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Articles.pdf

  1. 1. Articles Prepared by: Asst. Lect. Osama W. Al-Safar Lect. Dr. Mohanad A. Waad Fourth Stage
  2. 2. What is an article? Article can be taken as one of the (determiners) or a subclass of the determiners which determines nouns. There are two articles in English, the definite article (the) e.g. the book, and the indefinite articles (a, an) e.g. a book, an eye. Determiners are words placed before nouns to clarify what the noun refers to. They specify the range of reference of a noun e.g. by making it definite (the book) or indefinite (a book). Sometimes nouns require no article at all when we talk about things in general. This is called the ‘zero article’ e.g. Petrol is expensive, Cats are beautiful animals.
  3. 3. Definite Article Types of Articles Indefinite Article A An The Zero Article
  4. 4. 1. Zero Article Kinds of Articles ZERO Article is used with: Names of People: Mary, Bill, Josef Known Places: Jupiter, Russia, Bangkok, Heathrow Airport, Cambridge University, Waterloo Station. Streets: Oxford Street, Wall Street Languages: English, Russian, Arabic Academic subjects: History, Law, Physics Days, months: Monday, November
  5. 5. 1. Zero Article Kinds of Articles Games and Sports football, chess Meals breakfast, lunch, dinner Noun + Number platform 3, room 7, page 44 Routine Places in bed, at home, to school, to work Movement or Transport on foot, by car, by bus, by air Newspaper Headlines, Notices, User Guides Plane Crashes on House, Keep Area Clean, Insert battery
  6. 6. 2. Definite Article (The) Kinds of Articles The definite article (The) is used to refer to any A. particular person, place or thing. B. It is used before a noun to indicate that the identity of the noun is known to the reader. C. It appears before singular or plural nouns and before countable and uncountable nouns. For example: The book The books The water, the sugar
  7. 7. 2. Definite Article (The) For instance, your friend asks you, “Are you ready for the party?” The definite article here is referring to a particular event that you and your friend are talking about. You both know about that specific party, that’s why you need to use THE.
  8. 8. D. It is also used to refer to objects that are matchless. For example: The sun, The moon, The sky, The earth. E. It is used before nouns that are mentioned for the second time. e.g. I live in a small town. The town is near a large city. 2. Definite Article (The)
  9. 9. F. It is used with decades, centuries and historic periods as they are a form of matchless reference. For example: The 1960s, The 1970s, The middle ages, The 19th century. G. It is used with ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) and sequence words (such as next and last) that precede a noun. It is also used before (same). e.g. This is the third time you have been late. e.g. The same problem. 2. Definite Article (The)
  10. 10. We do not use the definite article (The) before proper nouns, like names of people, months, countries, cities or days of the week. The Ali The May The Iraq The Mosul The Friday 2. Definite Article (The)
  11. 11. 3. Indefinite Articles (A, An) A. The indefinite articles (A, An) are used to refer to one singular countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time. They are not used with plural and uncountable nouns. e.g. I live in a small town. E.g. a towns e.g. I saw an elephant. E.g. a sugar
  12. 12. Please note that it is the pronunciation, not the spelling of the words, that determines the choice of the indefinite articles (A or An). Use A before nouns that begin with a consonant sound. A book, A uniform, A European country, A union Use An before nouns that begin with a vowel sound. An elephant, An apple, An umbrella, An hour, An honest man. 3. Indefinite Articles (A, An)
  13. 13. B. The indefinite article (An) is used with abbreviations that begin with consonant letter but their pronunciation begins with a vowel. For example: An M.A. student An M.Sc. But A Ph.D. However, if the abbreviation is known and matchless, the definite article (The) should be used. For example: The FBI, The UNESCO, The BBC, The UN. 3. Indefinite Articles (A, An)
  14. 14. C. The indefinite articles (A, An) are used with a noun complement. e.g. she is an anesthesiologist. e.g. It was an earthquake. D. Indefinite articles are used with expressions of price, speed, time, and ratio. e.g. 1000 dinars a kilo e.g. 60 kilometers an hour e.g. once a week e.g. 2000 a month e.g. 5 times a year 3. Indefinite Articles (A, An)
  15. 15. E. The indefinite articles (A, An) are used in an exclamatory sentence before a noun or an adjective. e.g. What a nice day! e.g. What a beautiful flower! e.g. What an idea! F. The indefinite articles (A, An) are used with certain expressions of quantity. For example: A lot of, A dozen, A million, A great deal of, A quarter, A couple of. 3. Indefinite Articles (A, An)
  16. 16. Word part of speech Meaning / Definition Example Blood pressure noun the rate at which blood flows through the body (high/low) High blood pressure puts you at risk of having a heart attack. Brace noun a device that holds injured body parts in place You will probably always have to wear a brace on your ankle when you jog. Caesarean section, C-section noun It is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mother's abdomen. The baby was so large that we had to perform a Caesarean section. Chickenpox noun a virus commonly contracted by children, characterized by itchy spots all over the body It is best to get chickenpox as a child so that you don't get it worse as an adult. Coroner noun a person who determines the cause of death after a person dies We only call the coroner if we think a death is suspicious. Terminology
  17. 17. Word part of speech Meaning / Definition Example Critical condition noun A condition that requires immediate and constant medical attention You can't see her right now; she's in critical condition. Crutches noun objects that people with injured legs or feet use to help them walk I'd rather hop on one foot than use crutches. Deficiency noun a lack of something necessary for one's health The tests show that you have an iron deficiency. Dehydrated adj having lost a large amount of water from the body. It is easy for the elderly to become dehydrated in this heat. Dementia noun loss of cognitive functioning — thinking, remembering, and reasoning — to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities. It is hard to watch a loved one suffering with dementia. Terminology

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