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Final ppt on mushroom


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Final ppt on mushroom

  1. 1. Organic Mushroom Cultivation Presented by AJAY PATIDAR Assistant Professor
  2. 2. What Are Mushrooms ?  The mushroom is a fruiting body of microorganisms called fungi.  To propagate, it forms a mycelium initates growth stage, generating spores in the gills for dispersal.  As mushrooms lack chlorophyll, they don’t photosynthesize (process energy from sunlight) like green plants.  Mushrooms themselves are tasty, popular to eat and a beneficial source of nutrients for people.
  3. 3. Much of Asia’s environment is suitable for cultivating many different types of mushrooms. In addition, the low costs associated with growing mushrooms helps farmers get started and make relatively quick and good financial returns, positively contributing to the country’s economy.
  4. 4. Mushrooms play a significant role in forest ecology, as they help decompose dead plants and animals, including dead trees, branches, leaves, fruits, seeds and animal droppings on the ground.
  5. 5. Mushrooms Varieties and their Values There are more than 30,000 identified types of mushrooms worldwide. 99% of these are safely edible and roughly 1% is poisonous. Yet there are still many undiscovered mushroom species and the effects of some mushrooms on human health remain unknown
  6. 6. A wide assortment of mushrooms is eaten around the world. Champignon and Field Mushrooms are popular in Europe. Shitake Mushrooms are consumed mostly in China and Japan, while Thai people prefer Yanagi Mushrooms or Straw Mushrooms.
  7. 7. Some mushrooms have medicinal qualities and their popularity is rising too. Nowadays, almost every country devotes more attention to research, experimentation, selection and development of mushrooms.
  8. 8. Nutritional Benefits Mushrooms are very popular in many countries and often considered to be as nutritious as meat.  India, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Thailand have the highest global export rates of mushrooms. Scientific research has shown that mushrooms contain many kinds of carbohydrates, proteins and fat, B-complex vitamins , important minerals ,
  9. 9. Anatomy of Mushroom
  10. 10. Types of Mushrooms
  11. 11. Continued………
  12. 12. Key environmental factors to consider for mushroom cultivation  Temperature:- Straw Mushrooms grow well at 38-40 degree Celsius, which is the best temperature for producing spores. Fibers grow well at 35-38 degree Celsius while caps grow at 30 degree Celsius. If it is too hot, mushroom caps will be small and open faster than usual.  Light – Even though light is necessary for the growth and assembly of fibers and in order to produce mushroom caps, it is not essential for the mushrooms’ growth. On the contrary, light darkens the mushrooms’ color, unlike growing them in the dark (which whitens them).
  13. 13. Cont………  pH Levels – The pH level is important for the growth of mushrooms. Straw mushrooms are neutral or a little acidic. If there is too much acid, bacteria will not grow and they will be less able to digest molecules. A suitable pH level for straw mushrooms and other mushrooms is between 5 and 8.  Oxygen – In every stage of mushroom growth oxygen is needed, especially when the caps are coming out and after they have bloomed. If there is too much carbon dioxide in the mushroom bed, fibers will grow slower or stop growing, the mushrooms will grow abnormally and their skin will be affected.
  14. 14. Continued……..
  15. 15. Key steps in mushroom production The key generic steps in mushroom production – a cycle that takes between one to three months from start to finish depending on species – are:  identifying and cleaning a dedicated room or building in which temperature, moisture and sanitary conditions can be controlled to grow mushrooms in choosing a growing medium and storing the raw ingredients in a clean place under cover and protected from rain;
  16. 16. • pasteurising or sterilizing the medium and bags in which, or tables on which, mushrooms will be grown (to exclude other fungi that would compete for the same space – once the selected fungi has colonized the substrate it can fight off the competition).
  17. 17.  seeding the beds with spawn (spores from mature mushrooms grown on sterile media);  maintaining optimal temperature, moisture, hygiene and other conditions for mycelium growth and fruiting, which is the most challenging step; adding water to the substrate to raise the moisture content since it helps ensure efficient sterilization;  harvesting and eating, or processing, packaging and selling the mushrooms; • cleaning the facility and beginning again.
  18. 18. Mushroom cultivation Technique
  19. 19. Mushroom Culturing
  20. 20. GANODERMA LUCIDUM THE KING OF HERBS  Ganoderma Lucidum (Red Reishi ) “Bright Shining skin”. Reishi began to be mass produced in the 70’s.
  21. 21. 100% CERTIFIED ORGANIC
  22. 22. Ganoderma Health Benefits •
  23. 23. Submerged Fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum The advantage of submerged fermentation over traditional basidiocarp cultivation is the reduction in the time spent to obtain the product of interest. The production of basidiocarp takes at least 3 to 5 months, while reasonable amounts of ganoderic acid and polysaccharides can be obtained by submerged fermentation after only 2 to 3 weeks.
  24. 24. Specific Effects Of Reishi Effect on Tumor  Liver Protection & Detoxification  Effect on Cardiovascular Effect on Hypertension Treatment of Diabetes
  25. 25. Effect on Hepatitis B It was also discovered that extract of G. lucidum could probably augment the rate of toxin transformation and subsequent bile excretion, thereby acting as a liver detoxicant and protectant.
  26. 26. Effect on Hypertension Effect on Hypertension G. lucidum is also effective in lowering hypertensive blood pressure. This is due to the presence of lanostane derivatives especially ganoderic acids B, D, F, H, K, S and Y which exert their hypotensive activities.
  27. 27. Effect on Wound Healing  Patients with diabetic wounds were healed between 15 to 22 days. This might be due to the glucan from the cell walls of G. lucidum that could activate the fibroblast migration in order to achieve wound healing and tissue proliferation.
  28. 28. Effect on Tumor  Effect on Tumor Poor performance of Immune System is main cause of Tumor. Reishi can best regulate and activate the immune system and increase self defense capability against tumor.  It becomes one of the most effective medicines for anti-tumor, prevent cancer, and supplement to cancer treatment. Reishi possesses hardly any toxic to human body. This unique feature of enhancing immunity without toxigenicity is the definite advantage of Reishi over any other immune system intensifier.
  29. 29. Liver Protection & Detoxification  Liver Protection & Detoxification Reishi protect the liver from damaged by various physiological and biological factors.  It is also suitable for treating chronic hepatitis, effectively eliminating the related symptoms as dizzy, fatigue, and so on. It can be used to treat chronic toxicosis, the various kinds of chronic hepatitis, and other hepatic diseases.
  30. 30. Effect on Cardiovascular  Effect on Cardiovascular Clinical studies and experiments with animals confirm that Reishi can effectively dilate coronary artery, increase coronary vessel blood flow, and improve circulation in cardiac muscle capillaries, thus increase the supply of oxygen and energy to cardiac muscle.  Therefore Reishi helps to protect the heart from shortage of blood supply, and it is ideal for both curing and preventing heart diseases like nausea.  Reishi can reduce the level of blood cholesterol, liporotein and triglycerides in hypertensive patient All these effects contribute to preventing various kinds of stroke.
  31. 31. Treatment of Diabetes The constitutes in Ganoderma lucidum that reduce blood glucose are Ganoderma B and C. The principle is by enhancing utilization of blood glucose by body tissues. Ganoderma lucidum serves as a substitute to insulin to inhibit release of fatty acids. It thus improves symptoms in high blood glucose and high urine glucose patients. Blood glucose will be reduced from 173 to 116, cholesterol from 233 to 179, beat-protein from 580 to 465.