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wheel

  1. 1. Wheel
  2. 2. The Revolutionary Invention of The Wheel
  3. 3. History Evidence of wheeled vehicles appers from the mid-4th millennium BC,Near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia(Sumerian civilization),Indus valley (Mohenjodaro),the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe, so that the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle remains unresolved and under debate. The Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the world's oldest known wooden wheel, dating to c. 3150 BC as part of the Globular Amphora Culture, was discovered by Slovenian archeologists in 2002. • 9500-6500 BC: Aceramic Neolithic • 6500-4500 BC: Ceramic Neolithic (Halafion) • c. 4500 BC invention of the potter's wheel • 4500-3300 BC: Chalcolithic • 3300-2200 BC: Early Bronze Age • 2200-1550 BC: Middle Bronze Age
  4. 4. Who invented the wheel? • Because the wheel was invented before records were kept, nobody can ever know who invented the wheel, or even which tribe had the idea. However, the ancient Mesopotamian people are widely believed to have invented the wheel around 4200--4000 BC, It is likely to have also been invented, independently in China, around 2800 BC.
  5. 5. Mesopotamia civilization wheel The Wheel is Probably the most important mechanical invention of all time. Nearly every machine built since the beginning of the industrial revolution involves a single , Basic principle embodied in one of mankind's truly signifant inventions.
  6. 6. The Beginning • 3500 B.C. the wheel was seen in Ancient Mesopotamia (potter’s wheel) • 3200 B.C. the Wheel was first seen used for transportation (Mesopotamia chariots) • Before the first wheel, many rollers were required to move objects. • This problem was overcome by the flintstones
  7. 7. THE EVOLUTIO N OF WHEEL The origins of the wheel can be traced back to ancient Mesopotamia in the 5th millennium BC where it was first used as a potter's wheel. Evidence of the wheel can also be found in ancient China and ancient India. Even the western hemisphere created wheel-like toys for their children back in 1500 BC.
  8. 8. Dearth of Natural Inspiration • When you carefully peruse the history of mankind, you’ll notice that most inventions were actually inspired by the natural world. For example, the idea for the pitchfork came from forked sticks in the wild. Similarly, it was gliding birds that served as the muse for the invention of the airplane. • One of the reasons it took a long time for man to invent the wheel is because there was no organic example of the wheel in nature, although the work of naturalists like Michael La-Barbera from the University of Chicago suggest that bacterial flagella, tumbleweeds and dung beetles do come close. Some biologist calls these “wheeled organisms”, but that’s a very loose term, as they roll as a form of locomotion, but are not perfectly spherical or circular.
  9. 9. Invention of Wheel • The wheel was invented in the 4th millennium BC in Lower Mesopotamia(modern-​​day Iraq), where the Sumerian people inserted rotating axles into solid discs of wood. • It was only in 2000 BC that the discs began to be hollowed out to make a lighter wheel. This innovation led to major advances in two main areas. • the ancient Mesopotamian people are widely believed to have invented the wheel around 4200-- 4000 BC, It is likely to have also been invented, independently in China, around 2800 BC
  10. 10. The Wheel as a Vehicle After a brief stint of using the wheel for pottery, someone used two wheels to form a cart. He made this from the trunk of a tree, which was joined by an axle that was fastened to a platform of wood. This was the first crude cart in the world. In this cart, both the wheels and axle moved. The next improvement in the use of the wheel was fastening the axle to the vehicle and letting the wheels spin freely. The first wheeled vehicles were bullock carts, war chariots, and four-wheeled carts of the gods. Gradually, the spoke wheel was invented in around 2000 BC, which considerably reduced the weight of the wheel.
  11. 11. The Invention Of The Wheel ROLLER VEDGE SLEDGE ON ROLLER Sledge on roller, Which has become grooved with use Wheels and in one Piece; The axle fixed by Pegs Wheels joined to axel ;axle Fixed into crude tearing
  12. 12. Wheels for Perpetual Machines • For centuries, scientists, mathematicians, tinkerers, and even philosopher have tried to master perpetual motion— a device that, once set in motion, would continue in motion perennially, producing more energy than it consumes. One of the easiest attempts to design this machine was using a wheel. • A watermill wheel is an example of such a machine that uses changes in weight to incessantly rotate. However, no matter what the design philosophy was, all such perpetual motion machines violate the first and second laws of thermodynamics, which state that energy cannot be created or destroyed, and that some portion of energy is lost in converting heat to work. Many patents for a wheel-based perpetual motion machine have been discarded by the US Patent office because inventors were unable to produce proper working models.
  13. 13. Further Innovations • 2000 B.C. the Egyptians invented the first wheel with spokes. • They did this by carving the wheels to the right shape. • 1000 B.C. iron rims Where invented by the Celtics
  14. 14. Catherine Wheel – Wheel of Death • Much of the credit for progress in the modern age goes to the wheel, but the wheel has also become a source of death for many! Actually, in the Middle Ages, ‘breaking on the wheel’ was a form of capital punishment. • A culprit would be stretched across the face of a wheel and bludgeoned to death by an iron-rimmed wheel pounded over him with a hammer. In one such variation, in the early fourth century, Saint Catherine of Alexandria was wrapped around the rim of a spiked wheel and rolled across the ground. As per the legends, the wheel ‘divinely’ broke and Saint Catherine was able to escape. The breaking wheel since that time has been called a Catherine wheel.
  15. 15. Wire Spokes • 1802: G.F. Bauer invented wire tension spoke. • Wire threaded through the entire wheel • Within a few years, a new innovation was made to Bauer’s design
  16. 16. The Pneumatic Tire • 1845: R. W. Thomson invented the first pneumatic tire (filed with compressed air). • Leather Tread , Rubber inner tube. • 1888 the pneumatic tire was reinvented by John Dunlop. • Outer tube made canvas covered by vulcanized rubber.
  17. 17. How did they move large objects before the wheel? • Now you might be thinking, "But hey, monuments like Stonehenge (3000 BC) used a crude, early form of the wheel: logs to roll the stones across the earth!" • However, somewhat bizarrely, archaeologists are increasingly starting to think that these stones were actually moved using a sledge with some form of lubricant, for example, pig lard. • The same is true for the Pyramids (2589 and 2504 BC), one theory suggests that the large rocks were dragged on sleds and that water was poured on the sand to reduce friction.
  18. 18. When was the first wheeled vehicle invented? • Somewhere around 3500--3350 BCE, the first wheeled vehicles emerged across parts of Europe and Asia. No one is really sure whether it was a simultaneous invention or a fast-paced adoption of the new technology. • Again, because records were not kept, we can never know for sure, the name of the first man, or woman to use the wheel for transportation.
  19. 19. • Early, wheeled vehicles were almost certainly 4 wheeled. The earliest known depictions of wheeled vehicles: the Bromociclen pot, found in a Neolithic village in Poland. 3,635 -3,370 BC, and several clay tablets found in Uruk -- Iraq. Both illustrate 4 wheeled vehicles dated to around 3300-3100 BC. A series of parallel tracks were found, near Kiel, Germany, that date to around 3420--3385 BC. Because the tracks are "wobbly" archaeologists believe that these were track marks from a wheeled vehicle and not a sled. 2 wheeled vehicles came along slightly later. The first known depiction is dated 3402--2800 BC and was found in a grave gallery, in Lohne-Engelshecke, Germany.
  20. 20. The wheel outside of Europe and Asia • As early as 1500 BCE, the indigenous peoples of North America used wheels to create toys, such as animals with wheeled legs. However, the wheel was not widely used for transportation until the arrival of European settlers. • One explanation for this is that there were no domesticated animals, suitable for pulling vehicles in America until this point. • In Africa the wheel was barely used outside of the north-eastern corner. Egypt was quick to adopt the wheel. As early as 400 BCE, Nubians used wheels for spinning pottery and as water wheels.
  21. 21. Wheelbarrows • Chinese folk law dates the first wheelbarrow to the early first century, although the first, known evidence of a wheelbarrow was discovered in the tomb of Shen Fujun in Sichuan province. It dates to around 150 AD.
  22. 22. The first wheelbarrows had a front-mounted wheel, similar to the modern-day design we are familiar with. However, in the 3rd century AD, a centrally mounted single wheel wheelbarrow became more popular. • There was also a rather intriguing sail- powered wheelbarrow design in common use throughout China, thought to date back as early as the 6th century AD. The first documented evidence is found in the writings of Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest -- 1797 AD. • Outside of China, the first wheelbarrows found in Europe date to around 1170-1250 AD.
  23. 23. Who Invented the Ferris Wheel? • Although George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr, is the first man credited as inventing his namesake: the Ferris wheel for the Chicago's World Columbian Fair in 1893 AD. The origins of the Ferris wheel date back to 17th Century AD Bulgaria. These were known as "pleasure wheels" or "up and downs". Passengers rode in chairs suspended from rotating scaffoldings turned by hand. •
  24. 24. The first Ferris wheel was designed to rival the Eiffel Tower. It was 80.4 m (250 ft) in diameter and reportedly carried 2160 people.
  25. 25. Hamster Wheels • It might surprise you to learn that hamsters didn't become domestic until the mid-1930s AD. So, that wheel your furry friend runs around is probably more modern than you think! However, it's not the only animal to run in a wheel • Animal wheels have also been used as functional objects. Between the 16th and 19th centuries AD, the Turnspit dog was used in kitchens across Britain to ensure that meat cooked evenly on a spit. However, the invention of the cheap spit-turning machines (clock jacks) meant that the turnspit dog breed was lost to the pages of history. • Wheels aren't just for domestic animals! Scientists discovered that even wild animals enjoy running on a wheel. In an experiment with a "wild" wheel a frog, several mice and even a slug took a turn on the wheel!
  26. 26. Conclusion IT’S HARD TO IMAGINE ANY MEVHANIZED SYSTEM THAT WOULD BE POSSIBLE WITHOUT THE WHEEL OR THE IDEA OF A SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT MOVING IN A CIRCULR MOTION ON AN AXIS. FROM TINY WATCH GEAR TO AUTOMOBILES, JET ENGINES AND COMPUTER DISK DRIVES, THE PRINCIPLE IS THE SAME. However, with the coming of the industrial revolution the wheel became the central component of technology and came to be used in thousands of ways in countless different mechanisms.

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