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Digital agriculture for Atmanirbhar Bharat.pdf

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Digital agriculture for Atmanirbhar Bharat.pdf

  1. 1. Digital Agriculture is a Must for Atmanirbhar Bharat Suhas P Wani Former Director, Research Program–Asia, ICRISAT. Currently Intl Consultant for ADB, Manila, FAO, and IFAD, Rome
  2. 2. • Why? • How? Govt. policies • What? • Data Architecture • Data collection • Data analytics and decision support systems • Data visualization • Digital information system for doubling farmers’ income Outline
  3. 3. Why Agriculture is Important for Atmanirbhar Bharat  Indian economy is largely agrarian economy as 65% of the total population is rural.  The rural-urban divide is so prominent that rural income per capita per year is Rs 40,925 less than half of the urban counterpart (Rs 98,435).  The agricultural sector’s contribution to the national gross domestic product (GDP) value is 20.2 percent in the year 2020-21 and 18.8 percent in 2021-22 as compared to 41% in 1960.  The market outlook depends on the performance of agriculture and mainly the performance of Monsoon rains.  India has the largest arable land supporting 58% of the population as the primary source of livelihood.  Considering the predominance of agriculture/rural areas in driving the Indian economy, rural transformation is a must to make Atmanirbhar Bharat
  4. 4. Why Digital Agriculture is Needed for Scaling-up & Inclusive Value Chains in India ? Large yield gaps (farmers yields are 2 to 5 folds lower than achievable. Farmers have no access thru extension agencies as a result farmers follow traditional practices Farmers receive only 30-35% of market price paid by the customers due to poor market access to farmers Post- harvest losses are high due to poor infrastructure. Farmers are poor and small farm –holders 145 million farm holders No ext.support Govt.machinery Other farmers Media Pvt. agents 59 11 20 19.6 7.4 Science of delivery The NSSO 2013 showed: % farmers Agri knowhow. Who do farmers turn to for technical advice? Input dealers, progressive farmers are popular sources of agri advice; government agencies are largely ignored
  5. 5. PM’s Doubling Farmers Income Urgent need to transform small farm-holder agriculture using big data analytics from subsistence agriculture to a business proposition DFI Committee Recommended I. Remote sensing based crop and soil information on temporal and spatial basis 1) Remote sensing: satellite observations forming images of the earth’s surface. Advanced to detect heat signatures of planted crops and animals. Crop classification, crop cultivation area estimation, evaluation of crop losses, spread of disease, biodiversity monitoring. GIS: management of data tied to a spatially mapped location. Data to be graphically depicted on a map and visual presentation to support decision making. crop cutting experiment to estimate a crop yield and insurance, crop health monitoring, drones in agriculture 2) ICT based support for farmers: NeGPA to deliver services to the farming community using ICT. Ease of access and timely information to farmers. 3) Agriculture 2.0 (Digital Agriculture) related to “Digital India” 4) Upcoming technologies: The widening scope of agricultural activities makes the agricultural system an important domain for use of new technologies. AI & ML: statistical data analysis disease information, meteorological data, satellite observation, field survey. Big data, IoT, AI, KVKs and ATMA for knowledge diffusion, blockchain, robots and sensors,
  6. 6. Government Policies Overview  ICRISAT submitted and presented policy papers “Mission India for Transforming Agriculture (MITrA) to PMO as requested.  Soil health card mission implemented by DoAC& FW to promote balanced nutrient management.  Promoting Science-based agriculture using agro-eco region and market-based crop diversification.  Use of satellite data for crop area and yield estimation for rice and wheat  Through convergence, a new “Jal Shakti” Ministry was created to enhance water use efficiency, and rainwater management to address water scarcity.  Promoting bio-fortified cultivars of different crops to address the issue of malnutrition.  Pulses Mission implemented to make India self-sufficient in pulses requirement.
  7. 7. Currently Agriculture is Managed in Compartments Cultural aspects Piecemeal/Compartmental Approach Behavioural patterns are not included Sustainable Agriculture is made a futile exercise Cultural Change: Water, agriculture, energy and climate change are all related – Without harmonizing value chain sustainable rural development is not feasible
  8. 8. Innovation  Holistic approach to benefit small farm holders – low-cost technologies, reducing post-harvest losses, and shortening the value chain  Science-led development (modern technologies) to transform subsistence agriculture in to a business model  International standards (modeling, big data, RS, ME&L, water budgeting, drones, ML, AI, cloud computing and ICT, etc.,)  Scaling-up is must  A new proposition -building ownership along the value chain BAU Model Won’t Work
  9. 9. Government Policy Overview  The Hon’ble Prime Minister of India made a statement on 28 February 2015 at Bareilly on Doubling Farmers’ Income by the year 2022.”  Digital Agriculture Division was created under the MOAC&FW reorienting Information Technology Division following the Doubling of Farmers Income (DFI) Committee’s recommendations.  Aadhar-based direct benefit transfer (DBT), opening Jan Dhan accounts.  Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana insuring 55 million farmers, claims settled to the tune of 90,000 crores since January 2016.  e-NAM enables farmers to sell their produce online at the national level.  Kisan credit cards.  Tech for farmers’ welfare, and mechanization through the promotion of machine hiring centers (MHCs).  Increasing minimum support price ensuring 50 to 109 % return over cost of production.  Kisan Rail and Kisan Udan to facilitate the transport of perishable agricultural goods in a timely manner.  Promotion of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) for accessing quality inputs and market.  Launching one district one product (ODOP) initiative bypassing intermediaries.  Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY).  PM Kisan Mandhan Yojana (PMKMY) ensures financial security.  Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) converging water schemes under the new ministry of “Jal Shakti.  Reforming and increasing labor wages.  Modifying essential commodities act.  Contract farming.
  10. 10. Better, Faster and Cheaper delivery through Digital Agriculture Better Faster Cheaper Increase adoption rate through collaborative, bi- directional feedback loops resulting in farmer-preferred products and services Reduce development and delivery time for new varieties through rapid- cycle innovation Provide scalable, lower-cost solutions tailored to the specific needs of an individual SHF to increase farm productivity Better, faster and cheaper products/services will increase smallholder farmer productivity, providing gains in poverty-reduction, nutrition, education, and savings
  11. 11. Need Mission India to Transform Agriculture (MITrA)  Subsistence to a business model  Science-led Knowledge-intensive  Mechanization  Efficient use of resources  Climate Smart  Market-led diversification  Value chain approach  Need to support farmers thru Digital agriculture
  12. 12.  Small farm holders demand the best at affordable price  Tangible benefits  Highest probability of success  Need to build trust  A lean organization  Harness partnerships (need to learn to co-opt farmers and institutions) Collaborative capacity > Investment capacity Co-creation of Solutions Development investors Farmers Women Group Youth Corporate s Researcher s Innovate Hybrid Solutions
  13. 13. Framework  Agro-Eco Region-based Climate Resilient Market Oriented Agriculture
  14. 14. India Digital Ecosystems of Agriculture (IDEA)  A digital ecosystem is a distributed, adaptive, and open socio-technical system with properties of self organization, scalability, and sustainability to address the issues/constraints faced by the farmers.  The agriculture value chain extends from crop/ varietal selection and crop management to the market. It involves public and private players in agricultural inputs and services as also logistics. Should be integrated platform.  Establishing a digital ecosystem of agriculture needs to take a long-term view of aspects like interoperability, data governance, data quality, data standards, security and privacy, besides promoting open innovation.  Need decentralized, federated architecture that assures autonomy to the service providers and all other actors and ensures interoperability at the same time.  IDEA proposes “To build a National Digital Agriculture Ecosystem, to elevate Indian Agriculture Sector to higher levels of efficiency and productivity, and to improve the welfare and income of farmers”.  IDEA principles: Ecosystem thinking, building block approach, open API-based, Open, Open and Open, national portability, Participatory design, and promote innovation.  IDEA is proposed to be implemented on a mission-mode, by establishing a National Mission on Digital Agriculture (NMDA) with a dedicated team of experts.  Adoption of a holistic ecosystem approach to address the multiple challenges faced by the agriculture sector is of national importance, to fulfil the aspirations like Doubling Farmer’s Income and achieving the SDG’s. A multi-stakeholder approach is essential with government playing the role of an enabler of the ecosystem players, rather than acting as a builder of digital systems.
  15. 15. Public Policy  Digital infrastructure in rural and remote areas  Rural roads, electricity, and logistics to power digital devices and connect digital markets  Digitization of public agricultural bodies and skilled public sector workers  Ensuring open data, farmers’ data privacy, security, and ownership, enabling competition in the digital market  Digital payment system  Promoting the digital entrepreneurship ecosystem  R&D  Reducing the access barriers by marginalized groups (cost, language, digital devices, distribution of benefits)
  16. 16. Smart Village  Digitally connected villages with smart agriculture options  Skilled labors to demonstrate up-to-date practices and knowledge  Digitization of public agricultural bodies and skilled public sector workers  Ensuring open data, farmers’ data privacy, security and ownership, enabling competition in digital market  Digital payment system  Promoting digital entrepreneurship ecosystem  R&D  Reducing the access barriers by marginalized groups (cost, language, digital devices, distribution of benefits)
  17. 17. 5. Participatory selection of interventions 4. Convergence with existing programs 3. PPP Consortium Holistic set of solutions Science backed Sustainable Market driven Valued – not free Inclusive Participatory 2. Inclusive 1. Community driven C) Approach to M&E and IMPACT ASSESSMENT B) Approach to INTERVENTIONS A) Approach to ENGAGEMENT Approach Needed for Impacts
  18. 18. • Mobile-based data collection • Flexible data collection tools • Preparation of forms • Deployment of forms • Aggregation of data from data collector to centralized server. • Information tagged with location and farmer What?: Data Collection
  19. 19. Mobile Data Collection  Paper forms  GPS device  Camera  Data collector  Transport of paper forms  Data entry operators  Data analysis and presentation  No paper forms  Integrated GPS  Integrated camera  Data can be sent to server  Server-end program to automate data analysis and presentation
  20. 20. Build (XLS or XML) Collect Aggregate Open Data Kit
  21. 21. MEL Framework – Individual Farmer Level What gets measured gets delivered
  22. 22. • Primary data layer: • Digitization of cadastral maps with ground-truthing. • Mapping farmers to cadastral maps (household survey and land records) • Digital mapping of bio-physical parameters based on the available legacy data. • Will be the base data for developing decision support systems What?:Land resource inventory
  23. 23. • Trend analysis • Geospatial analysis • Soil fertility-based fertilizer recommendation • Weather-based decision making for field operations • Need-based irrigation management What?: Data analytics and decision support systems
  24. 24. What?: Data analytics and decision support systems
  25. 25. Groundnut Crop Sowing Advisories Devanakonda Mandal, Kurnool District • Sowing at right time is critical in rainfed agriculture • Large variability exists at Devanakonda in rainfed crop-sowing date • Presently no advisory is available to farmers on right sowing period • ICRISAT, Microsoft, aWhere, CYA (NGO) joined hands • 175 farmers registered their mobiles for receiving advisories through SMS Climate resilient groundnut yields Sowing progress  INDIA REAL TIME New App Promises to Tell Indian Farmers When to Sow Crops Farmers in Andhra Pradesh can sign up for an app that shows them the weather and prime planting days ENLARGE Farmers replant rice saplings in a paddy field on the outskirts of Srinagar, Indian controlled Kashmir, June 1, 2016. PHOTO: DAR YASIN/ASSOCIATED PRESS
  26. 26. Components of Sowing App Soil water balance simulation using cloud computing & AI Sowing period Rainfall data: • Actual • Forecast Soil properties
  27. 27. Water Impact Calculator: Simple tool for Irrigation scheduling • Simple and Excel based decision making tool • Computes field scale water balance at daily time scale • Estimates crop water requirement and soil moisture availability based on basic minimum inputs • Design Irrigation scheduling (time and amount to be applied) • It is a Generic tool which is applicable to field, horticulture and vegetable crops • Validated for different horticulture crops in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
  28. 28. Soil Test-based Nutrient Management
  29. 29. Soil Fertility Data RED : Low/Deficient Green : Medium/High/Sufficient This data collected through stratified soil sampling with participation of farmers during various projects supported by Governments and CSR projects accross India.
  30. 30. Online dynamic dashboards (Maps, Graphs, Tables) Data visualization
  31. 31. Daily Activity Report from Ground staff
  32. 32. Historical Observed Crop Yield in Karnataka (2010-2017) This data collected through crop cutting experiments during various projects supported by Government of Karnataka and CSR projects.
  33. 33. Soil Fertility Data RED : Low/Deficient Green : Medium/High/Sufficient This data collected through stratified soil sampling with participation of farmers during various projects supported by Governments and CSR projects accross India.
  34. 34. Rainwater Harvesting Structures
  35. 35. Groundwater Recharge
  36. 36. Groundwater Level
  37. 37. Groundwater Quality
  38. 38. Communications Programs Schemes Policies Models RS & GIS The Knowledge Bank
  39. 39. LRI in Cloud Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning based on LRI
  40. 40. RS & GIS The Knowledge Bank Communications Models Programs Schemes Policies Water Manager Soil Health Manager Diagnostic tool Market Opp Customized Reports Feedback Weather Based Agro-Advisory Best Practices Digital Information System for DFI Farmer
  41. 41. Be a Central Nodal Organization  Link stakeholders and create a new ecosystem  Build partnerships through consortium formation  Be a facilitator and provide the framework  Access and influence without ownership are important while maintaining quality, mutual obligations, commitment to contractual relationships and a shared set of values
  42. 42.  Igniting transformation  Who is IMP than what? Get the right people on bus and the wrong people off-the bus – right people in the right seats and they will figure out where to drive  Have unwavering faith that you can and will succeed in the end  Culture of discipline – disciplined people don’t need hierarchy  Disciplined thought – No need to have bureaucracy  Disciplined action – No need to have excessive controls  Combined culture of discipline with an ethic of entrepreneurship – Create performance Get magical alchemy of performance  Tipping point and continued push but not a planned restricting, technologies, or a killer innovation Impact at Bottom of Pyramid
  43. 43.  Farmers first  Partnerships  Timely delivery  Quality outputs/impacts Core Values
  44. 44. Farmers-Centric Integrated & Inclusive Market-Oriented Development
  45. 45. Transform Lives of Farmers thru Scaling-up Science-led Value Chains Using Big data and Cloud Computing Thank You