Evidence of wheeled vehicles appers from the mid-4th millennium BC,Near-simultaneously in
Mesopotamia(Sumerian civilization),Indus valley (Mohenjodaro),the Northern Caucasus (Maykop
culture) and Central Europe, so that the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled
vehicle remains unresolved and under debate. The Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the world's
oldest known wooden wheel, dating to c. 3150 BC as part of the Globular Amphora Culture, was
discovered by Slovenian archeologists in 2002.
• 9500-6500 BC: Aceramic Neolithic
• 6500-4500 BC: Ceramic Neolithic (Halafion)
• c. 4500 BC invention of the potter's wheel
• 4500-3300 BC: Chalcolithic
• 3300-2200 BC: Early Bronze Age
• 2200-1550 BC: Middle Bronze Age
Who invented the
• Because the wheel was invented before
records were kept, nobody can ever know
who invented the wheel, or even which tribe
had the idea. However, the
ancient Mesopotamian people are widely
believed to have invented the wheel
around 4200--4000 BC, It is likely to have also
been invented, independently
in China, around 2800 BC.
The Wheel is Probably the most important mechanical invention of all time. Nearly every
machine built since the beginning of the industrial revolution involves a single , Basic
principle embodied in one of mankind's truly signifant inventions.
• 3500 B.C. the wheel was seen in Ancient
Mesopotamia (potter’s wheel)
• 3200 B.C. the Wheel was first seen used
for transportation (Mesopotamia
• Before the first wheel, many rollers were
required to move objects.
• This problem was overcome by the
The origins of the wheel can be traced back to ancient
Mesopotamia in the 5th millennium BC where it was first used
as a potter's wheel. Evidence of the wheel can also be found in
ancient China and ancient India. Even the western hemisphere
created wheel-like toys for their children back in 1500 BC.
Dearth of Natural
• When you carefully peruse the history of mankind,
you’ll notice that most inventions were actually
inspired by the natural world. For example, the
idea for the pitchfork came from forked sticks in
the wild. Similarly, it was gliding birds that served
as the muse for the invention of the airplane.
• One of the reasons it took a long time for man to
invent the wheel is because there was no organic
example of the wheel in nature, although the work
of naturalists like Michael La-Barbera from the
University of Chicago suggest that bacterial
flagella, tumbleweeds and dung beetles do come
close. Some biologist calls these “wheeled
organisms”, but that’s a very loose term, as they
roll as a form of locomotion, but are not perfectly
spherical or circular.
Invention of Wheel
• The wheel was invented in the 4th millennium BC in
Lower Mesopotamia(modern-day Iraq), where the
Sumerian people inserted rotating axles into solid
discs of wood.
• It was only in 2000 BC that the discs began to be
hollowed out to make a lighter wheel. This
innovation led to major advances in two main areas.
• the ancient Mesopotamian people are widely
believed to have invented the wheel around 4200--
4000 BC, It is likely to have also been invented,
independently in China, around 2800 BC
The Wheel as a
After a brief stint of using the wheel for pottery,
someone used two wheels to form a cart.
He made this from the trunk of a tree, which was
joined by an axle that was fastened to a platform of
wood. This was the first crude cart in the world. In this
cart, both the wheels and axle moved.
The next improvement in the use of the wheel was
fastening the axle to the vehicle and letting the wheels
The first wheeled vehicles were bullock carts, war
chariots, and four-wheeled carts of the gods. Gradually,
the spoke wheel was invented in around 2000 BC,
which considerably reduced the weight of the wheel.
The Invention Of The
ROLLER VEDGE SLEDGE ON
Sledge on roller, Which
has become grooved
Wheels and in one Piece;
The axle fixed by Pegs
Wheels joined to axel ;axle
Fixed into crude tearing
Wheels for Perpetual Machines
• For centuries, scientists, mathematicians,
tinkerers, and even philosopher have tried to
master perpetual motion— a device that, once set
in motion, would continue in motion perennially,
producing more energy than it consumes. One of
the easiest attempts to design this machine was
using a wheel.
• A watermill wheel is an example of such a machine
that uses changes in weight to incessantly rotate.
However, no matter what the design philosophy
was, all such perpetual motion machines violate
the first and second laws of thermodynamics,
which state that energy cannot be created or
destroyed, and that some portion of energy is lost
in converting heat to work. Many patents for a
wheel-based perpetual motion machine have been
discarded by the US Patent office because
inventors were unable to produce proper working
• 2000 B.C. the Egyptians invented
the first wheel with spokes.
• They did this by carving the
wheels to the right shape.
• 1000 B.C. iron rims Where
invented by the Celtics
– Wheel of Death
• Much of the credit for progress in the
modern age goes to the wheel, but the
wheel has also become a source of
death for many! Actually, in the Middle
Ages, ‘breaking on the wheel’ was a form
of capital punishment.
• A culprit would be stretched across the
face of a wheel and bludgeoned to death
by an iron-rimmed wheel pounded over
him with a hammer. In one such
variation, in the early fourth century,
Saint Catherine of Alexandria was
wrapped around the rim of a spiked
wheel and rolled across the ground. As
per the legends, the wheel ‘divinely’
broke and Saint Catherine was able to
escape. The breaking wheel since that
time has been called a Catherine wheel.
Wire Spokes • 1802: G.F. Bauer invented wire
• Wire threaded through the
• Within a few years, a new
innovation was made to
The Pneumatic Tire
• 1845: R. W. Thomson invented the first pneumatic tire
(filed with compressed air).
• Leather Tread , Rubber inner tube.
• 1888 the pneumatic tire was reinvented by John Dunlop.
• Outer tube made canvas covered by vulcanized rubber.
How did they move large
objects before the wheel?
• Now you might be thinking, "But hey, monuments like Stonehenge
(3000 BC) used a crude, early form of the wheel: logs to roll the
stones across the earth!"
• However, somewhat bizarrely, archaeologists are increasingly
starting to think that these stones were actually moved using a
sledge with some form of lubricant, for example, pig lard.
• The same is true for the Pyramids (2589 and 2504 BC), one
theory suggests that the large rocks were dragged on sleds and
that water was poured on the sand to reduce friction.
When was the first wheeled
• Somewhere around 3500--3350 BCE, the first wheeled
vehicles emerged across parts of Europe and
Asia. No one is really sure whether it was a
simultaneous invention or a fast-paced adoption of the
• Again, because records were not kept, we can never
know for sure, the name of the first man, or woman to
use the wheel for transportation.
• Early, wheeled vehicles were almost
certainly 4 wheeled. The earliest
known depictions of wheeled
vehicles: the Bromociclen pot, found
in a Neolithic village in Poland. 3,635
-3,370 BC, and several clay tablets
found in Uruk -- Iraq. Both illustrate 4
wheeled vehicles dated to
around 3300-3100 BC.
A series of parallel tracks were found, near Kiel, Germany, that date to around 3420--3385 BC. Because
the tracks are "wobbly" archaeologists believe that these were track marks from a wheeled vehicle and not
2 wheeled vehicles came along slightly later. The first known depiction is dated 3402--2800 BC and was
found in a grave gallery, in Lohne-Engelshecke, Germany.
The wheel outside of
Europe and Asia
• As early as 1500 BCE, the indigenous peoples of North
America used wheels to create toys, such as animals with
wheeled legs. However, the wheel was not widely used for
transportation until the arrival of European settlers.
• One explanation for this is that there were no domesticated
animals, suitable for pulling vehicles in America until this point.
• In Africa the wheel was barely used outside of the north-eastern
corner. Egypt was quick to adopt the wheel. As early as 400
BCE, Nubians used wheels for spinning pottery and as water
• Chinese folk law dates the first wheelbarrow to the early first century, although the first, known evidence of a
wheelbarrow was discovered in the tomb of Shen Fujun in Sichuan province. It dates to around 150 AD.
The first wheelbarrows had a front-mounted
wheel, similar to the modern-day design we
are familiar with. However, in the 3rd century
AD, a centrally mounted single wheel
wheelbarrow became more popular.
• There was also a rather intriguing sail-
powered wheelbarrow design in common
use throughout China, thought to date
back as early as the 6th century AD. The
first documented evidence is found in the
writings of Andreas Everardus van Braam
Houckgeest -- 1797 AD.
• Outside of China, the first wheelbarrows
found in Europe date to around 1170-1250
Who Invented the
• Although George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr, is
the first man credited as inventing his
namesake: the Ferris wheel for the Chicago's
World Columbian Fair in 1893 AD. The origins of
the Ferris wheel date back to 17th Century AD
Bulgaria. These were known as "pleasure
wheels" or "up and downs". Passengers rode in
chairs suspended from rotating scaffoldings
turned by hand.
The first Ferris wheel
was designed to rival
the Eiffel Tower. It was
80.4 m (250 ft) in
diameter and reportedly
carried 2160 people.
• It might surprise you to learn that hamsters didn't
become domestic until the mid-1930s AD. So, that wheel
your furry friend runs around is probably more modern
than you think! However, it's not the only animal to run in
• Animal wheels have also been used as functional
objects. Between the 16th and 19th centuries AD,
the Turnspit dog was used in kitchens across Britain to
ensure that meat cooked evenly on a spit. However, the
invention of the cheap spit-turning machines (clock
jacks) meant that the turnspit dog breed was lost to the
pages of history.
• Wheels aren't just for domestic animals! Scientists
discovered that even wild animals enjoy running on a
wheel. In an experiment with a "wild" wheel a frog,
several mice and even a slug took a turn on the wheel!
IT’S HARD TO IMAGINE ANY MEVHANIZED SYSTEM THAT WOULD BE POSSIBLE
WITHOUT THE WHEEL OR THE IDEA OF A SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT MOVING IN A
CIRCULR MOTION ON AN AXIS. FROM TINY WATCH GEAR TO AUTOMOBILES, JET
ENGINES AND COMPUTER DISK DRIVES, THE PRINCIPLE IS THE SAME.
However, with the coming of the industrial revolution the wheel became the
central component of technology and came to be used in thousands of ways in
countless different mechanisms.
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