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PROJECT TITLE - DOOR CLEANING SYSTEM USED
IN SCP MACHINES
PROJECT GUIDE - MR.SHRIKANT SHARMA
BY : ABHISHEK PAUL
• TATA STEEL previously known as TISCO is an Indian-multinational company head-
quatered in Mumbai.
• It is the 11th largest steel producing company in world as on 2013.
• It is the second largest private sector steel company in India with annual production
of 9.3 Million Tonnes capacity.
• TATA STEEL has manufacturing operations in 26 countries including Australia,
China, India ,Singapore.
• Its largest plant is located in JAMSHEDPUR,India with an annual production capacity
of about 2 Million Tonnes.
• TATA STEEL and IRON company was established by DORABJI TATA on 25th august
1907 ,as part of his father JAMSHETJI’S TATA GROUP.
• SNTI ( SHAVAK NANAVATI TECHNICAL INSTITUTE ), the
technical training department of TATA STEEL is a pioneer
establishment with IS0 9001-2000 accredition.
• It extends all its facilities for development of small and
medium scale enterprises ( SMEs).
• It even engages in training and development of students in
many areas like – 1. Computers ,2. Automobiles , 3. Mechanical
4. Refractories , 5. Fluid Power
• It also supports many Improvement projects (QC,QIP,BM)
,value engineering , TPM Automation.
• COKE OVENS are units in which COAL CAKE are heated to very high
temperatures, there by burning the coal.
• These CAKES are pushed in ovens from SCP Machines.
• The COAL GAS generated on heating the CAKE in OVEN is collected by
a VERTICAL HOOPER and sent to BY – PRODUCT plant for its use.
• The coke generated after heating has a high heating ( calorific value)
and is used for burning purposes in BLAST FURNACE.
• Each battery consists of at least 80 – 100 coke ovens.
• Batteries 10 and 11 in TATA STEEL – JAMSHEDPUR consists of 88 and
100 coke ovens respectively and 3 SCP Machines are in use.
( TOWER )
• The role of SCP ( Stamping charging pushing ) MACHINES is pivotal in COKE
PRODUCTION unit .
• Its operation is being monitored by RSM ( RAM SIDE MACHINE ) Maint. Section.
• The Machine consists of 3 main mechanisms namely - STAMPING , CHARGING ,
• The operation can be illustrated by FLOW CHART -
SCP MACHINESCOKE OVENS
COAL GETS CRUSHED
INTO FINER PARTICLES
COAL CAKE ENTERS AND
COAL IS COOLED
BY A STREAM OF
COAL IS USED
• Stamp-Charging Technology is a modern and proven coking technology and can
fulfil all requirements of a coking plant today and in the future.
• Stamp-Charging Technology meets any environmental requirements and
regulations throughout the world.
• Stamp-Charging Technology allows to produce high-strength blast furnace coke;
CSR values of over 65 can easily be achieved by stamp
• The stamp-charged coke has an excellent performance in the blast furnace
allowing to achieve high coal injection rates while total reducing agent
consumption is extremely low.
• Stamp charging allows to produce high-quality coke from a wide range of charge
coals including low rank coals, petrol coke and coke breeze.
• An excellent coke quality naturally requires a careful selection of the blend
components. In this regard, stamp charging provides for a high degree of flexibility
and at the same time creates a considerable savings potential on the side of raw
material costs which has a positive impact on the coke production costs and
consequently, the pig iron cost.
COMBINED MACHINE FOR
CHARGING AND PUSHING
SCP MACHINE IN TATA STEEL
• Stamping operation takes place in a STAMPING BOX.
• It consists of COAL BLEND previously ground at a specific size, then successive
layers are rammed mechanically.
• It can be applied either vertically or horizontally.
• Compaction and vibration is applied during 2 minutes for each layer through 24
plates covering all the surface of coke.
• The Box is filled with COAL BLEND ,with defined grain size distribution and moisture
content in 3 LAYERS.
VERTICAL STAMPING UNIT
Left - charging,pressing
Right – growing of cake in each
HORIZONTAL STAMPING UNIT
LOCKING HANGER PLATES
CAM LEVER SYSTEM
STAMPING BOX HAVING DIMENSIONS OF COKE
• Single hammer weight is approx. 300 kg
• Drive system equipped with frequency converters
• Each stamping car has its own hydraulic and
• Full automatic mode and interlocking devices with
charging car and coal feeding system assure proper
function of the stamping system
• Electric switch gear and the automation system.
TECHNICAL DATA -
• VIBRATOR feed gates allows entry of coal into STAMPING BOX.
• HAMMERS are driven by CAM-LEVER mechanism.
• Dimension of COAL CAKE= Dimension of COKE OVEN
• The coal must have minimum MOISTURE CONTENT for it to form a STABLE CAKE.
• Standard MOISTURE CONTENT of
coal in Batteries 10 & 11 were 3-5%
• COKE CSR - 4.6
CHARGING OF VIBROCOMPACTED COAL CAKE
• The coal cake forms over the CHARGER PLATE ,which then moves towards the oven
for charging purpose.
• The charging process is similaiar for VERTICAL and HORIZONTAL OVENS.
• For VERTICAL OVENS ,the cake charging takes place through PUSHER SIDE DOORS.
• This leads to high emissions ,which are reduced through use of SEALING FRAMES.
• For HORIZONTAL OVENS,charging is also carried out from the front door with a
• The cake formed over the CHARGER PLATE is exactly of the same dimensions as that
of a coke oven.
COAL CAKE BOX WITH
FINISHED COAL CAKE
AFTER STAMPING - READY
STANDARD COAL CAKE SIZE
6m (L) X 16m(B)
( for reducing high gas emissions)
PUSHER PLATE is driven by a large RACK & PINION through the OVEN , for pushing the
MELTED COKE out of oven.
COAL out of
Pushes Gets collected in Crushes coal more finer
In QUENCHING TOWERDriven by
• Standard PUSHING –
1. Batteries 10 &11 – 147
2. Batteries 8 & 9 - 134
• In TATA STEEL – Jamshedpur , Coke oven batteries- 8,9 and 10,11 are currently using
two types of cleaning system in their SCP Machines.
• The two types of DOOR CLEANING SYSTEM are - 1. HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET
RECTANGULAR MOTION SYSTEM
2. HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET
CIRCULAR MOTION SYSTEM
• The mechanism of the above two door cleaning system is similiar, their operation
and functions are exactly same.
• The major difference lies in the motion of the nozzle.
• In HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET RECTANGULAR MOTION SYSTEM, the nozzle along
with MOTOR unit slides horizontally and up-down following the perimeter of a
• Whereas , in HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CIRCULAR MOTION SYSTEM , the nozzle
while moving horizontally follows a CIRCULAR ARC and while moving up-down
follows a STRAIGHT LINE.
• HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET RECTANGULAR MOTION SYSTEM is more advantageous
than the CIRCULAR MOTION SYSTEM ,because for cleaning purposes ,the former can
generate pressures upto 600 BAR , whereas the latter can generate pressures upto
DIMENSION OF ORIFICE – Diameter =5mm
AREA OF ORIFICE = 3.14 X 25/4= 19.625 mm^2
DIAMETER = 25-30mm
2 in number
- The MOTOR and
CLEANING unit slides
on these shafts
Plummer block is used for supporting shaft on the unit
Plastic clamps helps in easy sliding of unit over shaft.
3 in number
Nozzle Protective STEEL COVERING
WATER INLET FACET
Electric connection pipes
CARRIAGE - on which unit slides horizontally
CHECKER PLATE – for supporting motors unit
PLASTIC CLAMPS (4)
• The HP water door cleaner can be an
integrated part of the SCP or CP-Machine
or can be installed in the battery line as
stationary cleaning system.
• The small size enables a space-saving
integration even under limited assembly
• Fully automated door cleaner provides a
innovative way towards non-polluting coke
ovens with a pressure up to 600bar.
• Low water consumption and low
maintenance, low operating costs.
• Since, the fluid used for cleaning is WATER ,it must have provision for storing.
• During the time of feeding of coal from COAL TOWER, water is also taken and stored
in a RESERVOIR (70 L) in SCP Machine.
• The water is supplied through pipes when required.
• Since the CLEANING UNIT supplies water at a very high pressure ( 600 BAR) ,there
must be a system for pressurazing water.
• The EXTERNAL PART of UNIT consists of a system of two PUMPS-
• 1. BOOSTER PUMP - smaller in size – used for initial pressurazing water to a low
pressure of about 300 BAR.
• 2. MAIN PUMP - larger in size- used for final pressurazing water to a high pressure
of about 600 BAR.
• Both these pumps are connected to each other by a shaft.
MAIN PUMP 19
• The water from the MAIN PUMP is supplied through the INLET FACET to the
NOZZLE via a shaft connecting the two.
• The unit consists of both VERTICAL and HORIZONTAL Motor for providing 2 types
of motion – SLIDING & ROTATING
• The VERTICAL Motor helps in rotating the NOZZLE Shaft via a CHAIN-SPROCKET 2
, which then helps in driving CHAIN-SPROCKET 3 connected to front.
• The HORIZONTAL Motor is connected to a shaft ,it is connected to CHAIN-
SPROCKET 1 ,where the sprocket slides horizontally on a CHAIN provided on the
• The 2 Motors are supported on a CHECKER PLATE.
• The 3RD Motion consists of lifting up and lowering down the entire UNIT
,whenever required depending on CYCLE of operation.
• All these 3 Motions occurs simultaneously – one-by-one.
• The 3RD Motion is carried by a HOSE CHAIN (very high load carrying capacity),and
is driven electrically.
• The movement of unit is completely electrical , no man-power is required , since
each motion is detected by SENSORS and ENCODERS fitted for every motion.
1. CYCLE 1- Nozzle at 0 degrees is made to slide
horizontally from left to right , without nozzle
2. CYCLE 2 – Nozzle is made to rotate by 90 degrees ,
and HOSE CHAIN lifts the unit up ,cleans the door
3. CYCLE 3 - Nozzle is rotated by 180 degrees, along
with slides horizontally from right to left.
4. CYCLE 4 – Nozzle is rotated by 270 degrees, HOSE
CHAIN moves the unit down vertically.
DOOR CLEANING UNIT
Dimensions of a
STANDARD OVEN DOOR –
0.45 m x 6 m
Front view of
CHAIN- SPROCKET 2
SHAFT – connecting inlet
facet to nozzle
• The CHAIN-SPROCKET DRIVE used in door cleaner may lead to many problems
with continued usage.
• Some of the DISADVANTAGES of chain-drive system are –
1. It requires precise alignment of shaft.
2. It is not suitable for non-parallel shaft.
3. More wear at joints,if not well lubricated.
4. High initial cost.
• Also ,the CHAIN used over sprocket is made of STEEL, which has the chances of
DAMAGE , cracks may develop , proper lubrication is needed.
• Lubrication is done by DIESEL , slightly with more usage , deposits may develop.
• Also , the CHAIN carry maximum load while in operation , their STRENGTH should
• CHAINS are unable to transmit HIGH POWER.
• ROLLER and HAULING CHAINS are able to transmit LOW & MEDIUM POWER.
• Only , POWER TRANSMISSION CHAINS transmit HIGH POWER , but they are very costly.
• Loosening the chain drive system could dismantle the MOTOR unit.
• Also , CHAIN DRIVES takes up a lot of space , not COMPACT.
• Keeping in view all factors discussed in previous slide , we can a suitable GEAR –
DRIVE system in place of CHAIN-DRIVE system.
• GEAR-DRIVE has many ADVANTAGES over chain-drive :
1. More compact ,needs less space.
2. It transmits same velocity ratio.
3. Smooth operation.
4. Less maintenance required.
5. It transmits a relatively higher power.
6. It has high transmission efficiency.
• The compactness of the unit could be maintained by using a GEAR-DRIVE in place
• Both SPIRAL and HELICAL GEARS are suitable for use.
• SPIRAL gears are gears in which TEETHS are PARALLEL, only one teeth remains in
MESH with one teeth, no END THRUST is present.
• HELICAL gears are gears in which TEETHS are incline by HELIX ANGLE ,
- End THRUST is present – small disadvantage
- Low impact stress
- Greater LOAD carrying capacity.
• However since the gears are made up of STEEL , they must be covered by a PLASTIC
COVERING from avoid getting RUSTED.
• A suitable GEAR TRAIN may even be used – either SIMPLE or COMPOUND GEAR
TRAIN , depending on direction of ROTATION required.
- Rotation in
- More SPACE
- Rotation in
- More COMPACT
TUMBLER GEAR ARRANGEMENT
• When lever is at 1 –
a & c – opposite
• When lever is at 2 –
a & c - same
-Enables multiple nozzle
CHAIN – DRIVE
Could be replaced by
Spiral ,Helical, Bevel gears
Depending on direction of
But GEARS must be covered by a PLASTIC INSULING
Could be replaced by
DA/A = DP/P ( 1/M^2 – 1)
,where M = Mach number
DA/A = Change in area
DP/P = Change in pressure
(1 ) (2)
Mach number in 2 > 1 ,
Because initial pressure
Wont be zero ,because
Of THROAT presence
THROAT – M=1
Higher M ,more exit speed
Could be replaced with
• Square METAL CLAMPS used for supporting the MOTOR
unit ,helps in sliding motion of unit along SHAFT.
• Since they are made up of METAL , with continued usage
,they may get CORRODED from inside.
• They must be replaced by ROUND CLAMPS with BALL
• BALLS helps in easy rotation of SHAFT and allows smooth
• They also need a small LUBRICATION for their maintenance.
• Effective for LONG-TERM usage.
• Therefore , it is suitable to use GEAR-DRIVE in place of CHAIN-DRIVE system ,
however it has not been use in recent days
• It is possible to use it in future.
• Instead of using SQUARE CLAMPS for motion of shaft, we can switch to CIRCULAR
CLAMPS for more rigidity.
• All desired CALCULATIONS and PART SPECIFICATION are specified in word
• When the DOOR CLEANER comes for repairing, maintenance , each individual
component must be inspected
• Individual part should be checked whether there is a CRACK or not.
• CHAINS must be checked for SLACK and TIGHT conditions.
• If cracks occurs , it should be repaired ,if it cant be repaired ,then discarded.
• LUBRICATION must be done with DIESEL or GREASE ,wherever required.
• Parts must be WELDED ,if crack occurs at JOINTS.
• PLUMMER BLOCK should be crack-free.