O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Primary sector farming

1.674 visualizações

Publicada em

Primary sector farming

Publicada em: Educação
  • Entre para ver os comentários

Primary sector farming

  1. 1. farming Primary sector
  2. 2. Where does your food come from?
  3. 3. If you ate today, thank a farmer!
  4. 4. WHAT IS FARMING?
  5. 5. What is FARMING? Is the production of food and other resources through the growing of plants and the raising of domesticated animals.
  6. 6. FARMING AS A SYSTEM
  7. 7. Farming as a system Inputs Process Outputs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtU4uDos42I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ew1pfqgbjJ8
  8. 8. INPUTS: PHYSICAL FACTORS Natural things that are either found on a farm or are added to a farm.
  9. 9. PHISICAL FACTORS RELIEF Sunny and shady sides of mountains. Sunny south-facing sides are more appropiate for crops. Shady north-facing sides
  10. 10. PHISICAL FACTORS RELIEF Exposure to the wind: strong winds can damage crops.
  11. 11. PHISICAL FACTORS RELIEF Incline of slopes: flat surfaces facilitate agricultural work and very steep slopes make it more difficult. Gradients of terrain above 10ºC make it impossible to cultivate the land. Where it´s necessary, hard work can transform mountainsides into cultivated terraces.
  12. 12. RELIEF If land is flat then it is easier for arable farming to take place. If land is hilly then pastoral farming is more likely to take place.
  13. 13. PHISICAL FACTORS RELIEF Altitude: for every 100 m of altitude, temperatures fall by 0.6ºC. For this reason, after a certain altitude, cultivation is no longer possible.
  14. 14. PHISICAL FACTORS TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL Plants need to grow: minimum temperatures: 10ºC - 45ºC Rainfall (900-1200 mm annually)
  15. 15. PHISICAL FACTORS ADVERSE PHENOMENA
  16. 16. PHISICAL FACTORS SOIL Thickness Deep soil is more appropiate for the cultivation of most crops because roots have more space to expand.
  17. 17. PHISICAL FACTORS SOIL Nutrients The more appropiate nutrients the soil has, the better it is for agriculture.
  18. 18. PHYSICAL FACTORS If soil is fertile then arable farming is likely to take place. If it is less fertile and can only support grass then pastoral farming is likely to take place.
  19. 19. PHISICAL FACTORS VEGETATION Vegetation provides the soil with humus, so the more vegetation an area has, the more fertile the soil will be.
  20. 20. STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURAL SPACELAND Shape: Regular or geometrical plots of land Shape: Irregular plots of land
  21. 21. LAND CULTIVATED SPACE: PLOT BOUNDARIES BOCAGE • Small fields are separated by hedges, trees, stone or wooden fences.
  22. 22. LAND CULTIVATED SPACE: PLOT BOUNDARIES OPENFIELD • Fields are open • Fields can only be differentiated by the type of crops ore the way they are used.
  23. 23. INPUTS: HUMAN FACTORS Things that are built or made by humans and added to a farm.
  24. 24. FARM BUILDINGS BARNS To keep the grain and the straw.
  25. 25. FARM BUILDINGS SILOS To keep the grain.
  26. 26. TRANSPORT
  27. 27. LABOUR
  28. 28. SUBSIDIES and POLICIES AGRICULTURAL POLICY Measures and actions taken by: National government International institutions These measures affect crop agriculture and livestock farming.
  29. 29. CAPITAL
  30. 30. PROCESSES
  31. 31. REARING
  32. 32. SHEARING
  33. 33. PLOUGHING
  34. 34. FERTILISING
  35. 35. WEEDING
  36. 36. IRRIGATING
  37. 37. CULTIVATING
  38. 38. HARVESTING
  39. 39. SLAUGHTERING
  40. 40. PLANTING
  41. 41. GRAZING/FEEDING
  42. 42. CUTTING GRASS FOR SILAGE/HAY
  43. 43. MILKING
  44. 44. LAMBING
  45. 45. CALVING
  46. 46. AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS
  47. 47. Agricultural systems Arable farming Pastoral farming Mixed farming
  48. 48. ARABLE FARMING Arable farmers grow crops.
  49. 49. PASTORAL FARMING Pastoral farmers keep animals.
  50. 50. MIXED FARMING A mixed farm does arable and pastoral farming.
  51. 51. TYPES OF LIVESTOCK COWS OXEN BULLS CATTLE
  52. 52. TYPES OF LIVESTOCK SHEEP GOATS MULES HORSES RABBITS PIGS
  53. 53. TYPES OF LIVESTOCK HENS CHICKENS TURKEYS DUCKS POULTRY
  54. 54. Agricultural systems Extensive farming Intensive farming
  55. 55. EXTENSIVE FARMINGEXTENSIVE FARMING Low input of capital Low input of material Low input of labour Large amounts of land It produces a low yield of product from a large area of land
  56. 56. EXTENSIVE FARMING Extensive agriculture Extensive livestock farming
  57. 57. INTENSIVE FARMING INTENSIVE FARMING High input of capital High input of fertilisers High input of labour High input of labour-saving technologies such as pesticides or machinery Object: to get as high a yield of product as possible from a small area of land
  58. 58. INTENSIVE FARMING A lot of food is obtained at a relatively low price. Intensive agriculture Intensive livestock farming
  59. 59. Agricultural systems Subsistence farming Commercial farming
  60. 60. SUBSISTENCE FARMING SUBSISTENCEFARMING Produce enough crops and keep just enough animals to feed their families Any surplus will be stored or sold in a local market, but the primary object is to produce enough food to survive Most subsistence farming takes places in LEDCs. In rainforests: shifting cultivation In deserts: nomadic herding
  61. 61. SUBSISTENCE FARMING Shifting cultivation Nomadic herding
  62. 62. NOMADIC HERDING Many farmers live a nomadic life herding their animals between areas where they hope to find water or better grazing land.
  63. 63. Page 147 Doc. D and E Tasks 4 and 5
  64. 64. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE Slash-and-burn agriculture To prepare the land, the vegetation is cut down and burnt, and the ashes are used as fertiliser.
  65. 65. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE Slash-and-burn agriculture is used to grow millet sorghum tapioca
  66. 66. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE Intensive agriculture of Monsoon Asia Rice is grown on small plots.
  67. 67. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Rice production in Indonesia, 1990-2010 Area harvested (million hectares)
  68. 68. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Rice production in Indonesia, 1990-2010 Yield (tonnes/hectare)
  69. 69. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Rice production in Indonesia, 1990-2010 ) Total production (million tonnes)
  70. 70. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Rice production in Indonesia, 1990-2010 Total fertiliser consumption (million tonnes)
  71. 71. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Tractors used in agriculture (nearest thousand)
  72. 72. COMMERCIAL FARMING Commercial farmers produce crops and/or animals to sell in order to make a profit. Most of commercial farming takes place in MEDCs. It also takes place in some LEDCs where cash crops are grown mainly for export.
  73. 73. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE Commercial agriculture High investment Advanced techniques Drip irrigation, greenhouses, fertilisers… High productivity High yield Crops are produced for commercial purposes
  74. 74. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE: Plantations Plantations are owned by big multinational companies. Cocoa Bananas Pineapples Tea Coffee
  75. 75. CASE STUDY AN EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE AN ARABLE FARM IN LINCOLNSHIRE, UK
  76. 76. an arable farm in lincolnshire
  77. 77. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY
  78. 78. THE EUROPEAN UNION This is an organisation of 28 countries and over 500 million people that trade with each other as a common market. In 2017 the U.K. is going to leave the European Union (E.U) after a referendum in their country in 2016 (Brexit).
  79. 79. the european union The E.U. is a group of European countries that have joined together to create an area for free trade of goods and services as well as movement of people. - This means that the exports of goods and services among the E.U. members don´t have to pay a customs duty when crossing the borders. - This means, as well, that the citizens of the E.U. can travel to other member states withour passport. Moreover, they can cross the borders without being stopped at Customs
  80. 80. the european union The common trading, economic and social policies intend to be beneficial to all member countries.
  81. 81. the european union Each member country must contribute some money to a central fund to belong to the EU. This money is available to farmers as grants and subsidies (see Glossary). These were used to produce the food required by the whole of the EU.
  82. 82. the european union and the common agricultural policy The EU has developed the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP): - Strategies for the control and develpment of farming that have been adopted by all members of the EU. - These strategies are for commercial farming: - Farmers whose main aim is to grow crops or keep livestock to sell for a profit.
  83. 83. the european union and the common agricultural policy Under the CAP, farmers can produce what they want but only get grants and subsidies if they meet the EU production targets.
  84. 84. the european union and the common agricultural policy In the past decade EU funding for agriculture has changed. Grants and subsidies are still available but they have been partly replaced by direct payments. - These are EU payments which are given directly to farmers who meet certain requirements of the EU for growing crops, keeping livestock or looking after the countryside: - farm size - environmental protection - animal welfare
  85. 85. the european union and the common agricultural policy - Farmers can grow what they like depending on market conditions. - Other payments are given for conservation measures such as keeping hedges for wildlife and keeping footpaths open.
  86. 86. the european union and the common agricultural policy - Consequences of CAP: - It has affected the inputs, processes and outputs on the farm. - It has influenced the farmer´s choices. - It has changed the appearance of the rural environment in the UK.
  87. 87. COMMENTARIES OF PICTURES
  88. 88. Market gardens of Valencia and Murcia

×