O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
ADAM SYKES
WIND POWERED LIGHTING
SOLUTION
9457
At The Blandford School mobile floodlights are required
during any night time events. Whether or not you buy,
own or rent ...
THE SITUATION
The Sun heats our atmosphere unevenly, so some patches become warmer
than others.
These warm patches of air ...
DESIGN BRIEF ANALYSIS
Project Brief
-Wind powered light.
THEMES
ENVIRONMENT
SAFETY
TARGET
AUDIENCE
COMPONENTS AND
MATERIAL...
INITIAL SPECIFICATION
ADAM SYKES
9457
POINT SPECIFICATION
TIMESCALE To ensure I finish my product on time, I will am to ke...
ENVIROMENTAL AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS OF STREET LIGHTING
In 2011 the 9 million street lights in the UK cost £110 million on e...
EXISTING PRODUCTS
PAGE SUMMARY: On this page I have looked into other existing products and designs. The majority of wind ...
INITIAL IDEAS
1) My first design is a basic Google Sketchup
model which features a simple and
understated look. This desig...
INITIAL DESIGN MODELS
LDR on the top. Light is inactive when sunlight is on the lamp, when it
gets dark the light activate...
Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set vertically and the main c...
FURTHER MODELLING
After the success of my cardboard model on the previous page, I decided to make a housing for the genera...
GOOGLE SKETCHUP MODELLING
After the success of my past two Savonius models, I began redesigning my
Google Sketch Up model....
FURTHER MODELLING DEVELOPMENT
I decided to create a more refined and functional Savonius model so that
I understood the pr...
DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS
CLIENT FEEDBACK TO
MODELLING: As a client
I am impressed by the
detailed work going into
the design of...
MATERIALS
I looked into the sort of LED
lighting cyclists would use
on their bikes. I discovered
that a brand new one
(con...
POSSIBLE COMPONENTS
D
H-217mm
W-180mm
D-180mm
H-95mm
W-65mm
L-150mm
ID-4mm
OD-16mm
D-5mm
D
D
I have decided to look into a...
DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS
Taking both function and aesthetics into account, I have re-
designed the turbine blades. With this up...
CAD DESIGN
On this page I have taken the sketch from my previous page and created a Google SketchUp model, focusing
on wha...
CAD DESIGN ANALYSIS
ADAM SYKES
9457
Laser cut 5mm translucent blue Acrylic
will act as the top and bottom sections
for the...
DESIGN ALTERATIONS
Due to a range of testing and experiments with trying to run a wind up camping light directly off a dri...
STAINLESS STEEL SECTIONS
On this page is the continuous communication between myself and an
external metal working contact...
POLYPROPYLENE BLADES
Firstly, I did laser cutting tests on a sheet of 0.8mm
thick polypropylene, changing the power level ...
For the static top and bottom sections of the
housing for the rotor I have decided to use a
sheet of 5mm Acrylic , which I...
MANUFACTURING PLAN
ADAM SYKES
9457
 STEP ONE: Ensure Stainless Steel sections are laser cut before I begin to manufacture...
MANUFACTURING
ADAM SYKES
9457
To the left I have laser cut
the 5mm translucent light
blue Acrylic for the top and
bottom s...
Laser cutting the two MDF disks from 12mm MDF
with a following 3mm smaller disk being cut after
these two.
Coating the thr...
FURTHER MANUFACTURING
ADAM SYKES
9457
Above is my initial
dimensional sketch for the
Aluminium T-section, along
with a Goo...
ADAM SYKES
9457
I then repeated the casting process a second time to produce a second Aluminium T section. Once I reduced ...
ADAM SYKES
9457
FINAL PRODUCT
To conclude my manufacturing process I drilled a hole
in the side of the uPVC tube and screw...
ADAM SYKES
9457
FINAL PRODUCT
PAGE TWENTY NINE
RISK ASSESSMENT
ADAM SYKES
9457
CASTING:
Process-The
production
of a single
piece
component
from molten
metal
poured into
...
SPECIFICATION COMPARISON
POINT / UPDATED SPECIFICATION COMMENT
TIMESCALE 
To ensure I finish my product on time, I will...
PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY
10mm x 10mm x 500mm square Acrylic rod cut to size and
glued using an Acrylic weld to the 5mm transluc...
QUESTIONNAIRE
ADAM SYKES
9457PAGE THIRTY THREE
CLIENT FEEDBACK TO FINAL PRODUCT
I really am very impressed with the final ...
EVALUATION IN RESPONSE
TO CLIENT FEEDBACK
ADAM SYKES
9457PAGE THIRTY FOUR
“I am extremely pleased with the final product
w...
ITEM SOURCE
Information about climate change . http://www.nef.org.uk/knowledge-hub/climate-change-energy/climate-
change
I...
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

Adam Sykes Final Folder

190 visualizações

Publicada em

  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

  • Seja a primeira pessoa a gostar disto

Adam Sykes Final Folder

  1. 1. ADAM SYKES WIND POWERED LIGHTING SOLUTION 9457
  2. 2. At The Blandford School mobile floodlights are required during any night time events. Whether or not you buy, own or rent mobile floodlighting (and the fuel thirsty generators) they’re extremely expensive whichever way you look at it. Their price is only one downfall, as they also have a damaging impact on the environment by burning up fuel. Not only their impact on the environment can be seen as a downfall as they are unsightly, costly and the generators are loud and emit odorous fumes. One place at The Blandford School where an opportunity for a lighting solution comes to mind is outside the front entrance. This is the main reception for events, and therefore requires a mobile light during such events. Whereas a permanent wind powered light could be installed. This would not only look a lot more attractive but would also show the effort the school goes to, to protect the environment (as well as the solar panels the other side of the block.) PAGE ONE CLIENT PROFILE CONTEXTDESIGN BRIEF -I am aiming to design and manufacture a fully functional prototype wind powered street light. To be used at The Blandford School to illuminate the main reception. My design will require a series of tests and smaller models to ensure the plausibility and complexity of it is achievable and viable in the terms of costing. -The design must appeal to both school children between the school years of 7 and 13 as well as teachers, parents and anyone else visiting the school. -I shall aim to produce a design that is in keeping with schools efforts on becoming a more modern and environmentally friendly place. -Although my design will be aimed at the school in general, my specific client shall be the head teacher Sally Wilson, who has agreed to liaise and discus ideas with me about the possible future instillation of the light. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: -best fan type? -full size or scale prototype? -exact location -fit product around clients needs and requirements -components needed -electronics -aesthetics ADAM SYKES 9457
  3. 3. THE SITUATION The Sun heats our atmosphere unevenly, so some patches become warmer than others. These warm patches of air rise, other air blows in to replace them - and we feel this as wind blowing. We can use the energy in the wind by building a tall tower, with a large propeller on the top. The wind blows the propeller round, which turns a generator to produce electricity via the rotation a magnet through a copper coil. Initial construction thoughts: I am aiming to use recycled and recyclable materials when possible as this will cut down on CO2 emissions produced in the creation and shipping of new products, as well as not adding any strain to resources. To generate the electricity I may use either a second hand bike dynamo or the generator located inside a wind up torch as they would be perfect to attach to the rotating blades, as their original function was to spin a magnet through a copper coil, inducing electricity created by the spinning of a cog or wheel. This electricity is then either used directly through a light, or is stored in a battery so that it can be used when required. Key Issues: The materials I use to make my product must be of good enough quality so that components will be durable and withstand a long life of working. The moving parts of my design must be well secured and made of strong materials that will not break over time. It’s essential that not only my client likes my design but also the school students. I will aim to design my product in a modern style but keeping the manufacturing as simple as possible. 15-Jul 29-Jul 12-Aug 26-Aug 09-Sep 23-Sep 07-Oct 21-Oct04-Nov18-Nov 02-Dec 16-Dec 30-Dec 13-Jan 27-Jan 10-Feb 24-Feb 10- Mar 24- Mar 07-Apr Activities Finalise the client and their needs: Research into project: holidayholiday Initial designs and client feedback: Making and modelling: Further tests, models and CAD drawings: holiday Begin manufacturing: Present work to client for feedback: Make any nessisary changes: Evaluation and conclusion of Project Bi-weekly Beginning ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE TWO
  4. 4. DESIGN BRIEF ANALYSIS Project Brief -Wind powered light. THEMES ENVIRONMENT SAFETY TARGET AUDIENCE COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS AESTHETICS Environmental factors-appealing to modern living in which style and the environment are both increasingly popular with designers. Reception at the Blandford School. To light up ground for night events. Will ensure the product is safe during it’s operational life span. Schools, specifically The Blandford School. For a free light source. The quality of materials, depending on my price limit , recycled where possible to fit with environmental theme. Physical size, colour and shape. Should appeal to teenagers to promote the values of protecting the environment. could be taken further and used along roads and streets in areas with a fair amount of wind. Electrical components will be fully insulated and rotating blades will be secure. Must be designed to fit with location of its intended use. Could be made from aluminium sheets with polymers used for electronic component housings. Type of turbine, vertical axis or horizontal and fan type. This page addresses key issues I will have to address throughout the designing and manufacturing stage of my wind powered light. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THREE
  5. 5. INITIAL SPECIFICATION ADAM SYKES 9457 POINT SPECIFICATION TIMESCALE To ensure I finish my product on time, I will am to keep as close to my Gantt Chart as possible, putting in extra hours to deal with any unforeseen errors. TARGET MARKET My design will be aimed as a single product at my school, to illuminate the reception area. But if it were to go into mass production I would aim it at county councils to be installed as street lights. FUNCTION The function of my design is to convert wind energy into light by turning rotor blades connected to an electric generator which in turn charges a battery. SIZE I will aim to keep the main section of my product (the rotor and light) as small and compact as possible, fitting it around the dimensions of the battery and electric generator. If my product is successful and weather proof I will then install it in the school grounds, I will then have to attach it to lamp post. DURABILITY My light must stand up to British weather, therefore being water tight and structurally able to withstand impacts from birds and tree debris. AESTHETICS I will aim to keep my design as simplistic as possible, with function as the main concern, still holding aesthetics in high regard. MATERIALS/ MANUFACTURENG Where possible I shall use reclaimed and recycled materials (as this also fits in with the sustainability aspect. ) Whether or not I manufacture my product from a combination of polymers or metals will depend on my clients wishes. SAFETY I will ensure all electronics are enclosed and sealed from water, whilst the rest of the product conforming to the required British standards. COST The manufacturing costs would be dramatically reduced if my design was to be mass produced as the production could make use of buying materials in bulk and would therefore reduce costs. As I am only making a one off product I shall still aim to keep costs low, but not as low as they would be in mass production. I will aim to spend no more than £50 on my product. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES The main aim for this product is to create free clean energy in the form of light. Therefore I shall base my project on sustainability and environmental factors such as: having 0 air miles in my design with none of the materials I use coming from over sea, using recycled components and using materials which can be recycled. QUANTITY I shall aim to produce one working prototype product. TESTING I will make and model multiple designs, finding the most simplistic and efficient design before I begin manufacturing. PAGE FOUR
  6. 6. ENVIROMENTAL AND FINANCIAL IMPACTS OF STREET LIGHTING In 2011 the 9 million street lights in the UK cost £110 million on electricity bills to power. Nottingham county council released this statement: “The electricity bill for street lighting has increased dramatically from £1.05m in 2004/05 to an estimated £6m in 2015/16 and, over the long term, energy prices are likely to continue to rise. Meanwhile the County Council is predicting that it will have to take £150m off its current budget over the next three years to deal with the financial pressures it faces.” Dorset county have recently refitted the old inefficient sulphur street lights with whiter and brighter LED ones. Despite being a lot more energy efficient they still cost a lot to manufacture as well as the cost fit the new ones and to transport the old ones to be recycled, on top of all this they still do require the burning of fossil fuels to produce the electricity required to run them “Every time we switch on a light or turn on the central heating, or even eat a hot meal we use energy. Whatever kind of fuel we use, whether we burn it directly or indirectly by buying electricity generated from fossil fuels (coal, oil or gas), we are releasing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. CO2 is one of the main gases that contributes to global warming, which is now scientifically recognised as a real threat to today's climate. This doesn't just mean warmer summers and milder winters, global climate change is responsible for there being more floods, storms and droughts around the world than ever before. Over the past 20 years, scientists have gathered conclusive evidence temperatures have been rising sharply since the start of the industrial revolution, and that mankind is the main cause of global climate change.” http://www.nef.org.uk/knowledge-hub/climate-change-energy/climate-change Advantages of Wind Power: 1. The wind is free and with modern technology it can be captured efficiently. 2. Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does not cause green house gases or other pollutants. 3. Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only a small plot of land. This means that the land below can still be used. This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farming can still continue. 4. Many people find wind farms an interesting feature of the landscape. 5. Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply. 6. Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed and third world. 7. Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means a vast range of people and businesses can use them. Single households to small towns and villages can make good use of range of wind turbines available today. Disadvantages of Wind Power: 1. The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies from zero to storm force. This means that wind turbines do not produce the same amount of electricity all the time. There will be times when they produce no electricity at all. 2. Many people feel that the countryside should be left untouched, without these large structures being built. The landscape should left in its natural form for everyone to enjoy. 3. Wind turbines are noisy. Each one can generate the same level of noise as a family car travelling at 70 mph. 4. Many people see large wind turbines as unsightly structures and not pleasant or interesting to look at. They disfigure the countryside and are generally ugly. 5. When wind turbines are being manufactured some pollution is produced. Therefore wind power does produce some pollution. 6. Large wind farms are needed to provide entire communities with enough electricity ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE FIVE
  7. 7. EXISTING PRODUCTS PAGE SUMMARY: On this page I have looked into other existing products and designs. The majority of wind powered lights I have found online are all CAD concepts, very few have actually been made, and of those few the majority are one off products, not batch or mass produced. When looking on Google for “Wind powered street lights” in the “shopping” section there were none for sale, the closest I could find were small garden ones on Amazon. This lighting solution, like many of the others is only a computer concept. The design itself can be seen as an art peace as well as a functional product. It is a very attractive piece of which would be happily welcomed into an urban environment, unlike the generic wind turbine which is widely regarded as unattractive. This product not only uses wind power it also uses solar energy. Due to this, this product would be better suited in a sunnier climate than Great Brittan. Unlike the last design, this one was actually manufactured as a one off product, out of galvanized steel and aluminium sheets. Unlike the last design this one is focused much more on practicality rather than looks. I believe that a design compromise between the two would be best, as it would still be aesthetically appealing whilst being fully functional. Due to its fully metal construction and the fact it is a single sand alone product, it would have cost a lot to produce, as well as not containing any recycled materials. This design, like the fist one, is only a CAD animation. Also like the first one it features a solar panel as well as a wind turbine. The key difference between this design and the other two is the style of turbine blades. This one being a horizontally orientated design, meaning that it must turn to face the wind, whereas the other two are always facing the wind. The design of this model is very minimalistic with only one colour ad a lack of elaborate shapes, meaning its contraction would be more difficult than the first one.. CLIENT FEEDBACK TO RESEARCH: Adam has clearly completed a lot of research and has focused on what matters to us as a school. Price is always key but quality and style should not be compromised. Our new reception area is contemporary and minimalist in style and the light needs to be designed to fit in with this. Lighting across the site is difficult so as much light as possible needs to be produced by this product. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE SIX
  8. 8. INITIAL IDEAS 1) My first design is a basic Google Sketchup model which features a simple and understated look. This design features a vertical rotary system, as do the others on this page, a drive shaft would come off the spinning blades indirectly to a generator via a cog or pulley system. The colours of this design wouldn't fit completely with the general mauve/burgundy colours associated with The Blandford School. Despite this, I believe the simplicity of both the colours and the design display a minimalistic feel, although this is an issue as this product is designed to go at the front of the school, and should therefore hold aesthetical value highly. 2) The second designs shares many features with the first, such as the arrangement of the rotor blades driving a generator, in turn charging a battery and powering a light, with all the components stored in the base of the turbine housing. However, this design contains a vacuum formed lid, rather than one assembled out of layers of polymers. Furthermore, this design features a different type of rotor blades, in this case they are two semicircles which catch the wind. 3) My third concept has taken the environmental factor even further , using a tree to support the turbine and light, rather than manufacturing and installing a post. This design is limited to locations with an abundance of trees near to where the light is required, and would therefore be unnecessary at the Blandford school as the area I have proposed the installation of the light is free of trees. 4) My fourth idea would be the simplest and sturdiest idea. The four supporting beams on each corner would be stainless steel tubes with threaded ends screwed to milled end caps. The main body of this design would be made from oak planks, cut to size and coated with a weathering agent. The turbine blades will be the same simple design as the first one, with multiple lengths of laser cut acrylic fitting via a mortise and tenon joint to a circular acrylic disk. PAGE SUMMARY: Out of my four designs on this page, I prefer the first two due to their simplistic and circular design, both being similar in construction differing with the types of blades and the amount of them. Although the 3rd one would be the most environmentally conscious eliminating the need for a stand and base due to the straps temporally fixing it to the tree. However, this concept would be inefficient due to the tree reducing the amount of wind which would be utilised by the blades. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE SEVEN
  9. 9. INITIAL DESIGN MODELS LDR on the top. Light is inactive when sunlight is on the lamp, when it gets dark the light activates. Turbine housing. Turbine blades. Battery, circuit board and Dynamo housing. Super bright LED’s in translucent housing. I began by looking into the turbine housing and blades, making similar versions to the Google sketch up design below. I created these models above out of MDF and acrylic sheets, using polypropylene to act as the rotor blades. In doing this I found these designs to be very inefficient and also very easy to catch the wind in the other direction and therefore stop spinning. I used the motor and circuit board from a rechargeable torch to attach to the drive shaft and produce light. I found that a redesign of the rotor blades was essential. One final drawback of the models is the need for bearings so that they run even smoother. To the left is where I intend my final product to go. This is so that it illuminates the main reception as well as being one of the first things visitors see when entering the school. Its aim is to reflect the schools environmentally conscious image to visitors and students. Despite being an inefficient system, I shall attempt to improve the blades while keeping the same overall look to the design, as I believe these colours and shapes look very aesthetically pleasing while having environmental connotations and being quite minimalist. CLIENT FEEDBACK TO INITIAL DESIGNS: I like the style of Adam’s product so far, it builds on the contours of the building and will not be an eyesore, it will more likely be a ‘talking point’ for visitors. The testing and changing of the rotor blades is good and helps provide me with confidence that the final design will meet need. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE EIGHT
  10. 10. Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set vertically and the main components are located at the base of the turbine. Among the advantages of this arrangement are that generators and gearboxes can be placed close to the ground, which makes these components easier to service and repair, and that VAWTs do not need to be pointed into the wind. The Savonius turbine is one of the simplest turbines. Aerodynamically, it is a drag-type device, consisting of two or three scoops. Looking down on the rotor from above, a two-scoop machine would look like an "S" shape in cross section. Because of the curvature, the scoops experience less drag when moving against the wind than when moving with the wind. The differential drag causes the Savonius turbine to spin. FURTHER RESEARCH AND MODELLING After my initial models not being very good, not spinning without the help of a hairdryer, I decided to look into the Savonius rotor. Using a band saw I cut a section of Pringle tubing in two and then laser cut the turbine housing from 4mm corrugated card, using a 4mm mild steel rod I then glued the rod to the blades and cut a plastic tube to act as the stem of the lamp. Despite not having bearings and the crude construction and imperfections of hot glue adhesive, this model worked far better than the other two. Not only did it catch the wind a lot more than the others, it only spins in one direction, meaning unlike the other designs this one won’t be limited to the wind direction. -As the blades do not cut across the airflow, there is less stress on the blades. -Lower maintenance requirements than traditional designs as there are no electronic systems to control blade pitch or revolution speed. -No gearbox and no brake pads means easy maintenance and no expensive parts to replace. -Wildlife friendly compared to traditional designs as there are no flight windows between rotations, keeping birds away. -Can be scaled up and down making it suitable for industrial or domestic embedded generation scenarios. ADAM SYKES 9457 BELOW ARE EXAMPLES OF SAVONIUS SYSTEMS:ADVANTAGES: Identical top and bottom laser cut corrugated cardboard disks with a 4mm whole cut for the mild steel rod in the centre and two engraved semicircles so I knew where to adhere the blades. Two laser cut corrugated cardboard supporting sections which hold up the top section of the turbine . Pringles tube cut down the centre on the band saw to act as the blades for the Savonius rotor. Further laser cut corrugated cardboard sections which act as a housing for the spinning blades as well as supporting the tube. uPVC tubing acting as a guard to the steel rod. Glued to the inside of the corrugated cardboard circular sections which hold it in place. Mild Steel drive shaft glued to the spinning blades with an epoxy resign. PAGE NINE
  11. 11. FURTHER MODELLING After the success of my cardboard model on the previous page, I decided to make a housing for the generator and the circuit board. Below is the process in which I made it. Initially I designed the component housing around my previous cardboard model on Corel Draw X6 and then laser cut it out of 4mm acrylic. I also cut out s series of cogs to gear up the speed of the generator when spun by the drive shaft. I then temporarily glued in place the circuit board and LED’s to the acrylic . Due to the tension caused by the elastic band on the cogs, it caused the rotor to slow , if I had used a bearing instead of simply allowing the cardboard to rub then I believe it would spin a lot more freely. I then began to make a stronger model (as the card one rubbed when rotating and felt very flimsy.) I decided to cut an aluminium coke can in two and use these sections for the rotor. The top right image on this page is a corrugated cardboard test of the MDF housing below (I cut it from card first to ensure that it was drawn to the correct dimensions before cutting into the more expensive MDF.) Once I ensured my Corel drawing worked, I then cut the same pieces from MDF as to give my model more structural rigidity. I had to cut and thread three lengths of 4mm mild steel rod, two to support the top of the turbine and one to act as a drive shaft. I then cut a small length of PVC tubing to enclose the driveshaft, adding even more structural integrity. This model worked far better than the previous one, but due to the friction caused by the rubbing of MDF to MDF and steel to MDF, slowing down the spinning, bearings will definitely be needed in the next model. The image in the bottom right hand corner of this page is a successful test of what the final circuit board will need to be like. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE TEN
  12. 12. GOOGLE SKETCHUP MODELLING After the success of my past two Savonius models, I began redesigning my Google Sketch Up model. With my new design I put in a lot more attention to detail when creating it, creating a proper turbine housing (unlike with the initial SketchUp design.) I will aim to use recycled and recyclable materials when possible, to in keep with the eco friendly theme. When possible I shall try to reuse items such as bearings, battery and the dynamo. This design would be manufactured using layers of laser cut 9mm acrylic sheets, with two Polypropylene blades created by cutting a sheet to size and securing it in two semicircle holes, one at the top and one at the bottom of the blades. The cover on the top would be created by vacuum forming an acrylic sheet over a curved mould. The battery would be stored in a specialist jig cased inside the bottom part of the housing, with the generator connected directly by cogs or a chain to the driveshaft. Improved design- With this design I have included two supporting beams acting as the turbine housing to hold the protective roof section in place over the blades. Furthermore, the Savonius blades have been included for maximum efficiency. I have also focused more on the colour scheme in this design, aiming to replicate the colours of the sky so that it blends in better with its environment and isn't an eyesore. Initial design- With the initial design I forgot to incorporate the housing for the fan blades. Furthermore the blades on the initial design were inefficient, being slow and libel to rotate either direction. In addition, the design was too simplistic and the colours were too basic and would have looked out of place on the school grounds. ADAM SYKES 9457 Light dependant resistor on the top of the turbine housing which will activate the lights when the ambient light falls below a set luminosity. Supporting beams made from either Mild Steel or Acrylic rods which will hold up the top section of the turbine housing. New blade design- Savonius blades. Made from either Polypropylene or a piece of Acrylic tubing cut in two. Improved design for the lamp post, applying a metallic texture onto the CAD design, with the final post most likely being Galvanised Steel. PAGE ELEVEN
  13. 13. FURTHER MODELLING DEVELOPMENT I decided to create a more refined and functional Savonius model so that I understood the procedures required to make the blades myself, rather than cutting a tube in two. I initially cut two identical sheets of aluminium and then measured the length and thereby worked out half of the circumference of a whole circle. I then laser cut a the correct sized semicircle out of 6mm MDF and used it as a guide to bend the aluminium sheets to. Using the sheet rollers I bent the two sheets into perfect semicircles. I then drew a circle on Corel Draw X6 with the two cut outs for the blades and cut it out of 4mm corrugated cardboard. After gluing the two blades in place I found this to be an extremely effective and efficient rotor system. One thing I did find with the Savonius rotor is that when it stops rotating it can end up facing side on to the next oncoming wind, and It therefore struggles to spin again, unless there is a new direction of wind. Below I have drawn a small diagram of this problem. To solve this I may have to design a third rotor blade so that it will not only function in any wind direction, but the third blade would increase the surface area in contact with the air, thus increasing the speed of rotation. ADAM SYKES 9457 PROBLEM AND SOLUTION: PAGE TWELVE
  14. 14. DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS CLIENT FEEDBACK TO MODELLING: As a client I am impressed by the detailed work going into the design of this product and am pleased Adam is concentrating on efficiency and aesthetics. The contours continue to match those of the building and I like the ease of attachment to a structure (eg the basketball post). The eco friendly theme will appeal to students, staff and governors. Once I decided I needed a third rotor blade for increased efficiency, I began designing a new system. This time, instead of cutting the spaces for the blades into a large circle, I designed the housing of the blades to be as small and light as possible, decreasing weight and therefore requiring less wind to move it. This new design also allowed me interlock the two sections together on the laser bed, thus reducing waste materials. I included strengthening beams to ensure the flexing polypropylene blades don’t break the MDF whilst trying to return to their original shape. I laser cut a 4mm hole in the centre of the housing for a mild steel rod to be glued in place. As this was only a model, I only cut out very small sections to act as the blades, the final design will be a lot taller to catch more wind. I then moved on to design the housing for the turbine. I did this by laser cutting 3mm MDF for the main section and 6mm for the three support beams. With this design I included small bearings to which I accounted for and cut out two tight fitting holes in top and bottom section, allowing a tight friction fit. I am extremely pleased with the outcome of this design, as it is both the most efficient and aesthetically pleasing design. Even with this model being very shallow, it still caught a lot of wind, especially when I attached it to a basketball post. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THIRTEEN
  15. 15. MATERIALS I looked into the sort of LED lighting cyclists would use on their bikes. I discovered that a brand new one (considering I would be looking to buy one second hand) costs around £20. I then looked into alternative lighting and found that powerful surface mounted LED’s are not only brighter but significantly cheaper. I also found a 12V 7AH rechargeable battery which when fully charged can run the 600MA light for 11.6 hours, which is more than enough for what I require. For the section under the rotor blades I designed it to be a cylindrical tube, after looking at the prices for acrylic tubing of the same diameter I would need to house the battery I found them to be far too expensive. Therefore I could try to create a tube by rolling a single sheet of aluminium and spot welding it to itself. As the majority of my design will involve laser cut acrylic sheets I needed to ensure that the bonding agent used to join two sections of acrylic would be %100 watertight. I tested this by cutting an acrylic disk to loosely fit an acrylic tube and then sealed the gap using plastic weld. Although being messy this method worked to ensure the join was watertight. To reduce the amount of plastic weld required I cut another acrylic disk, this time I measured it to the exact dimension of the tube (unlike before when I made it intentionally too small ) and the friction fit was enough to hold water at bay. This has shown me I need to be extra careful when cutting and measuring with my final product as I would like to use as little of the environmentally harmful plastic weld as possible. Above is an example of the acrylic sheet I would need for the two sandwiching sections of the turbine, with a thicker 10mm sheet for the two sandwiching sections of the turbine housing. To the right is an example of the acrylic rods I could use to support the top section of the turbine (mild steel rods were used in my coke can model). ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE FOURTEEN
  16. 16. POSSIBLE COMPONENTS D H-217mm W-180mm D-180mm H-95mm W-65mm L-150mm ID-4mm OD-16mm D-5mm D D I have decided to look into alternative methods to achieve the tube section needed for my product. As this is a one off prototype, it would be very cost and time ineffective to create this section from the two previous methods I had considered (buying a large acrylic tube and cutting it to size, or rolling a sheet of aluminium into a tube and welding it.) I have also looked into products which could serve as an alternative, leading me to find this small bin, as it not only fits the size criteria correctly, but it is also relatively cheap. However, I will probably have to apply a different finish to it, depending on the clients wishes for colours. Furthermore, I will have to measure and cut a jig to go on the inside to hold the battery, circuit board and LED. To the right is the battery I have purchased to power my light. I made sure that I bought not only a powerful battery, but a relatively small one, as others I have looked at were around four times the size. It is also perfect as it fits into the housing I have looked into, which is 180mm wide, whereas the battery is only 150mm in length, and 163mm from corner to corner. D D D To the left is a bearing which matches the exact dimensions I require, with an internal diameter of 4mm, the same as the mild steel rod I plan on using, and with an external diameter of 16mm. One of the most commonly used bearings, these types are manufactured with metal shields inserted into the outer raceway, fitting in closely to the inner race providing protection against light mechanical damage, some protection against the entrance of moisture, dust and other foreign matter and serving to retain the pre-filled grease in the bearing. Benefits: Provides light mechanical protection, limits moisture and dirt ingress, lubricated for life, cost effective solution ADAM SYKES 9457 PAGE SUMMARY: On this page I have looked into various readymade components which I may use in my final product, in the case of the 4mm bearings I am certain I shall purchase a similar item, however, in the case of the tube section I am still unsure as to whether I will use this bin (or one like it) or if I'll attempt to make a tube from bending Aluminium or if I will come across a piece of tubing which will fit my criteria. Similarly with the battery, although purchasing one, I am still unsure of its suitability for the wind powered light. PAGE FIFTEEN
  17. 17. DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS Taking both function and aesthetics into account, I have re- designed the turbine blades. With this updated design I have focused more on smoothing out the areas with sharp angles, as this will reflect the look of nature, with smooth flowing curves. Furthermore, I have added an extra strengthening beam behind each rotor to ensure a higher structural integrity. in addition I have added spacers in the slots for the blades, as the flexing of the polypropylene was causing structural weaknesses along the blade, whereas with these extra sections of material, the polypropylene won’t be able to flex open the gap, meaning gluing will be easier. Taking both function and aesthetics into account again, I have re-designed the turbine housings, as before I have focused on curves and more natural shapes, eliminating the harsh right angles. Furthermore I have decided to use acrylic rods rather than a laser cut rectangular section to support the top of the turbine, as either rods or possibly sanded down rounded rectangular sections will consist of curves and therefore look more attractive. Unlike my initial plans to laser cut these sections out of acrylic, I may try to mill them out on the three axis milling machine, using a Pro Desktop file to create a 3D CAD design, allowing me to add bevels to the edges, rather than the 90⁰ wedge created by laser cutting. Above is a scanned in image of a sketch for my final idea. This idea incorporates the changes I have made on this page, with the curves and additional structural beams. I have also coloured it in with the colours my clients agreed to, matching and blending in with the sky as much as possible. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE SIXTEEN
  18. 18. CAD DESIGN On this page I have taken the sketch from my previous page and created a Google SketchUp model, focusing on what my final design will look like, drawn to scale with the colours agreed to with my client. I have also displayed my design in various ways, including X-ray and wire frame to show the interior of the housing unit at the base. CLIENT FEEDBACK TO DESIGN CHANGES: Adam is clearly focusing on how sturdy the product is, and he needs to as this will be very important – the area outside Reception is not covered so it will be exposed to all weathers. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE SEVENTEEN
  19. 19. CAD DESIGN ANALYSIS ADAM SYKES 9457 Laser cut 5mm translucent blue Acrylic will act as the top and bottom sections for the turbine housing. This is due to the aesthetical value of laser cut translucent Acrylic on top of the fact that it is a thermo plastic and therefore recyclable, meaning any off cuts which can’t be used can still be recycled. Laser cut 1.5mm Stainless Steel pieces which will hold the Polypropylene blades in place. Brushed with fine wire wool for aesthetical value. 10mm x 10mm x 500mm Acrylic rod cut to size and glued using an Acrylic weld to the 5mm translucent blue Acrylic. These rods act as the supporting beams which hold up the top section of the turbine housing as well as being visually appealing with the transparent Acrylic reflecting and refracting light which falls upon it. 210mm x 240mm x 0.8mm blue Polypropylene blades with specially designed locking tabs to ensure that they are securely fitted to the Stainless Steel without the requirement of an adhesive. As with the Acrylic sheet , I have chosen to use Polypropylene as any off cuts too small for somebody else to use can be recycled. uPVC tubing cut to size on the band saw and then sprayed with a white primer base coat, followed by several layers of light blue. Milled Aluminium ‘T’ shape sections which will slot into the top and bottom of the uPVC tube. The top one will have three holes cut into it so that it can be attached to the 5mm Acrylic via three identically cut holes. The bottom piece will have a hole cut into it for the lens of the LED as well as for the pole which will hold the entire object. Supporting post possibly made from galvanised steel. However this will not be important in my design process as I am focusing on the aesthetical aspects of the main sections of the turbine and its housing. PAGE EIGHTEEN
  20. 20. DESIGN ALTERATIONS Due to a range of testing and experiments with trying to run a wind up camping light directly off a drive shaft from a spinning rotor, and coming across complications with the electrical components, I have decided to take my design in a slightly different direction. I now aim to make a .75 scale spinning prototype as before, only now I do not intend for it to charge a battery and power a light, it will now be a purely non functioning model with a separate bread boarded circuit board to show how the light dependant resistor will function as a switch. To the left is a screen shot of the initial correspondence between myself and external contact who works at a local metal working company. I have sent a file of an attachment of the top and bottom sections of the rotor, as I had indented for these two sections to be laser cut out of stainless steel rather than acrylic as this would add a more premium look to my product. Furthermore, the stainless steel would be better suited for the function than acrylic would, being able to withstand impacts without shattering . Mr Open has stated that he his unsure which thickness would be ideal to cleanly cut the pieces whilst still retaining structural integrity, however he will test out a 2mm thickness first, as we both believe this will most likely work best. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE NINETEEN CLIENT FEEDBACK TO PLAN CHANGE: I am pleased Adam has taken the advice of an industry specialist and is keen to try different approaches based on the advice provided.
  21. 21. STAINLESS STEEL SECTIONS On this page is the continuous communication between myself and an external metal working contact . After clarifying a few issues, such as the thickness of material and the scale of the drawing to be cut I then received an email stating that they had been cut. I am extremely pleased with the outcome of the laser cut sections of stainless steel , as they are far better than I had imagined, being thinner yet stronger than I had thought, whilst being identical to the CAD file, despite my expectations that cutting such thin lines into such thin material might lead to it welding itself back together. Admittedly there were a few inconsistencies and imperfections , however these are extremely fine details that can only be observed from close inspection. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE TWENTY
  22. 22. POLYPROPYLENE BLADES Firstly, I did laser cutting tests on a sheet of 0.8mm thick polypropylene, changing the power level of the laser to reduce the melted burrs which build up along the path of the laser, making it harder to slot into the sections of stainless steel. Once satisfied with the power of the laser I then cut out a 300mm piece with the specific grooves to fit into the steel. Although fitting reasonably well I found that due to its length it began to bow in the centre, which then led me to re-design a smaller blade. I then decided to re-design the length of the blades to 200mm in an attempt to reduce the bowing effect created by the previous blade . I found that reducing the length of the blades worked well, as now there was no bowing. However, I found it extremely difficult to slot the blades into both sections of stainless steel, as when one went in the other popped out. Furthermore difficulties I have encountered include attaching the blades once in position, as using an epoxy resign which would be the strongest way of attaching the components together would also be messy and leave unsightly blobs of glue. Re-designing the top and bottom sections of the blades so that they not only slotted into the steel groves without easily coming out but fit so well that they required no external adhesive at all proved to be quite challenging. Requiring three attempts to create sufficient locking tabs I was eventually pleased with my design which allowed the blades to be slotted in place with the additions of the locking tabs making it almost impossible to simply pull the blade out (without breaking it) ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE TWENTY ONE
  23. 23. For the static top and bottom sections of the housing for the rotor I have decided to use a sheet of 5mm Acrylic , which I will then laser cut the CAD design from. To the far left is a test piece I cut from a piece of clear 5mm acrylic to ensure the correct measurements. Despite being far larger than I need, the 1000x600 sheet is the smallest sized sheet which would fit the pieces I need cutting on it. Due to this I have ensured the excess Acrylic does not go to waist, as a classmate of mine is splitting the piece with me. I have decided to go with a translucent blue sheet as this is in keeping with the idea of it blending into the environment, using colours associated with the sky . Light Blue Tint Acrylic Sheet Code: 5MMK2I7092 £20.63 Sheet Size: 1000mm x 500mm x 5mm POLYPROPYLENE SHEET OPAQUE ICE BLUE Code: POL0005 £5.83 Sheet Size: 650mm x 1100mm x 0.8mm Based purely on aesthetics I have decided to use 10x10mm clear acrylic rod to act as the supporting beams to hold up the top section rather than using the same blue acrylic. For the three blades I have decided to use a sheet of 650 x 1100 x 0.8mm Polypropylene which I will then laser cut the CAD file from. As with the Acrylic sheet , this sheet far exceeds my requirements . I shall use the smallest amount of material I can, reducing the waste off cuts between each piece meaning that there will be more spare material for other people to use in the future. Again, as with the Acrylic, I have ordered blue material so that it merges with the sky and won’t stand out too much. For the base section which will hold the lights and battery (and dynamo in the real thing) I have decided to use a piece of u-PVC tubing cut to size and sprayed to match the colours of the rest of the turbine. I shall initially spray a white primer coat and then several layers of light blue in order to match the colours of the rest of the product.. ADAM SYKES 9457 FINAL MATERIALS PAGE TWENTY TWO
  24. 24. MANUFACTURING PLAN ADAM SYKES 9457  STEP ONE: Ensure Stainless Steel sections are laser cut before I begin to manufacture other sections as these are the main pieces and due to the complexity of the design and my lack of experience with the external metal working company meaning I don’t know how long it will take them to process the file and cut the sections.  STEP TWO: Apply an even matt finish to the Stainless Steel pieces with wire wool to increase aesthetical value.  STEP THREE: Once materials have arrived, cut 5mm Acrylic sheet to minimum size needed so that it not only fits on the laser bed but this also means there will be more material for my classmate to use who is sharing the sheet with me.  STEP FOUR: Laser cut out the pieces of 5mm Acrylic and 0.8mm Polypropylene, firstly cutting the files out on paper to certify the correct sizes.  STEP FIVE: Cut 10mm X 10mm clear Acrylic rod to desired size, guaranteeing that they fit into the laser cut slots in the 5mm Acrylic.  STEP SIX: Slot the three Polypropylene blades into the Stainless Steel pieces.  STEP SEVEN: Apply an Epoxy Resign to adhere the 4mm Mild Steel rod to the Stainless Steel pieces through the holes cut in the centre.  STEP EIGHT: Use an Epoxy Resign to glue the bearings in place in the 5mm Acrylic.  STEP NINE: Using a Plastic Cement, adhere the three 10mm X 10mm clear Acrylic rods to the 5mm Acrylic pieces, around the blades, ensuring that the Mild Steel rod is fed through the top and bottom bearing.  STEP TEN: Once in place, add an external bonding agent to adhere the Mild Steel to the bearings (on top of the strength of the friction fit.)  STEP ELEVEN: Cut uPVC tube to desired length.  STEP TWELVE: Apply a white base coat of paint to the tube, once dried, spray multiple layers of blue onto the tube.  STEP THIRTEEN: Solder required resistors onto a circuit board with Star LED and Battery pack.  STEP FOURTEEN: Mill out top and bottom Aluminium ‘T’ sections for the uPVC tube to fit into, as well as to connect the tube to the base of the 5mm Acrylic.  STEP FIFTEEN: Mill out holes for the light in the bottom Aluminium section.  STEP SIXTEEN: Attach the bottom and Aluminium ‘T’ sections to the tube using an Epoxy Resign and secure the top section to the 5mm Acrylic using three nuts and bolts.  FINISHED. POINT UPDATED SPECIFICATION TIMESCALE To ensure I finish my product on time, I will am to keep as close to my Gantt Chart as possible, putting in extra hours to deal with any unforeseen errors. TARGET MARKET My design will be aimed as a single product at my school, to illuminate the reception area. But if it were to go into mass production I would aim it at county councils to be installed as street lights. FUNCTION The function of my design is to act as a scale prototype for a wind powered light. SIZE I will aim to keep the main section of my product (the rotor and light) as small and compact as possible. DURABILITY My light must be tough, however not as durable as if it were to be an actual working product AESTHETICS The aesthetical value of my design is of paramount importance and surpasses the functionalities importance as I am only making a prototype. . MATERIALS/ MANUFACTURE NG Where possible I shall use reclaimed and recycled materials (as this also fits in with the sustainability aspect. ) Whether or not I manufacture my product from a combination of polymers or metals will depend on my clients wishes. SAFETY I will ensure all electronics are enclosed and sealed with no chance of shocks. COST The manufacturing costs would be dramatically reduced if my design was to be mass produced as the production could make use of buying materials in bulk and would therefore reduce costs. As I am only making a one off product I shall still aim to keep costs low, but not as low as they would be in mass production. I will aim to spend no more than £50 on my product. ENVIRONMENTA L ISSUES I shall base my project on sustainability and environmental factors such as: having 0 air miles in my design and using recyclable materials when possible. QUANTITY I shall aim to produce one scale prototype product. TESTING I will make and model multiple designs, finding the most simplistic and efficient design before I begin manufacturing. PAGE TWENTY THREE
  25. 25. MANUFACTURING ADAM SYKES 9457 To the left I have laser cut the 5mm translucent light blue Acrylic for the top and bottom sections of the turbine housing. These pieces will hold the bearings in the centre which will hold the 4mm Mild Steel rod, they also contain squares for the 10mm x 10mm transparent Acrylic rod to be glued in place . After I cut the 5mm Acrylic I knew that it would be an insufficient thickness to fully support the 10x10mm Acrylic rod, so I decided to cut further Acrylic circles with a 10x10mm square for the rod to go through. This means that when I go to glue the Acrylic sections together there will be more support for the rods, thus ensuring that they are secure. Before I cut the Polypropylene blades I altered the power setting on the laser to reduce the burr and burning along the path of the laser. Once I reduced the power sufficiently I then cut out the three blades. I cut the section of 1000mm x 500mm down to 600mm x 400mm so that it fit into the laser bed, utilising all the space when cutting by rearranging the two sections in a way which required the least space. PAGE SUMMARY: To the right is my product after the first week of beginning manufacturing. I have successfully cut all the Acrylic and Polypropylene that I need. Furthermore I have also cut and sprayed the uPVC tube. The Polypropylene fit well into the Stainless Steel as did the bearings into the Acrylic. TO DO: - Wire up a battery with the star LED - Cast Aluminium - Mill Aluminium - Glue all components together I initially cut the uPVC tube to 155mm using a band saw. I desired the length of 150mm but knew that the blade of the band saw would not only take off a few more millimetres but it would also cut slightly unevenly and not completely square. Because of this I then put the tube onto the lathe and faced the two edges until they were square. I then coated the tube with multiple layers of a white aerosol primer, allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Once fully dried I followed the same process but this time with a light blue aerosol paint. In the image to the right I have glued the bearings in place in the 5mm Acrylic. Before mixing the two part Epoxy resign, I masked off the area around where I would be gluing to eliminate the possibility of any excess glue adhering to the surface of the Acrylic which would have looked unsightly. After this, I coated the edge of the bearings with an Epoxy resign and glued them in place. To the right I have cut the two 500mm Acrylic rods into four 240mm rods using a band saw. I initially measured the 250mm half way mark on each rod and then measured back a few millimetres on each side and applied masking tape to the areas I didn’t wish to cut, and then cut on the centre line. Following this I then used a belt sander to face off the uneven faces and bring each rod down to 240mm. PAGE TWENTY FOUR
  26. 26. Laser cutting the two MDF disks from 12mm MDF with a following 3mm smaller disk being cut after these two. Coating the three MDF disks with polyvinyl acetate glue. Leaving the three disks to dry and the glue to set in a vice. Drilling and threading a hole for extraction of the mould from the sand. Coating MDF mould in powder so that extraction is easier. Packing sand around the MDF mould in the Drag moulding frame. Smoothening the sand of the bottom layer of the moulding frame. With the help of a class mate I then packed the sand around the wooden sprue pins in the Cope moulding frame. Smoothening the sand on the top of the Cope moulding frame around the sprues. Pulling out the wooden sprues leaving the riser and runner hole. Taking the Cope moulding frame off the Drag and then screwing a screw into the threaded hole so that I can remove the MDF mould. Removing the MDF mould and removing excess sand which crumbled inwards. Creating a path for the molten Aluminium to get into the mould and one for the air to escape. Fastening the Cope onto the Drag and preparing to pour the Aluminium ALUMINIUM CASTING ADAM SYKES 9457 Ensuring all safety measures are in place and igniting the flame. Leaving for a while to set and then begin to cool. After an hour or so, separating the Cope and Drag. Removing the piece carefully using long tongs and gloves, then quenching. Once the Aluminium is molten at 700°C pouring until it fills up both the riser and runner. PAGE TWENTY FIVE
  27. 27. FURTHER MANUFACTURING ADAM SYKES 9457 Above is my initial dimensional sketch for the Aluminium T-section, along with a Google SketchUp 3D CAD design. I produced the CAD design so that I knew what the final piece would look like before actually manufacturing it , using it as a guide to work to. After the casting process I had to cut off the two pieces of Aluminium which were formed in the runner and the riser. After which I filed off any burs and extruding imperfections and began to turn the piece on the metalworking lathe. Firstly I reduced the material down to size (since I intentionally made the Mould oversized so that I could carefully remove the rough outer layer of Aluminium.) once almost down to the right sizes in each dimension, I slowed the tool paths so that the finish would be finer than the rough one achieved my the initial turning. I then applied a shallow bevel to the edges to eliminate the risk of cuts caused by sharp edges. Once the T section was to the desired dimensions, I laser cut an MDF jig with three 4mm holes cut into it to represent where I would need to drill into the Aluminium. I then used these holes to centre punch an indentation into the Aluminium before drilling a 3.5mm hole. Once drilled, I threaded the inside of them with a 4mm tap, meaning that a 4mm bolt would fit securely into the Aluminium. Lastly, I drilled a 16mm centre hole for another bearing to fit into. PAGE TWENTY SIX
  28. 28. ADAM SYKES 9457 I then repeated the casting process a second time to produce a second Aluminium T section. Once I reduced the excess Aluminium and brought the piece down to size, I then created a 38mm hole trough the centre on the lathe for a steel tube to fit into. I then used the vertical axis milling to bore out a second hole for the lens of the super bright LED, I used the milling machine rather than a pillar drill as there was no drill bit of the exact size, however there was a bit of the correct size for the milling machine. I then cut two Acrylic sections; one a frosted ring and the other a clear disk. I glued these together and inserted them into the Aluminium with the lens placed behind, as the minimalistic styling of the Acrylic section surpassed the aesthetical value of the lens. Next, I began work on the internal and external electronics. I wired a battery pack to a switch and then to the LED with a resistor in series to limit the current flow. I also applied heat shrink over the soldered wires to ensure there were no exposed areas and that everything was fully insulated. I also made a small acrylic disk with a section cut out for the two wires which I used to secure the LED onto the lens inside the Aluminium. To counter the bowing of the blades (which was so severe that the rotor couldn't turn without catching on the Acrylic supports) I created a device (below) to ensure the blades remained straighter. This in turn allowed the rotor to freely spin. FURTHER MANUFACTURING PAGE TWENTY SEVEN
  29. 29. ADAM SYKES 9457 FINAL PRODUCT To conclude my manufacturing process I drilled a hole in the side of the uPVC tube and screwed the switch in place. Before gluing the Acrylic sections together I drilled three holes into the bottom piece corresponding with the holes drilled into the Aluminium which I then screwed three 4m bolts through, thus attaching the Acrylic to the Aluminium. I then proceeded to use plastic cement to adhere the Acrylic sections together and a two part Epoxy Resign to attach the Mild Steel rod to the bearings. PAGE TWENTY EIGHT
  30. 30. ADAM SYKES 9457 FINAL PRODUCT PAGE TWENTY NINE
  31. 31. RISK ASSESSMENT ADAM SYKES 9457 CASTING: Process-The production of a single piece component from molten metal poured into the cavity of a sand mould. HAZARDS: Explosions- Water, on or in the mould material , can boil explosively when heated by hot metal. Burns- Contact with hot crucible or molten metal splashed onto skin can cause severe burns. Chemical reaction- Molten aluminium can react violently with metal oxides such as rust. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Explosions- The risk of explosions is high in the following cases: When green sand moulds are used straight from a cold store or are cooled in water before being re- used. Also when plaster moulds are not thoroughly dried before use. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Burns- Molten metal can be splashed around when moving hand-held crucibles and ladles or as a result of an explosion whilst pouring. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Chemical reactions- The reaction between molten Aluminium and iron oxide is vey violent, however it is very rare in school workshops. CONTROL MEASURES: Casting should only be carried out in a dry area, with equipment designed for that purpose and under the supervision of certificated staff. Observers must also wear personal protective equipment and should be at least two meters back from the operation. METAL TURNING: Process-The production by turning, facing, boring , screw cutting, centre drilling, tapping and knurling of primarily cylindrical or spherical forms from both ferrous and non- ferrous raw material , possibly using oil based coolants. HAZARDS: Trapping- Closing movements between parts under power feed can present a trapping hazard. Flying workpiece- Workpieces, chuck keys or tools can be ejected violently if not held correctly or if the machine starts unexpectedly. User injury- Human contact with swarf can cause cuts or abrasions . Entanglement- Long hair, dangling jewellery or loose clothing can become entangled with rotating parts, dragging the operator into the machine. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Trapping- Movements under power feed are usually slow, thus minimising the risk of trapping which would most likely occur when the machine is being manually controlled. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Flying workpiece- There is a high risk that trainees will not clamp items securely. RISK ASSESSEMENT: User injury- There is a high risk of putting hands or fingers in fast moving hazardous places CONTROL MEASURES: There should be sufficient space around the lathe to ensure that the user is not pushed into the machine by a passer by. The floor surface should not be slippery to avoid accidental slips while using the machine. Guards over the moving areas should prevent anything from flying towards the user. Process-Use of a high powered laser to cut plastics, rubber, wood, card and textiles under computer control as an example of CAM. HAZARDS: Burns- High power lasers can cause severe burns to skin. Blinding- Reflective beams can cause blinding if entering the eye with powerful lasers. Toxic flumes- The use of the laser to cut PVC generates toxic vinyl chloride. Polyurethane foams may give hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides when heated. Fire- The material being cut may be ignited by the cutting process. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Burns- The risk of burning is minimal providing that the laser beams are totally enclosed. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Blinding- The risk of blinding is minimal providing that the laser beams are totally enclosed. CONTROL MEASURES: Interlock to prevent the use of the laser unless the system is enclosed and the lid is shut. Servicing should be carried out regularly by professionals. PVC and polyurethane should not ever be cut. The power and speed settings must be set correctly. An extractor fan must be on to reduce fumes and the chance of fire. LASER CUTTING: RISK ASSESSEMENT: Fire- If the instructions provided by the manufacture are followed then the risk of ignition of the workpiece should be low. RISK ASSESSEMENT: Toxic fumes- Polyvinyl Chloride and Polyurethane foams present a serious risk. PAGE THIRTY
  32. 32. SPECIFICATION COMPARISON POINT / UPDATED SPECIFICATION COMMENT TIMESCALE  To ensure I finish my product on time, I will am to keep as close to my Gantt chart as possible, putting in extra hours to deal with any unforeseen errors. I was able to keep closely to my Gantt chart, finishing slightly ahead f schedule due to the removal of the electronic components. TARGET MARKET  My design will be aimed as a single product at my school, to illuminate the reception area. But if it were to go into mass production I would aim it at county councils to be installed as street lights. As my product was initially aimed at one specific client, it has remained the same throughout . FUNCTION  The function of my design is to act as a scale prototype for a wind powered light. My final product succeeded at being a scale prototype as I had intended. SIZE  I will aim to keep the main section of my product (the rotor and light) as small and compact as possible. I was successful in keeping the main components as small as possible, with the obvious exception of the blades needing to be relatively large, however, my new design for the tree bladed Savonius rotor was able to minimise the size. DURABILITY  My light must be tough, however not as durable as if it were to be an actual working product Because of the materials I was limited to due to limitations of the cost my final prototype it succeeded in being a scale model, however it was not structurally the same as it would have to be for the full sized working product. AESTHETICS  The aesthetical value of my design is of paramount importance and surpasses the functionalities importance as I am only making a prototype. My final product ended up looking almost identical to my final Google SketchUp CAD model and initial sketches and was extremely aesthetically pleasing. MATERIALS/ MANUFACTURENG  Where possible I shall use reclaimed and recycled materials (as this also fits in with the sustainability aspect. ) Whether or not I manufacture my product from a combination of polymers or metals will depend on my clients wishes. Although I was able to use primarily recyclable materials, such as the Acrylic and Polypropylene as well as some reused elements (the uPVC tube) the majority of materials used were brand new and not recycled as I had hoped for. SAFETY  I will ensure all electronics are enclosed and sealed with no chance of shocks. All electrical components inside the uPVC tube were correctly soldered and subsequently wrapped in heat shrink to eliminate any chances of shows or shorting. COST  The manufacturing costs would be dramatically reduced if my design was to be mass produced as the production could make use of buying materials in bulk and would therefore reduce costs. As I am only making a one off product I shall still aim to keep costs low, but not as low as they would be in mass production. I will aim to spend no more than £50 on my product. As my product was a one off and benefitted from the charity of Bristolmaid who supplied me with the laser cut stainless steel free of charge, I was able to keep the overall cost of my product well below my initial maximum price limit. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  I shall base my project on sustainability and environmental factors such as: having 0 air miles in my design and using recyclable materials when possible. I was able to attain all materials and components from mainly local sources with the exception of Trent Plastics and Hindleys, however even these two locations remained in England, meaning there are no air miles associated with my product. Furthermore the majority of the materials used in the prototype are recyclable. QUANTITY  I shall aim to produce one scale prototype product. I succeeded in producing one scale prototype. TESTING  I will make and model multiple designs, finding the most simplistic and efficient design before I begin manufacturing. I produced a number of different models and tested their efficiency before settling on my final design. ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THIRTY ONE
  33. 33. PRODUCT DISASSEMBLY 10mm x 10mm x 500mm square Acrylic rod cut to size and glued using an Acrylic weld to the 5mm translucent blue Acrylic. These rods act as the supporting beams which hold up the top section of the turbine housing as well as being visually appealing with the transparent Acrylic reflecting and refracting light which falls upon it. Costing: £4.20 210mm x 240mm x 0.8mm blue Polypropylene blades with specially designed locking tabs to ensure that they are securely fitted to the Stainless Steel without the requirement of an adhesive. Costing: £5.83 Laser cut 1.5mm Stainless Steel pieces which will hold the Polypropylene blades in place. Brushed with fine wire wool for aesthetical value. With a 5mm Mild Steel rod running through the centre attached to bearings in the Acrylic. Costing: Free Laser cut 5mm translucent blue Acrylic housing the Steel and Polypropylene rotor, with three holes drilled into the bottom piece for screws to fasten to the Aluminium. Costing: £20.63 sheet split with classmate, equalling £10.32 Laser cut 5mm translucent blue Acrylic sections to keep the blades from warping, cut from the offcuts of the main Acrylic sections. uPVC tubing cut to size on the band saw and then sprayed with a white primer base coat, followed by several layers of light blue with a hole drilled near the base for the switch. Costing: £5 for the spray paint, the tube was free Cast and milled Aluminium ‘T’ shape sections which slot into the top and bottom of the uPVC tube. With the top piece having three holes cut into it so that it can be attached to the 5mm Acrylic via three identically cut holes, and the bottom piece having a hole cut into it for the lens of the LED as well as for the Steel pole. Costing: £1 for the LED, however the Aluminium was free due to using reclaimed pieces of aluminium and then melting them together. Stainless Steel tube which fits through the central hole cut into the bottom piece of Aluminium, elevating the rotor off the ground. Costing: Free, due to it being a reclaimed pole from a past students project. COSTING SUMMARY: Overall, this project cost me roughly £26, however this is not an accurate representation of how much it would cost to produce a full sized working product. This is down to the fact that I was able to receive multiple items free of charge, whereas that wouldn’t be possible if I were to mass produce my product. Furthermore, my prototype is only a .75% scale of the intended size of the real product, meaning there would be greater material costs. QUALITY CONTROL:1- When cutting the rods I had to ensure the were all cut and sanded to the exact same length, otherwise the housing would have been lopsided. 2-5- Designing these sections on a CAD file and laser cutting them reduced and QC issues as they were cut so precisely. 6- When cutting and spraying, accuracy was very important to ensure a precise finish. 7- With both the casting and the turning process I imposed QC checks regularly to guarantee the Aluminium fit perfectly into the uPVC. 8- initially ensured the strength of the tube to certify it could hold the weight of my product. 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8- ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THIRTY TWO
  34. 34. QUESTIONNAIRE ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THIRTY THREE CLIENT FEEDBACK TO FINAL PRODUCT I really am very impressed with the final product. Adam listened to what was required and has focused on what matters in terms of the school. He has taken our school population into consideration and designed a product which is durable enough to survive in a school with a population of 1000 adolescents. The quality of diagrams and level of detail should be credited as he has been able to show how the design process has unfolded to a client who does not have a background in this area. He has thought carefully about audience, the clarity of his work is exceptional. I would have confidence in the product and Adam as designer. Question One: Based on your initial comments on the design of this product and its aesthetical appeal, are you pleased with the final visual outcome? Question Two: The rotor section on this prototype is ¾ sized of the planned real product, with the pole being ½ size, do you feel that a ¼ sized larger rotor section would appear too large (irregardless of possible added efficiency)? Question Three: Do you believe that the addition of wind powered lights to the grounds of The Blandford School will be welcomed by staff and students? Question Four: Would you prefer a compromise of lower quality materials for a cheaper overall price? Question Five: Despite the overall colour scheme of the school being predominantly burgundy in the past, are you happy with the overall blue theme of my design? Answer One: Yes, I am extremely pleased with the final product which is extremely appealing and would suit this environment well. Answer Two: I do believe larger rotor blades would be useful if the product was larger. Answer Three: Absolutely, staff and students are always keen to look at ways of using the natural environment . As Headteacher I am always concerned man-made products enhance the landscape and the buildings. Answer Four: Value for money is extremely important. I would compromise on quality if necessary, we often have to. However, I would need a product which lasts and so would be keen to discuss longevity with Adam. I would pay more if he could prove this would be better value for money over time. Answer Five: Yes, blue is acceptable as the school is gradually moving away from the corporate burgundy and introducing new colours in carpets and the fascia of Block 4. I feel the blue would suit the environment.
  35. 35. EVALUATION IN RESPONSE TO CLIENT FEEDBACK ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THIRTY FOUR “I am extremely pleased with the final product which is extremely appealing and would suit this environment well.” I am pleased that my client found then end product aesthetically pleasing, however the majority of materials I used were brand new and not recycled as I had initially aimed for. Although I was able to use primarily recyclable materials, such as the Acrylic and Polypropylene as well as some reused elements (the uPVC tube) in an improved version I would source more eco friendly, recycled supplies. “He has taken our school population into consideration and designed a product which is durable enough to survive in a school with a population of 1000 adolescents.” Despite my client praising the strength and durability of my final product, I was actually not as pleased with it as her, believing it could be made stronger. Because of the materials I was limited to due to limitations of the cost my final prototype, it succeeded in being a scale model, however it was not structurally the same as it would have to be for the full sized working product. “Value for money is extremely important. I would compromise on quality if necessary, we often have to. However, I would need a product which lasts and so would be keen to discuss longevity with Adam. I would pay more if he could prove this would be better value for money over time.” I agree with my clients response to this question, as I too believe that although the initial price of the product is important, the durability and longevity are more important in the long run, therefore a compromise of cheaper materials should be avoided for a one off product such as this, whereas if the product was to be mass produced, cheaper materials should be considered which would be more suitable for industry. “I do believe larger rotor blades would be useful if the product was larger.” As I had initially planned, my client agrees that the rotor section would be more efficient an well suited being .25% larger. “Yes, blue is acceptable as the school is gradually moving away from the corporate burgundy and introducing new colours in carpets and the fascia of Block 4. I feel the blue would suit the environment.” I am pleased that my client is happy with the final colour selection of light blues, which I hoped would then blend into the sky on a clear day, reducing visual disturbances often attributed with lighting. I felt this was more suitable that the burgundy colour scheme the school currently has, especially as they are aiming to move away from the burgundy.
  36. 36. ITEM SOURCE Information about climate change . http://www.nef.org.uk/knowledge-hub/climate-change-energy/climate- change Information about VAWT’s. http://makezine.com/projects/wind-lantern/ Website from where I purchased the ball bearings for my product. http://simplybearings.co.uk/shop/Bearings- Deep+Groove+Ball+Bearings/c3_11/p170615/634ZZ+Budget+Metal+Shielde d+Deep+Groove+Ball+bearing+4x16x5mm/product_info.html Website from where I purchased the Acrylic rods and Polypropylene sheet. http://www.hindleys.com/index.php/materials/plastics-foam/sheet.html Website from where I purchased the blue Acrylic sheet. http://www.trentplastics.co.uk/2012/ Website from where I purchased the 12v battery. http://www.cts-direct.net/power-sonic-ps1270-12v-7ah-rechargeable-sla- battery-ps1270-power- sonic?language=en&currency=GBP&gclid=CKSZls6Ijb4CFQEXwwodKysAdA Company who laser cut the Stainless steel sections. http://www.bristolmaid.com/ BIBLIOGRAPHY ADAM SYKES 9457PAGE THIRTY FIVE

×