What is NORM ?
- Refers to the rules, standard,
or patterns that every member
of the community is expected
3. Norms emanate from different
sources or origins: they may come
from a religious belief or an enacted
law. Most norms are supported by
reason, almost are considered moral
while some have scientific
4. if a person fails to act in accordance with
the norms imposed to him / her by the
community to where he/she belongs then
this person will receive penal sanctions or
rejections from the people.
This non – observance of rules, standards,
or patterns is termed as “DEVIANCE”.
NOTE:DEVIANCE IS RELATIVE IN NATURE.
When a certain individual fails to act according to the norms
and expectations of society he/she is referred to as
- Violation of social norms.
- Any behavior , belief or condition that violates significant
norms in a society or group.
- It is somewhat “positive”
7. CONSEQUENCES OF DEVIANCE
- It teaches people what acceptable social behavior is.
- Strengthens group norms and values
- It is a sign and a source of social change.
- It harms group stability
- It induces distrust and ill will
- It drains human and economic resources
- It weakens people’s faith in and conformity to social norms.
8. DEVIANCE AS RELATIVE
• Deviance is relative in nature. It depends upon the
• Deviance relies on how people interpret social
• To some people, a behavior is deviant; to others is
• Judgement as to whether an act is deviant or not it
depends on various factors like culture, situation,
place, time and the doer of the act.
10. THEORITICAL EXPLANATION OF DEVIANCE
A.STRUCTURAL – FUNCTIONAL VIEW
- People deviate from given social norms because of the rapid
social change that are taking place. Thus, the norms of
society become unclear and are no longer applicable to
- Emile Durkheim called this situation as “ANOMIE”, or a
breakdown of social norms.
- Other structural – functional theorist argue that without
some amount of deviance, society could not exist at all.
11. B. SOCIAL STRAIN THEORY
• Introduced by Robert Merton, each society has a
primary set of values and goals with corresponding
means of achieving them.
• SOCIAL STRAIN – the gap between the desired goals
and the means people use in order to achieve them.
• Maintains that people react to the gap between the
set of values prescribed by the society and their own
circumstances through innovations, retreatism,
rebellion, and ritualism.
12. C. SYMBOLIC – INTERACTIONISM THEORY
• Deviance is a product of a specific face – to – face
interaction and not a direct product of social structure.
FOUR SUB – THEORIES
• Differential Association Theory – “the more contact a
person with people who commit deviant acts, the more
likely that person is to engage in deviant activities”
• Self – esteem theory – people choose deviance or
conformity depending on which will do the most to enhance
their self – esteem.
13. • Control Theory – develop by Travis Hirschi, suggested that
deviance arises from particular social arrangements, specifically
the inability of society to control adequately the activities of its
-four types of social control
• Labeling theory – deviance is a result of being labeled by society.
- Howard Becker
14. D. CONFLICTING THEORY
• Social inequality is the root of numerous social problems such as
deviance and crime.
• Macionis (2007) cited three ways of explaining the social conflict
theory of deviance.
• First, it is the interest of those in charge, the rich and powerful,
which are reflected in any society’s laws and norms.
• Second, the ruling class has enough power to keep themselves from
being labeled as deviant.
• Third, there is a widespread belief that all laws and norms are good
15. FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE
1.Deviance promotes social unity.
2.It affirms cultural values and norms.
3.It clarifies moral boundaries.
4.It encourages social change.
5.It provides jobs for people.
6.It provides a safety valve for society
16. DYSFUNCTION OF DEVIANCE
1.Deviance is a source of harm, injuries, and deaths.
2.It endangers social norms.
3.It is expensive (a need to secure the services of
policemen, lawyers, psychologist, etc.)
4.It creates disorder in the society.
5.Deviance may lead to another deviant act.
17. SOCIAL PROBLEMS
• Refers to a problem that affects human relations,
threatens the continuation of a civilized society or
hinders significant aspirations of many people.
• As a situation affecting a significant number of people
that is believed by them and/or by a significant number
of others in the society to be a source of difficulty or
• It is a problem that seriously threatens society or
impedes the important aspiration of many people.
19. FORMS OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
– relates to the subjective effects of
drugs on the individual.
- repeated misuse of drugs.
- the persistently or sporadically excessive
drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to
acceptable medical practice.
20. CLASSIFICATIONS OF DRUGS
1. Sedatives (depressant drugs) – these are drugs that exert
calming effects on the nervous system.
2. Stimulants (uppers or pep pills) – these drugs increase the
alertness and physical disposition of the individual.
3. Hallucinogens or “psychedelics” – these are drugs capable
of provoking changes of sensation, thinking, self – awareness,
4. Narcotics – these are drugs that relieve pain and make one
drowsy and relaxed.
21. CAUSES OF DRUG ABUSE
3.Escape from reality
4.Self – medication
5.To feel high or to get a thrilling experience or
7.Low self – esteem
22. COMMON SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE
1.Changes in behavioral patterns
2.Changes in appearance
3.Changes in mood
23. ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
1. Establish close and harmonious family relationship.
2. Government should promote the physical well – being of the youth by initiating
various sports programs of the gross – roots or community level.
3. Government should launch a massive campaign through the use of various media.
4. The barangay council should establish an anti – drug abuse committee to monitor
the activities of the members of the community.
5. The national legislature must enact a laws that will limit the access of citizens to
prohibited drugs and other paraphernalia.
6. Educational institutions must constantly monitor the behavior of students and
report immediately to proper authorities suspected users of illegal drugs.
7. The church must also do its share by constantly reminding members about the
sanctity of human body.
One form of deviance, specifically behavior that violates
certain criminal laws
Two divisions of crime
1.Misdemeanor. A crime of lesser degree that typically
involves punishment by paying a fine rendering community
service or getting imprisoned for not more than one year.
2.Felony. A serious crime such as killing ,overthrowing the
government, destroying other people’s property, abusing
minors, etc. in which a grave penalty is imposed ranging
from more than a year of imprisonment to death penalty.
26. CAUSES OF CRIME
1.Unemployment forces many individuals to engage in illegal
and immoral acts in order to provide for living.
2.Crimes like theft are committed due to poverty.
3.Crimes are committed due to behavioral disorders like
kleptomania and pedophilia.
4.Crimes are committed by people who want to remain in power
(politics) or protect their financial interests (businessman)
5.Crimes are a product of uncontrollable or involuntary behavior
caused by excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages or
addiction to drugs.
27. 6. Crimes may arise from concupiscence (passion); too much infatuation
sometimes leads to tragic death.
7. Crimes may be a product of individual ignorance (abandoning someone who is
in danger is punishable under our penal code).
8. Crimes are sometimes caused by individual/group advocacy, political beliefs, or
9. Crimes may be a result of an individual desire to gain profit using illegal means
like prostitution, illegal recruitment, etc.
10. Crimes may be a product of one’s failure to take precautionary measures,
observe proper diligence and prudence that result in the death of another person
or in the destruction of property
28. ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
• Strengthen family relationships
• Coordinate the efforts of the police and the community, and
enhance their cooperation.
• Foster the relationship between the church and the family.
• Weed out the misfits and scalawags in our law-enforcement
• Completely ban smut magazines and other pornographic
• Restrict violent films and sex movies
Prostitution is the act of submitting one’s self in sexual relations in exchange
for money or other valuables. It is the practice of submitting to sexual relation
usually sexual intercourse, for pay. It is then, a type of sexual deviation through
indiscriminate provision of sexual services for money.
Humphrey (in Rosales 1983) says that the typical prostitute is a girl who is not
conscience-stricken in the area of sexual deviation and who has entered into
such occupation as a means of improving her economic status.
According to Rosales (1983), women in industry are considered as an
economic commodity and sexual merchandise, which bring it in profit.
There are also males who are engaged in prostitution.
It was observed that most of the clients of the so-called ‘call boys’ are
homosexual males and rich matrons
32. EFFECTS OF PROSTITUTION
1.Prostitution causes the spread of various venereal diseases including
2.Prostitution leads to moral degradation and deviation to the norms
that most communities protect and cherish
3.It takes away the initiative, creativity, and perseverance of the
people in searching for a decent means of livelihood.
4.Prostitution promotes exploitation of children, uneducated, poor,
and the unemployed.
5.Prostitution promotes illicit sexual relationship and destroys
33. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME
- it is undeniably a dreaded disease.
- a viral disease that destroys the human body cells that
resist infection, living the individual vulnerable to
- it is caused by human immunodeficiency syndrome
virus (HIV), which cripples the immune system.
ORIGIN OF AIDS
34. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AIDS
1.Avoid promiscuous relationships.
2.Know more about the personality of your partner.
3.Stay away from illegal drugs that lead to addiction and possible infection
with the HIV/ AIDS viruses through sharing needles.
4.Make sure the donated blood comes from a healthy source and is safe
5.Learn all the possible ways of avoiding HIV/AIDS and share this
knowledge with other people.
6.Maintain healthy living, submit yourself to a regular check – up.
7.Report to the proper authorities anybody who is infected with the AIDS
35. SOCIAL CONTROL
- Simply means the attempt by the
society to regulate people’s
thought and behavior (Macionis,
36. TYPES OF SOCIAL CONTROL
1.Internal social control – is a process of internalizing the norms and
standards of a given society and recognizing them as ideal and
2.External social control – is an effort to rectify or reform people who
violate norms through a system of reward and punishment.
3.Informal social control – is an interpersonal action between and
among people in response to a good or bad behavior.
4.Formal social control – is a means to ensure observance of laws
using the agents of the government like the police, courts, or social
37. TYPES OF SOCIAL CONTROL
1.Informal social control – is a self – restraint exercise because
of fear of an individual of what others might think.
2.Formal social control – when society becomes more
complex, formal social control is needed to maintain order
among the members.
TWO MAIN TYPES OF FORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL
a.Those instituted by agencies other than the estate
b.Those imposed by the political state.
38. SOME MECHANISMS USED TO ENCOURAGE
2.The tendency to level an individual who is out
3.Indirect method of criticism or gossip
4.Curbing of anti – social attitudes by making a
person painfully aware of his/her shortcomings.