This is a recording of my APA 7th edition class that was presented several times via WebEx to students and faculty at East Carolina University during Spring 2020. The full powerpoint presentation is included below.
1. Writing a Problem Statement
TOPIC: the use of graphing calculators in teaching algebra
As a question: How are graphing calculators
used in teaching grade nine algebra?
As a hypothesis: The achievement of grade nine
students taught algebra with graphing calculators
will equal or exceed that of grade nine students
taught without graphing calculators.
As a null hypothesis: There are no differences in
achievement in algebra for grade nine students
taught with graphing calculators as compared to
those taught with out graphing calculators.
4. During an informal discussion with a group
of students, Ms. Chan heard someone say,
“Teachers always ask the same people to
answer the hard questions.” She began to
wonder if that were really true. To find out
she sat in the back of another teacher’s
class and wrote down each question asked
and the student to whom the question was
5. Mr. Ramirez was a beginning nurse. He kept
hearing about Ms. Blaine who was “the best
nurse in the clinic.” In order to find out what
Ms. Blaine did that earned her that
reputation, Mr. Ramirez arranged to shadow
her at work three times each week. He also
talked to patients and other staff about their
reasons for thinking Ms. Blaine was a good
6. Mr. Gordon was interested in the ways
school counsellors thought students learned
about career options. He developed some
tasks that he thought would help
counsellors to talk about their ideas about
student career choices and used the tasks to
interview some colleagues.
7. Ms. Berliner had just received a new computer for
her classroom. She was curious to find out if
students would learn multiplication facts better
using the computer instead of regular workbook
assignments and class drills. To find out, she
arranged for every other student in her class to use
software designed to teach multiplication, while the
other students used the workbook and participated
in class drills. She gave all the students a pretest and
a posttest to see if the computer group differed
from the regular group. She presented the findings
to the local math teacher association.
8. Many kinds of research
LOGICAL (mathematics, philosophy)
EVALUATION (judging, appraising)
INVESTIGATIVE (law, government hearings, journalism)
DEMOGRAPHIC (economics, census, polling)
MODUS OPERANDI (forensics, medical diagnosis)
EMPIRICAL/SCIENTIFIC (social science, education, physical science)
13. QUAL + QUAN QUAL QUAN
QUAL + quan
QUAN + qual
Time order decision
14. Types of Research
Burnside set out to determine the
number of teachers in Vancouver who
planned to retire in the next five years,
their ages, and their main reasons for
Cheung set up a study in Winnipeg
schools to determine the effectiveness
of using computer simulations to teach
science versus hands-on labs.
Mitchell attempted to describe the
early years of the residential schools in
15. Types of Research
McLachlin investigated a hypothesized
relationship between student
melancholia and grades received.
Vigneault conducted an in-depth study
of the culture of a religious school in
Naslund investigated the grade point
average of graduating students at
Eastern University to compare (1)
student who had attended community
college for their first two years versus
(2) students who had gone to Eastern
University all four years.
Write a question and a hypothesis for your research topic.
Reminder Topic Statements due next week.
Use APA style for sample references.
Handout “Is this Research?”
Do “What Kind of Research is It?” activity after going over many kinds of research.
Post-positivism: real world independent of our knowing about it; we try to discover the relationships that correspond to what is going on in the real world; causation is complicated but the important fundamental idea
Constructionism: the world is constructed through the interaction between subject and object; objects exist in the world but we experience and interpret them differently; what we know is tentative (although relatively stable) and changes
Often driven by a pragmatic “what works” mentality; using the best of both or in complementary ways
The time component of the mixing: can be sequential (qualitative then quantitative, for example) or concurrent.
The paradigm component of the mixing: QUAL-quant or QUANT-qual give primacy to either qual or quant; rather than equal weight to both.
Do “Types of Research” activity--summarized on following slides.