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INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPT OF
MIDWIFERY & OBSTETRICAL NURSING
JHALAWAR NURSING COLLEGE
B.Sc. Nursing 4th year
“A midwife is a person who, having been regularly
admitted to a midwifery educational program, duly
recognized in the country in which it is located , has
successfully completed the prescribed course of
studies in midwifery and has acquired the requisite
qualification to be registered and / or legally licensed
to practice midwifery.”
OBSTETRICS & MIDWIFERY
• Obstetrics is concerned with the phenomena and
management of pregnancy, labor, and the
puerperium under normal and abnormal
• Midwifery concerned with only normal process of
pregnancy, birth and postpartum period.
• Midwifery is as old as the history of human species.
• Archeological evidence of a woman squatting in
children supported by another woman from behind
demonstrates the existence of midwifery in 5000 BC.
• Hippocrates (460 BC), the father of scientific
medicine, organized trained and supervised
Hippocrates believed that the fetus had to fight its
way out of the womb and the membranes. The
efforts of Hippocrates were not appreciated by the
• Aristotle (384-322 BC), the father of embryology,
described the uterus and the female pelvic organs.
He also discussed the essential qualities of the
• Soranus, in the second century, was the first to
specialize in obstetrics and gynecology.
He used a vaginal speculum, advised on cord care
• Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), made anatomical
drawings of pregnant uterus
• Vesalius in 1543, opened the full term pregnant
uterus on a lower animal, extracted the fetus, and
demonstrated uterus as a single chamber organ.
• Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), laid the foundations of
modern obstertics. He performed internal podalic
versions and skillfully delivered woman. He was the
first to deliver a woman in bed instead of the
He also sutured perineal lacerations. Ambroise Pare
founded a school for midwife trained by Pare.
• Juius Caeser Aranzi He advised cesarean section for
contracted pelvis. He described the raw placental
surface and initiated the study of uterine sepsis.
• Chamberlen in 1675, designed obstetric forceps.
• William Smellie (1697-1763), is called the father of
British midwifery. He explained labor to be a
mechanical process and described pelvimetry,
cephalometety and forceps delivery of the after
coming head of a breech.
• Fielding ould(1710-1789), described the mechanism
of normal labor and performed the first episiotomy
• Francois in1818, first recognized fetal heart sounds in
the pregnant uterus.
• James Young Simpson in 1847, used chloroform first in
obstetrics for anesthesia
• Florence Nightingale in 1862, organized a small
training school where she conducted training for
• Semmelweiss in 1861, demonstrated the cause of
puerperal sepsis and suggested preventive measures
• Louis Pasteur in 1879, wrote a thesis on puerperal
sepsis demonstrating the presence of streptococci in
the lochia, blood and in fetal cases in the peritoneal
• Spencer and Ballantyne promoted the
concept of antenatal care for pregnant
• Porro performed sub-total hysterectomy in
• Munro Kerr in 1926 introduced the present
technique of lower segment cesarean
operation and popularized it.
ROLE OF MIDWIFE IN MIDWIFERY
Supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy ,
labor and postpartum period.
Assist during labor and monitor fetal condition by clinical or
Counseling and education not only for the women but also
within the family and community.
Conduct deliveries and to care of the newborn and the infant.
Detection of abnormal condition in the mother and child.
Procurement of medical assistance and execution of
emergency measures in the absence of medical help.
Maintenance of all necessary records.
Antenatal education, preparation for parenthood and
family planning and child care.
She may practice in hospitals , clinic, health units.
Recognizing and addressing problems in the women and
newborn before, during and after childbirth.
Offering general health information, including
reproductive health care.
Assisting women to successfully breast feed.
Offering immunizations, health education , family
planning information and promotion on many aspects of
Referring women and new born for higher level of care
when complications arise beyond their scope of practice
• Define midwife and draw a diagram showing
responsibilities of nurse as midwife.
( Enumerate only)