 2016 80
  81. 81. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  82. 82. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  83. 83. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  84. 84. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  85. 85. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  86. 86. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  87. 87. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  88. 88. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  89. 89. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  90. 90. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites
  91. 91. Professional Looking e-Commerce Sites • What was common among them all….?? • How can they still be in market after such a huge competition….?? • As a customer how would you choose a ecommerce site to shop…?? • What feature of an ecommerce site would make you happy…?? • What makes you unhappy…?? • What are you afraid of when buying online…?? Friday, 29 January 2016 91
  92. 92. Friday, 29 January 2016 92

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