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LEAN STRATEGIES FOR
IT SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS
Scrum Gathering 2011
Seattle
Roger Brown
CSC, CST Moonrise Consulting, San Jo...
CAN IT SERVICES BE AGILE?
2
LEAN PRINCIPLES
3
Minimize the time from order to cash
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
Flow
4.
Establish
Pull
5. Seek
Pe...
IDENTIFY VALUE
Specify value from the
standpoint of the end customer
by product family.
2. Map
the
Value
Stream
3.
Create
...
SOURCES OF VALUE FOR ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS
$ Useful functionality
$ High system reliability
$ Quick system
response
$ High qu...
MAP THE VALUE STREAM
Identify all the steps in the value
stream for each product family,
eliminating whenever possible
tho...
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT VALUE STREAM
Scrum practitioners have foc...
EXPANDING THE VALUE STREAM
Where does the
Product Vision
come from?
Scrum
Where does the
Product go after
delivery?
Produc...
DEVOPS
Done, done, done
Development Operations
Release
and
Deploy
COMPLETING THE VALUE STREAM
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Su...
Product
WHAT IS SUPPORT?
What is a Service?
 Activities, not tangibles
 Produced and consumed at the same
time
 Custome...
WHAT LEAN PRACTICES HAS YOUR ORG TRIED?
Lean Production Practices Often Applied to Services:
• Reduce average activity tim...
THE NEW PERSPECTIVE
Treat Service as a system
and focus on capacity and capability
to achieve flow.
Economies of Scale
Eco...
FINDING FLOW
Make the value-creating steps occur
in tight sequence so the product
will flow smoothly toward the
customer.
...
USER DEMAND
Story
Story
Story
Defect
Story
Refactor
Story
Defect
Story
Where does it
come from?
VALUE DEMAND
Value Demand is the work that originates in
product discovery and improvement.
FAILURE DEMAND
Failure Demand is the work that originates
in product mistakes, mishaps and
misunderstanding.
THE LEAN NO-BRAINERS
18
We know about these from our Agile experience:
- Small batches
- Single piece flow
- Limit Work In...
DECENTRALIZED CONTROL
ABOUT VARIABILITY
In general, it is better to reduce the economic consequences of
variability than to try to reduce variab...
ESTABLISH PULL
As flow is introduced, let customers
pull value from the next upstream
activity.
Note: customer is the next...
PULL
22
Push systems overwhelm capacity,
creating turbulence, waste and delay
Pull systems have a steady flow that
provide...
Normal Urgent Process Improvement
WI Types:
Design
WIP=2
Test
WIP = 3 Done
Develop
WIP=4
(Prioritized
Backlog)
Doing DoneD...
KANBAN
WIP Limits
Visual
Management
Self
Assignment
Prioritization
Incremental Improvement
CADENCE
Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3
Decomposition
Scrum for development Lean for operations
SEEK PERFECTION
As value is specified, value streams
are identified, wasted steps are
removed, and flow and pull are
intro...
ABOUT PERFECTION
Perfection is never actually
achieved. The notion of perfection
is itself subject to a process of
continu...
REDUCING WASTE
Manufacturing Enterprise System Support
Inventory Stale support requests, planned process improvements,
unr...
LEAN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Valuable
Product
Usable
Knowledge
Demming
Cycle
• Patterns
• Institutional knowledge
• Know...
FASTER FEEDBACK
Demming Cycle
EXISTING FEEDBACK LOOPS TO IMPROVE
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Opera...
NEW FEEDBACK LOOPS TO ADD
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
Supp...
INCREASE CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT
Product
Discovery
Product
Definition
Product
Development
Product
Delivery
Product
Operation
...
AGILE ENTERPRISE MANIFESTO
We are uncovering better ways of developing enterprise business
services by doing it and helpin...
REFERENCES
Anderson, D. J. (2010). Kanban:
Successful Evolutionary Change for
Your Technology Business. Sequim,
WA: Blue H...
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Lean Strategies for IT Support Organizations

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This was presented by Roger Brown and Peter Green at the Seattle Scrum Gathering on 5/17/11. Slides have been annotated with some discussion notes to provide additional context.

Publicada em: Tecnologia, Negócios
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Lean Strategies for IT Support Organizations

  1. 1. LEAN STRATEGIES FOR IT SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS Scrum Gathering 2011 Seattle Roger Brown CSC, CST Moonrise Consulting, San Jose, CA Peter Green Agile Coach and Trainer, Adobe Systems, Inc. With assistance from Jonathan Snyder, Adobe Systems, Inc.
  2. 2. CAN IT SERVICES BE AGILE? 2
  3. 3. LEAN PRINCIPLES 3 Minimize the time from order to cash 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to achieve - lean.org
  4. 4. IDENTIFY VALUE Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  5. 5. SOURCES OF VALUE FOR ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS $ Useful functionality $ High system reliability $ Quick system response $ High quality $ Ease of use $ Good support
  6. 6. MAP THE VALUE STREAM Identify all the steps in the value stream for each product family, eliminating whenever possible those steps that do not create value. 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  7. 7. Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT VALUE STREAM Scrum practitioners have focused on these activities Product Backlog Creation and Release Planning Development and Testing during Sprints Frequent Releases to Production Sprints ? ?
  8. 8. EXPANDING THE VALUE STREAM Where does the Product Vision come from? Scrum Where does the Product go after delivery? Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Innovation Games Pragmatic Marketing Customer Development DevOps Who is missing? Leading edge Agile approaches Mainstream
  9. 9. DEVOPS Done, done, done Development Operations Release and Deploy
  10. 10. COMPLETING THE VALUE STREAM Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Support is the interface to the customer Now we can start thinking about optimizing the entire value stream Bleeding edge for Agile Enterprises What Lean/Agile opportunities an we find?
  11. 11. Product WHAT IS SUPPORT? What is a Service?  Activities, not tangibles  Produced and consumed at the same time  Customer is a co-producer  Utility + Warranty Service
  12. 12. WHAT LEAN PRACTICES HAS YOUR ORG TRIED? Lean Production Practices Often Applied to Services: • Reduce average activity time (stop watches!) • Heavy specialization (silos!) • Resource Management (offshoring!) • Stepwise forwarding (your incident record has 10 entries • Standardization (support scripts!) Focus is on activity and cost. Customers are frustrated. Workers are de-motivated.
  13. 13. THE NEW PERSPECTIVE Treat Service as a system and focus on capacity and capability to achieve flow. Economies of Scale Economies of Flow
  14. 14. FINDING FLOW Make the value-creating steps occur in tight sequence so the product will flow smoothly toward the customer. 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  15. 15. USER DEMAND Story Story Story Defect Story Refactor Story Defect Story Where does it come from?
  16. 16. VALUE DEMAND Value Demand is the work that originates in product discovery and improvement.
  17. 17. FAILURE DEMAND Failure Demand is the work that originates in product mistakes, mishaps and misunderstanding.
  18. 18. THE LEAN NO-BRAINERS 18 We know about these from our Agile experience: - Small batches - Single piece flow - Limit Work In Progress
  19. 19. DECENTRALIZED CONTROL
  20. 20. ABOUT VARIABILITY In general, it is better to reduce the economic consequences of variability than to try to reduce variability. - Reinertsen Manufacturing Development Support Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit Story Story Story Story Story Story Ticket Ticket Ticket Ticket Ticket
  21. 21. ESTABLISH PULL As flow is introduced, let customers pull value from the next upstream activity. Note: customer is the next downstream process, not just end 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  22. 22. PULL 22 Push systems overwhelm capacity, creating turbulence, waste and delay Pull systems have a steady flow that provides predictability Push ♫
  23. 23. Normal Urgent Process Improvement WI Types: Design WIP=2 Test WIP = 3 Done Develop WIP=4 (Prioritized Backlog) Doing DoneDoing Done Bottleneck Station Workflow WIP Limi t WIP Limi t WIP Limi t SIMPLE SOFTWARE KANBAN BOARD To Do 23 KANBAN
  24. 24. KANBAN WIP Limits Visual Management Self Assignment Prioritization Incremental Improvement
  25. 25. CADENCE Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Decomposition Scrum for development Lean for operations
  26. 26. SEEK PERFECTION As value is specified, value streams are identified, wasted steps are removed, and flow and pull are introduced, begin the process again and continue it until a state of perfection is reached in which 2. Map the Value Stream 3. Create Flow 4. Establish Pull 5. Seek Perfectio n 1. Identify Value
  27. 27. ABOUT PERFECTION Perfection is never actually achieved. The notion of perfection is itself subject to a process of continuous improvement. - Jonathan Snyder When does our process reach perfection?
  28. 28. REDUCING WASTE Manufacturing Enterprise System Support Inventory Stale support requests, planned process improvements, unreleased fixes Extra processing Heavy process steps, meetings, work assignments, manual reporting Overproduction Standardization of responses, speculative process changes Transportation Task switching, issue triage, offshoring, issue forwarding Waiting Specialist bottlenecks, batch fixes for a hot patch, reproducing environments and configurations, queue escalations Motion Emergency fixes, handoffs due to specialization, log in to multiple systems to test or research Defects Lost knowledge, mis-applied fixes, out-of-date scripts, Addressing systems instead of root causes, bugs The Seven Deadly Wastes
  29. 29. LEAN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT GOALS Valuable Product Usable Knowledge Demming Cycle • Patterns • Institutional knowledge • Knowledge sharing • Learning Organization
  30. 30. FASTER FEEDBACK Demming Cycle
  31. 31. EXISTING FEEDBACK LOOPS TO IMPROVE Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Help Desk Reliability Configuration Performance Compliance Bugs Release Frequency
  32. 32. NEW FEEDBACK LOOPS TO ADD Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Learning Support viewpoint, tools Low value features Inefficient features Supportability features Feature ideas from customers Usability issues Wrong features Missing features Customer desires Emerging problems Help Desk
  33. 33. INCREASE CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT Product Discovery Product Definition Product Development Product Delivery Product Operation Support Focus Groups Customer Representatives Customer Validation
  34. 34. AGILE ENTERPRISE MANIFESTO We are uncovering better ways of developing enterprise business services by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Incentives for quality and value over time and cost Agile organization over agile project methodology Knowledge management over tribal memory Economies of flow over economies of scale That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. - A work in progress by Jonathan Snyder, Sr. Manager, IT Application Support, Adobe Systems, Inc.
  35. 35. REFERENCES Anderson, D. J. (2010). Kanban: Successful Evolutionary Change for Your Technology Business. Sequim, WA: Blue Hole Press. Beck, K., & al., e. (2001). Manifesto for Agile Software Development. Retrieved from agilemanifesto.org: http://agilemanifesto.org/ Bell, S. C., & Orzen, M. A. (2011). Lean IT: Enabling and Sustaining Your Lean Transformation. New York: Productivity Press. Grönroos, C. (2007). Service Management and Marketing: Customer Management in Service Competition, 3rd Edition. Hoboken: J. Wiley. Humble, J., & Farley, D. (2010). Continuous Delivery: Reliable software releases through build, test, and deployment automation. Boston: 35 Reinertsen, Donald G. (2009). The Principles of Product Development Flow: Second Generation Lean Product Development. Redondo Beach, CA: Celeritas Publishing. Seddon, J., & O’Donovan, B. (2009). Rethinking Lean Service. http://www.systemsthinking.co.uk/6- brendan-jul09.asp Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1993). Lean Thinking. New York: Free Press. Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Macmillian Publishing Company.

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