Oceans and sea distribution and its geographical boundaries
The world's oceans cover about 71% of the Earth's surface and are divided into five major bodies
of water: the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.
Here are their geographical boundaries:
1. Pacific Ocean: This is the largest ocean and covers about 30% of the Earth's surface. Its
boundaries are defined by the continents surrounding it, including the Americas to the east,
Asia and Australia to the west, and the Antarctic continent to the south. Its northern
boundary is formed by the Bering Strait.
2. Atlantic Ocean: The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean and covers about 21% of
the Earth's surface. Its boundaries are defined by the continents of North and South
America to the west and Europe and Africa to the east. It is connected to the Arctic Ocean
in the north by the Labrador Sea and the Greenland Sea.
3. Indian Ocean: This is the third-largest ocean and covers about 14% of the Earth's surface.
Its boundaries are defined by the continents of Africa to the west, Asia to the north, and
Australia to the east. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean in the west by the southern tip
of Africa and to the Pacific Ocean in the east by the Strait of Malacca.
4. Southern Ocean: The Southern Ocean surrounds the continent of Antarctica and is
sometimes considered the fifth ocean. Its boundaries are defined by the Antarctic
Convergence, which is the line where the cold waters of the Antarctic circumpolar current
meet the warmer waters of the sub-Antarctic. This ocean is also known as the Antarctic
5. Arctic Ocean: The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and covers about 3% of the Earth's surface.
Its boundaries are defined by the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia, which
surround it. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean in the east by the Bering Strait and to the
Atlantic Ocean in the west by the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea.
6. Mediterranean Sea: This is a sea that is almost surrounded by land, with its boundaries
defined by Europe to the north, Africa to the south, and Asia to the east. The Strait of
Gibraltar connects it to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Suez Canal connects it to the Red Sea.
7. Red Sea: The Red Sea is located between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and is bordered
by Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen.
8. Arabian Sea: This is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the west by the
Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and on the east by India and Pakistan.
9. South China Sea: This is a large sea that is bounded by China to the north and east, Vietnam
to the west, and the Philippines to the south.
10. Caribbean Sea: The Caribbean Sea is located in the western Atlantic Ocean and is bounded
by the islands of the West Indies to the north and east, Central America to the west, and
South America to the south.
11. Baltic Sea: The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea that is surrounded by the countries of
Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and Denmark.
12. Black Sea: The Black Sea is located between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor and is
bordered by Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania.
13. Caspian Sea: The Caspian Sea is a large, landlocked body of water that is bordered by five
countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran
Figure 1. Oceans distribution (from Britannica)
Ocean name location Area (km²)
Separates Asia and Oceania
from the Americas
Separates the Americas from
Eurasia and Africa
Washes upon southern Asia
and separates Africa and
extension of the Pacific,
Atlantic, and Indian Oceans,
which encircle Antarctica
Sometimes considered a sea
or estuary of the Atlantic,
which covers much of the
Arctic and washes upon
northern North America and