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ICoMaaS Conference: Tourism MaaS (Abraham Leung)

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ICoMaaS Conference: Tourism MaaS (Abraham Leung)

  1. 1. “The best of both worlds?” Linking tourism and transport functions in MaaS – A review of selected European and Asian-Pacific exemplars Abraham Leung JYU Visiting Fellow / Advance Queensland Industry Research Fellow Cities Research Institute, Griffith University 29/11/2022 Tampere, Finland
  2. 2. About me Dr Abraham Leung • Based in Brisbane (Nathan Campus), Queensland • Background in urban and transport planning • Recent research in innovative transport - Mobility-as-a-service and micromobiliy, electric aviation and sustainability • Tourism x MaaS - Advance Qld Industry Fellow Email: abraham.leung@griffith.edu.au
  3. 3. Oct-Nov 2022
  4. 4. • MaaS struggle to gain scalability and still remain as a niche function for certain (usually urban) markets • Unlike Netflix or telcos, MaaS operators had to negotiate with incumbent transport operators who prefer to keep their customers • Users may also very well prefer to deal with incumbents anyway with current pay-as-you-go (for flexibility) and periodical or seasonal offers directly from transport providers • Perhaps we should move beyond “mobility” only MaaS? MaaS at crossroads…
  5. 5. 1. “MaaS is a framework for delivering a portfolio of multi-modal mobility services that places the user at the centre of the offer. 2. MaaS frameworks are ideally designed to achieve sustainable policy goals and objectives. 3. MaaS is an integrated transport service brokered by an integrator through a digital platform. 4. A digital platform provides information, booking, ticketing, payment (as PAYG and/or subscription plans), and feedback that improves the travel experience. 5. The MaaS framework can operate at any spatial scale (i.e., urban or regional or global) and cover any combination of multi-modal and non-transport-related multi-service offerings, including the private car and parking, whether subsidised or not by the public sector. 6. MaaS is not simply a digital version of a travel planner, nor a flexible transport service (such as Mobility on Demand), nor a single shared transport offering (such as car sharing). A newer definition of MaaS (Hensher et al.) Hensher, D. A., Mulley, C., & Nelson, J. D. (2021). Mobility as a service (MaaS) – Going somewhere or nowhere? Transport Policy, 111, 153–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.07.021
  6. 6. Tourism MaaS?
  7. 7. Tourism MaaS? Aapaoja, A., Eckhardt, J., Nykänen, L., & Sochor, J. (2017). MaaS service combinations for different geographical areas. Urban Transport Tourism
  8. 8. • Tourists often have difficulties getting their way around destinations (Matyas, 2018) - Foreign language - Unknown transport modes - Complex networks - Different payment methods - Foreign currency • Transport is a derived demand - adding non-transport functions may help to create demand and add value to MaaS • Tech savvy millennials or younger “digital natives” may prefer apps more than other groups – an important market for MaaS • There might be a market for combining tourism and mobility services? • Prior MaaS research did not really touch this area… Why combine tourism and MaaS  T-MaaS? Matyas, M. (2018, June 25). Mobility as a Service and Tourism: Insights from the MaaS4EU Horizon 2020 Project. “Smart Transport for Sustainable Tourism” Conference, London, UK.
  9. 9. Typologies of Tourism MaaS (T-MaaS)
  10. 10. Criterion Scoring method / parameters Sub-score Relative weight per category User (maximum of 10 points) Market penetration Download statistics (Google Play Store indicates overtime download, monthly downloads of both iOS and Android obtained from SensorTower) 0 = Lowest; 5 = Highest 5 3.33% User rating (app store ratings) Average of Google and Apple’s smart device application store (0-5 stars) 0 = Lowest; 5 = Highest 5 3.33% Languages 0 = no English, through to; 5 = English and the most languages available (Adjusted by quality of language translation) 5 3.33% Coverage (maximum of 10 points) Access platform 0 = Not available; 5 = Most number available (App, website, etc) 5 5% Payment method 0 = Not available; 5 = Most number available (Bank/credit cards, QR, own protocol (wallets), Phone-based (e.g. Apple/SamsungPay) 5 5% Mobility Services (maximum of 25 points) Local public transport 0 to 5 scale given for each information, booking and payment options if available (Deductions given for partial access or linking to external site) 15 3.57% Pre-booked shuttles or DRT 15 3.57% Bike or e-scooter share 15 3.57% Car share or rental 15 3.57% Rideshare/hail or taxi 15 3.57% Long distance (railways, coach, flight) 15 3.57% Vehicle services (parking, car servicing, EV charging points) 15 3.57% Tourism Services (maximum of 25 points) Events 0 to 5 scale given for each information, booking and payment options if available (Deductions given for partial access or linking to external site) 15 5% Stay or accommodation 15 5% Attractions 15 5% Food and dining (incl. delivery) 15 5% Retail (incl delivery) 15 5% Integration (maximum of 30 points) Mapping 0 = Not available; 5 = Available and most useful (ranked by relative usefulness, mode and travel location coverage, and availability of route search) 5 7.5% Subscription and Bundles (Lv. 3 MaaS) 0 = Not available; 5 = Available and best coverage of options (count) 5 7.5% Policy and societal Goals 0 = Not available; 5 = Most explicit and well stated policy goals for social or environmental benefits 5 7.5% Scoring scheme to analyse T-MaaS
  11. 11. Schemes benchmarked in the study: NameApp Country/Region Location Platforms available Ylläs Around Finland (FI) 🇫🇮 Ylläs Android, iOS Ylläs Tiketti Finland 🇫🇮 Ylläs Android, iOS, WatchOS Trentino Guest Card Italy (IT) 🇮🇹 Trentino Android, iOS Mio Trentino Italy 🇮🇹 Trentino Android, iOS MyRoute Japan (JP) 🇯🇵 Various locations in Japan Android, iOS Izuko Japan 🇯🇵 Izu Prefecture Android, iOS Grab Southeast Asia (SEA) 🇲🇾🇮🇩🇸🇬🇻🇳🇹🇭🇰🇭🇲🇲🇵 🇭 Multiple countries in SEA Android, iOS KaKao T Korea (KO) 🇰🇷 Nationwide Android, iOS, WatchOS, Wear OS
  12. 12. Results
  13. 13. Finland – Ylläs Around (2015-2019)
  14. 14. Finland – Ylläs Tiketti (2016-2019)
  15. 15. Italy – Trentino Guest Card (2017-)
  16. 16. Italy – Trentino Guest Card (2017-)
  17. 17. Italy – Mio Trentino (2021-)
  18. 18. Japan – MyRoute (2018-, by Toyota) • Developed by Toyota with the collaboration experience with Whim in Finland • Trialled in Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, Kyushu Island, southern Japan • Now expanded to Yokohama, Minamata, and many more
  19. 19. Japan – Izuko (2019-2021) Izu Peninsula
  20. 20. Tourist dispersal policy intention
  21. 21. “AI bus” (Demand responsive transport) Free during trial Izuko app needed for prebooking
  22. 22. South East Asia – Grab (2013-) a “super app” grown from ridehailing
  23. 23. South East Asia – Grab (2013-) a “super app” grown from ridehailing
  24. 24. South East Asia – Grab Subscriptions and bundles
  25. 25. South Korea – Kakao T(2015-) a “super app” grown from a chat app
  26. 26. Recap
  27. 27. • Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO-led) • Yllä Around/Tiketti • Trentino Guest Card / Mio Trentino • Mobility Service Provider (MSP) led • Toyota (interest in car-share) • Grab (rideshare provider) • KaoKaoT (rideshare+social media) • Izuko (Railway companies + Govt) • Hypothetical • Government-led (above has some with government involvement) • MaaS operator-led (MaaS global?) • E-scooter company led? T-MaaS Models?
  28. 28. MaaS Roaming?
  29. 29. Carbon awareness to be included?
  30. 30. T-MaaS is blossoming across Japan
  31. 31. Taiwan (not studied) Umaji, MeN Go, TT Go Chang, S. K. J., Chen, H.-Y., & Chen, H.-C. (2019). Mobility as a service policy planning, deployments and trials in Taiwan. IATSS Research, 43(4), 210–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2019.11.007
  32. 32. Japan and Taiwan Super departments with portfolios of transport and tourism
  33. 33. Prospects and challenges • Non-Transport Services: Transport can be seen as a “derived demand” - a purpose that needing travel creates the demand for travel. • Demand Creation: By combining both transport and non-transport services, more trips can be created, and also more service can be consumed, thus generating wider business and economic benefits • How to balance the interests of subsidised modes (e.g. urban buses) and for-profit modes? • How to “grow the pie” by converting previous car (rental) users to use modes offered in MaaS! (have to overcome turf mentality….) • The car is still preferred by many travellers… Aapaoja, A., Eckhardt, J., Nykänen, L., & Sochor, J. (2017). MaaS service combinations for different geographical areas.
  34. 34. Tourism MaaS We proposed a regional MaaS ecosystem for Regional Queensland cities • State government (TMR) sets the MaaS vision and provide regulatory and policy guidance • Local governments: local policy, planning and infrastructure provision. • MaaS operators: role is to provide an “one-stop shop” for customers to access information • Transport Service Providers supply core mobility services for the MaaS ecosystem • Tourism Service Providers creates demand for travel, and gain access to customers via transport services
  35. 35. Advance Queensland Industry Research Fellowship
  36. 36. Narrowing down the scope A tourist-centric MaaS platform that integrates micromobility and public transport with add-on destination services Based on the mode preference voting by workshop participants, for transport integration, the most important modes to be integrated are 1. e-scooters (Neuron/Beam) 2. local public transport (Translink / Sunbus) 3. Ferries (Sealink) 4. Would also be ideal to include a walkability assistance feature and airport transfer 5. QR Train, rideshare/taxi integration are next on the list (good to haves) For tourism services, the top listed features are: 1. Attractions 2. Dining 3. Events 4. Parks / Amenities (Focus on collaboration with local businesses to reveal “hidden gems” and ”what locals would do”)
  37. 37. MaaS personas • TMR has developed a MaaS persona from 12 longitudinal surveys with a survey (n=2000+) • The tool is planned to be included in this research as a test bed • To expand the allocation tool to tourists in this project
  38. 38. Thank you Abraham Leung JYU Visiting Fellow / Advance Queensland Industry Research Fellow https://www.linkedin.com/in/abraham-leung/

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