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Concept and historical prespective of miwifery

Concept and historical prespective of miwifery, midwife, role of nurse

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Concept and historical prespective of miwifery

  2. 2. MIDWIFE “A midwife is a person who, having been regularly admitted to a midwifery educational program, duly recognized in the country in which it is located , has successfully completed the prescribed course of studies in midwifery and has acquired the requisite qualification to be registered and / or legally licensed to practice midwifery.” 2ABHILASHA VERMA
  3. 3. OBSTETRICS & MIDWIFERY • Obstetrics is concerned with the phenomena and management of pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium under normal and abnormal circumstance. • Midwifery concerned with only normal process of pregnancy, birth and postpartum period. 3ABHILASHA VERMA
  4. 4. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES • Midwifery is as old as the history of human species. • Archeological evidence of a woman squatting in children supported by another woman from behind demonstrates the existence of midwifery in 5000 BC. 4ABHILASHA VERMA
  5. 5. • Hippocrates (460 BC), the father of scientific medicine, organized trained and supervised midwives. Hippocrates believed that the fetus had to fight its way out of the womb and the membranes. The efforts of Hippocrates were not appreciated by the midwives. • Aristotle (384-322 BC), the father of embryology, described the uterus and the female pelvic organs. He also discussed the essential qualities of the midwife. • Soranus, in the second century, was the first to specialize in obstetrics and gynecology. He used a vaginal speculum, advised on cord care 5ABHILASHA VERMA
  6. 6. • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), made anatomical drawings of pregnant uterus • Vesalius in 1543, opened the full term pregnant uterus on a lower animal, extracted the fetus, and demonstrated uterus as a single chamber organ. • Ambroise Pare (1510-1590), laid the foundations of modern obstertics. He performed internal podalic versions and skillfully delivered woman. He was the first to deliver a woman in bed instead of the birthing-stool. He also sutured perineal lacerations. Ambroise Pare founded a school for midwife trained by Pare. 6ABHILASHA VERMA
  7. 7. • Juius Caeser Aranzi He advised cesarean section for contracted pelvis. He described the raw placental surface and initiated the study of uterine sepsis. • Chamberlen in 1675, designed obstetric forceps. • William Smellie (1697-1763), is called the father of British midwifery. He explained labor to be a mechanical process and described pelvimetry, cephalometety and forceps delivery of the after coming head of a breech. • Fielding ould(1710-1789), described the mechanism of normal labor and performed the first episiotomy 7ABHILASHA VERMA
  8. 8. • Francois in1818, first recognized fetal heart sounds in the pregnant uterus. • James Young Simpson in 1847, used chloroform first in obstetrics for anesthesia • Florence Nightingale in 1862, organized a small training school where she conducted training for midwives. • Semmelweiss in 1861, demonstrated the cause of puerperal sepsis and suggested preventive measures • Louis Pasteur in 1879, wrote a thesis on puerperal sepsis demonstrating the presence of streptococci in the lochia, blood and in fetal cases in the peritoneal cavity. 8ABHILASHA VERMA
  9. 9. • Spencer and Ballantyne promoted the concept of antenatal care for pregnant woman. • Porro performed sub-total hysterectomy in 1876. • Munro Kerr in 1926 introduced the present technique of lower segment cesarean operation and popularized it. 9ABHILASHA VERMA
  10. 10. ROLE OF MIDWIFE IN MIDWIFERY  Supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy , labor and postpartum period.  Assist during labor and monitor fetal condition by clinical or technical means.  Counseling and education not only for the women but also within the family and community.  Conduct deliveries and to care of the newborn and the infant. Care includes  Preventive measures  Detection of abnormal condition in the mother and child.  Procurement of medical assistance and execution of emergency measures in the absence of medical help.  Maintenance of all necessary records. 10ABHILASHA VERMA
  11. 11. Antenatal education, preparation for parenthood and family planning and child care. She may practice in hospitals , clinic, health units. Recognizing and addressing problems in the women and newborn before, during and after childbirth. Offering general health information, including reproductive health care. Assisting women to successfully breast feed. Offering immunizations, health education , family planning information and promotion on many aspects of healthy lifestyles. Referring women and new born for higher level of care when complications arise beyond their scope of practice and capabilities. 11ABHILASHA VERMA
  12. 12. ASSIGNMENT • Define midwife and draw a diagram showing responsibilities of nurse as midwife. ( Enumerate only) 12ABHILASHA VERMA