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The cold war

  1. 1. THE COLD WAR
  2. 2. THE WORLD DIVIDED 1945-1975
  5. 5. 1968, the Prague Spring DISSIDENCE IN THE EASTERN BLOC
  6. 6.  It was the period of constant tension between the end of WWII (1945) and the end os USSR (1991).  After WWII, USA and USSR carried out a diplomatic conflict called: COLD WAR. THE COLD WAR
  7. 7. CONSTANT TENSION Each superpower aimed to demonstrate and increase its own power. Each superpower aimed to limit or reduce the influence of the other. THE COLD WAR
  8. 8. However, both the Americans and the Soviets wanted to avoid a direct military confrontation, since this could lead to nuclear war. THE COLD WAR
  10. 10. 1946: Churchill denounced in a famous speech that "from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, has fallen on the continent (Europe) an iron curtain." PRELUDE OF THE COLD WAR
  11. 11.  Iron curtain:  It described the increasing influence of the USSR on the Eastern Europe.  It confirmed that the understanding between the Allies was breaking. PRELUDE OF THE COLD WAR
  12. 12.  The Civil War in Greece Communist and monarchics fight for the power in the government. Truman decided to support the Greek monarchics in order to avoid the Communists to seize power. Policy of containment or doctrine Truman:  Truman decided to support the anti-communist in every part of the world. PRELUDE OF THE COLD WAR
  13. 13.  USA and USSR reinforced their spheres of influence: PRELUDE OF THE COLD WAR USA 1947: Marshall Plan  Program of economic support to restore the European economy.  USSR obliged Eastern Europe to reject it. USSR 1947:Kominform  Organisation to coordinate the support to the Communist parties all over the world.
  14. 14. INITIAL CONFLICTS (1948-1962
  15. 15. In this context, USA and USSR participated indirectly in political and military conflicts between other countries. The 1948 Berlin Blockade The Korean War 1950-1953 The 1956 Suez Crisis The building of the Berlin Wall The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis INITIAL CONFLICTS 1948-1962
  16. 16.  Just three years after the end of WWII, the first conflict of the Cold War took place: the crisis of Berlin. THE 1948 BERLIN BLOCKADE The Allies unify their zones of occupation, USSR blockades Western Berlin…
  17. 17. THE 1948 BERLIN BLOCKADE The Western Allies aid their sector in Berlin by air.
  18. 18. THE 1948 BERLIN BLOCKADE Planes weren´t attacked by the Soviets because they were afraid of a nuclear response by USA…
  19. 19. THE 1948 BERLIN BLOCKADE Federal Republic of Germany (known as West Germany) German Democratic Republic (Known as East Germany or the GDR) Berlin remained divided into eastern and western zones Two new countries appeared: FRG (capitalist) and RDA (communist).
  20. 20.  After the defeat of Japan, Korea had been divided in a northern communist zone and a southern capitalist zone.  In 1950 North Korea, supported by USSR and China, invaded South Korea.  The U.N. condemned the invasion and approved the intervention of USA. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953
  21. 21. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953
  22. 22.  The conflict ended with the division of the two countries along the 38th parallel. In 1953 the peace was signed and the borders of 1950 were maintained. THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953
  23. 23. THE 1956 SUEZ CRISIS • Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal, which had been controlled by France and Great Britain. • Nasser was supported by the USSR. French and British troops were sent to Egypt, but the USA did not support this operation so the troops were withdrawn.
  24. 24. There were great differences between the Western and the Eastern Berlin: Western Berlin was richer and had a political regime of freedom. Reaction: people in Eastern Berlin migrated to Western Berlin. THE BUILDING OF THE BERLIN WALL (1961)
  25. 25. The Communist authorities of the GDR decided to separate their sector of the western zone of the city in order to stop the emigration: 1961, 13th August: the wall was built, dividing Berlin and the Berliners during 30 years. THE BUILDING OF THE BERLIN WALL (1961) The wall of Berlin impressed the world and became a symbol of the Cold War.
  26. 26. Until 1959 there was a militar dictatorship in Cuba led by Fulgencio Batista. THE 1962 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS In 1959, Fidel Castro deposed the dictator Batista En 1959, but the USA opposed the Cuban Communist regime, which became closer to the USSR. It was the first time that the USA had his rival so close.
  27. 27. In 1962, Castro gave permission for the USSR to install nuclear weapons on the island. In response, Kennedy decreed the naval blockade to avoid the arrival of Sovietic material to Cuba. THE 1962 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
  28. 28. THE 1962 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS During 13 days, it was thought that a war between the two blocs was possible.
  29. 29.  Retratos en versión cómic de los personajes involucrados de forma mas directa en la crisis de los misiles: Krusev, URSS; Kennedy, EE.UU y Fidel Castro, Cuba.  Fueron los mandatarios que durante 13 dias mantuvieron en vilo al mundo entero en torno a una Tercera. Guerra mundial, con armas aun mas poderosas que las usadas en la anterior guerra, sin duda hubiese sido el fin del mundo como lo conocemos actualmente. THE 1962 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS During 13 days, the world was afraid of being at the beginning of the THIRD WORLD WAR.
  30. 30.  Finally, after tense negotiations between Kennedy and the Soviet leader Khrushev, the USSR finally agreed to withdraw the weapons from Cuba. THE 1962 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
  31. 31. 1963-1975 PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE
  32. 32. PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE In the 1960s, a new era or peaceful coexistence began, characterised by greater dialogue between the two superpowers. Kennedy and Krushchev were more flexible in their negotiations with one another than previous leaders had been. A number of international disarmament conferences took place, with the aim of preventing nuclear war. Video Cuban Missiles crisis
  35. 35. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975)  LA GUERRA DE VIETNAM It was the bloodiest conflict of this period. Vietnam became independent of France in 1954 and was divided in two parts by the 17th parallel: North Vietnam: Communist South Vietnam: Anti-communist.
  37. 37. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) In South Vietnam the procommunist Vietcong guerrillas had appeared to try to join the country to North Vietnam.
  38. 38. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) When did USA intervene? 1962: USA intervened when Kennedy sent military advisers to South Vietnam to prevent the fall of the anti-communist regime. Why did USA intervene? Because they were afraid of the fact that if Vietnam unified under a Communist regime, other countries would be absorbed by the Sovietic bloc.
  39. 39. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975)  In the following years, president Johnson sent American troops to help the government of South Vietnam.  In 1968 there were half a million American soldiers.
  40. 40. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) The conflict spread to Laos and Cambodia.
  41. 41. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975)  This war was very unpopular in the USA, because of: It long duration. A lot of casualties. The Vietcong was not defeated in spite of the superiority of the American troops. http://www.historiasiglo20.org/GLOS/vietnam.htm
  42. 42. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) President Nixon started a gradual withdrawal of the USA, which finished in 1974. In 1975, South Vietnam was defeated and Vietnam became unified.
  43. 43.  In 1948, the territory of Palestine was divided into two separate states. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT One of these was Israel, which was created as a homeland for the Jewish people in the British mandate in Palentine. However, the Arabs the creation of the state of Israel. who lived in Palestine strongly opposed
  44. 44.  In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was established. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT Yasser Arafat
  45. 45.  Since 1960s, disputes between the Israelis and the Palestinians have been a source of constant tension and conflict in the Middle East. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT Israelis Supported by USA and Western European countries. Palestinians Supported by various Arab states.