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  1. 1. Course Code : EM 505 Course Title : Institutional Management and Control Professor : Mario C. Pasion, Ed. D. Ffp Reporter : Cherrymay C. Molde GRADUATE STUDIES AND APPLIED RESEARCH Verbal/Written and Non-verbal Communication; Organizational Change and Work Motivation Republic of the Philippines LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY MAIN CAMPUS Sta. Cruz, Laguna
  2. 2. VER Communication What is communication?
  3. 3. Communication is the process of sending and receiv ing messages through verbal and nonverbal means includin g speech or oral communication, writing or written communi cation, signs, signals, and behavior.
  4. 4. What are the most common ways or methods on how we COMMUNIC ATE with people around us?
  5. 5. VERBAL COMMUNICATI ON According to Bovee and others, “Verb al communication is the expression of information through language which is composed of words and grammar.” According to Penrose and others, “Verbal communication consists of sharing thou ts thought the meaning of words.
  7. 7. ORAL COMMUNICATIO N  In oral communication, spoken words are used  It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet  Communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking
  8. 8.  It brings quick feedback  In a face-to-face conversation, by readin g facial expression and body language on e can guess whether he/she should trust what’s being said or not  More personal and informal.  Makes immediate impact.  Helps us correct our messages accor ding to the feedback and non-verbal cues from the listener
  9. 9.  A word once uttered can’t be taken back.  Impact may be short liv ed.  It can be forgotten easil y.  There is no legal evidence of or al communication.
  10. 10. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION  Written signs or symbols a re used to communicate  Can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo, etc.  Most common form of communication being use d in business
  11. 11.  Creates a permanent record  Allows you to store information for future reference  Easily distributed  All recipients receive the same information  Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organiz ation.  It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is usef ul where record maintenance is required.  Written communication is more precise and explicit.
  12. 12.  Effective written communicat ion develops and enhances an organization’s image  It provides ready records an d references  It assists in proper delegatio n of responsibilities  Necessary for legal and binding document ation
  13. 13.  Written communication does n ot save upon the costs.  If the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubt s, the response is not spontaneous.  Written communication is time-cons uming as the feedback is not immediate.  Poor writing skills and quality have a negative imp act on organization’s reputation.  Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involve d
  14. 14. Common Etiquettes in Written Communication Focus on format Structuring of the content The various formal writing forms have a pre-determined, universally accepted format that accompanies them. While writing one should ensure that the content is well organized, with the overview/basic details comprising the introduction Ensuring connectivity The content that comprises a piece of writing should reflect fluency and sh ould be connected through a logical flow of thought, in order to prevent misinterpre tation and catch the attention of the reader.
  15. 15. Steering clear of sho rt form People may not be aware of the meaning of various short forms and m ay thus find it difficult to interpret them. Importance of grammar, spelling an d punctuation Improper grammar, spelling and punctuation can at worst cause miscommunication and at least results in unwanted humor and should be thus avoided. Importance of crea tivity In order to hold the readers' attention one needs to be creative to break the tedium of writing and prevent monotony from creeping in.
  16. 16. Avoiding excessive use of jargon Excessive use of jargon can put off a reader.
  17. 17. Good writing features: Completenes s Correctness Credibility Clarity Conciseness Consideratio n Vitality
  18. 18. Types of Writing E-mails Letters and Memos Agendas Reports Promotional Material Academic Documents Research (scientific) manuscripts White Papers
  19. 19. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION “It is a communication that takes place through non-verbal cues: through such form of non-verbal communication as gesture, eye contact, facial expression, clothing and space; and through the non-verbal vocal communication known as Para-language.” “Non-verbal communication includ es any communication occurring with out the use of words.”
  20. 20. Forms of Non Verbal Communication Eye Conta ct Eye contact, a key characteristic of nonve rbal communication, expresses much without using a single word. Eye contact also establish the nature of a relationship. Facial Expressi ons Facial expressions are the key characteri stics of nonverbal communication. Your facial expression ca n communicate happiness, sadness, anger or fear.
  21. 21. Posture Posture and how you carry your self tells a lot about you. How you walk, sit, stand or hold your hea d not only indicates your current mood, but also your personality in general. Haptic or Touch Haptic communication is communicating by touch. Touch or Haptics is the characteristic of n onverbal communication and used when we come i nto physical
  22. 22. Gestures A gesture is a characteristic of nonverbal communication in which visible body actions communicat e particular message. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Personal space Personal space is your "bubble" - the spa ce you place between yourself and others. This invisibl e boundary becomes apparent only when someone b umps or tries to enter your bubble.
  23. 23. Non-verbal communication is any information that is communicated without using words. The important characteristics of non-verbal communication are as f ollows: No use of words Culturally determine d Different meaning Vague an d imprecise May conflict with verbal mes sage Largely unconscio us Shows feelin gs and attitudes Informality
  24. 24. Verbal V.S. Non Verbal Communication Although verbal communication is easier to understand , non-verbal communication is essential to understand n ot only a message, but more importantly, the feelings behi nd the message.
  25. 25. ORGANIZATIONAL CHAN GE Organizational Change refers to a modification or transformation of the organization’s structure, processes or goo ds. It is a change that has an impact on the way work is performed an d has significant effects on staff.
  26. 26. Organization Changes can be:  In the structure of an organiza tion  In the structure of an organizatio nal operation and size of a workfor ce  In working hours or practices  In the way roles are carried o ut  In the scope of a role that resu lts in a change in the working situat ion, structure, terms and conditi ons or environment
  27. 27. TYPES OF CHANGES Planned Chan ge It is change resulting from a delibera te decision to alter the organization. It i s an intentional, goal – oriented activ ity. Unplanned Chang e It is imposed on the organization and is often unforeseen.
  28. 28. Forces for Change in Organization External Force s Internal Force s  Technological change  Globalization  Social & Political changes  Workforce diversity  Changes in manageri al personnel  Declining effectivenes s  Changes in work clim ate  Deficiencies in existin g system  Crisis
  29. 29. CHANGE AGENT Change Agent is anyone who has the skill and power to sti mulate, facilitate, and coordinate the change effort. Roles of Change Agent Consulting Training Research
  30. 30. Skills of Change Age nt: Empathy Empathy leads to improved communic ation and understanding between the c hange agent and organization members. Linkage This refers to the extent to which the ch ange agent and organization members are tied together in collaborative activities. Proximity This refers to the physical and psycholo gical closeness of the change agent an d organization members.
  31. 31. Structuring This factor refers to the ability of the change age nt and organization members to clearly plan and organize their activities concerning the change ef fort. Openness This characteristic refers to the degree to which t he change agent and organization members are willi ng to hear, respond to, and be influenced by one ano ther. Reward This refers to the nature and variety of potential positive outcomes of the change effort that might accrue to the change agent and organization mem bers.
  32. 32. Resistance to Cha nge Individual Resistance Individual sources of resistance to change reside in basic human characteristics such as percepti ons, personalities & needs. Reasons of Individual Resista nce Economic Reason–The economic rea son of resistance to change usually foc us on:  Fear of technological unemployment.  Fear of demotion & thus reduced pay .  Fear of reduced work hours & consequently less pay. Fear of Loss- When a change is impend ing, some employees may fear losing their jo bs, status particularly when an advanced technology is introduce Security – people with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threat ens their feeling of safety.
  33. 33. Status quo- change may po se disturbance to the existin g comforts of status quo. Peer Pressure- individual employees may be prepared to accept change but refuse to acce pt it for the sake of the group. Social Displacement- introduction of change often results in disturbance of the existing social relationships. Cha nge may also result in breaking up of work groups. Disruption of Interpersonal Rela tion- employees may resist change that threatens to limit meaningful interpersonal relationships on the j ob.
  34. 34. Organizational Resistance Individual sources of resistance to change reside in basic huma n characteristics such as percepti ons, personalities & needs. Reasons of Organizational Resista nce Resource constraint- resources are major constraints for many organizatio ns. The necessary financial, material & human resources may not be available to the organization to make the needed cha nges. Structural inertia – some organizatio nal structures have in-built mechanism for resistance to change. Politics- Organizational changes ma y also shift the existing balance of pow er in an organization.
  35. 35. Managing Resistance to Ch ange Education & Communication Participation Empathy & Support Negotiation Manipulation & Cooptation Coercion
  36. 36. WORK MOTIVATION Work Motivation refers to the human drive to work in order to gain rewards from that wo rk, whether those rewards be physical, emotional, social or monetary.
  37. 37. Why do you work ? If you work or study because of mon ey, a degree or good grades you ar e extrinsically motivated. You are not working at a job because you get a great feeling of personal satisfaction from it or because it makes you feel good about yourself (that you are a good person), but rather to gain some kind of reward. If you are working at a job becaus e you get a great feeling of personal satisfaction from it, and you are tryi ng to perform the behavior for its own sake (not for money), and then you are intrinsically motivated.
  38. 38. While what people want from work is situational, depending on the person, his ne eds and the rewards that are meaningful to him, giving people what they want from work i s really quite straight forward. People want: Control of their work inspires motiva tion -including such components as the ability to have an impact on de cisions; -setting clear and measurable goals; -clear responsibility for a complete, or at least defined, task; -job enrichment; -tasks performed in the work itself; and -recognition for achievement To belong to the in-crowd creates motiv ation -including items such as receiving timely information and communicatio n; -understanding management's formulas for decision making; -team and meeting participation opportunities; and -visual documentation and posting of work progress and accomplishme nts
  39. 39. The opportunity for growth and development is motivatio nal -includes education and training; career paths; -team participation; -succession planning; -cross-training; and -field trips to successful workplaces Leadership is the key in motiva tion People want clear expectations that provide a picture of the outco mes desired with goal setting and feedback and an appropriate str ucture or framework.
  40. 40. References: • Richard Nordquist, https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-nonverbal- communication-1691351 •What is verbal communication and non-verbal communication?Copyri ght © 2013 - 2017 by The Business Communication •Work Motivation, AlleyDog.com. https://www.alleydog.com/glossary/ definition.php?term=Work%20Motivation
  41. 41. THANK YOU!