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DEvelopment of Leisure.pptx

  2. The leisure industry is currently the biggest and fastest growing industry in the world. Today hobbies and pastimes are increasingly pursued due to lack of employment, modern technology e.t.c
  3. The history of leisure • Leisure is not a new thing or area • Many of today’s leisure activities have their origins • In the past leisure activities were usually associated with festivals and celebrations.
  4. ANCIENT CULTURES (TIMES) • Most f our ancestors did not need to set aside a period during the day to participate in various forms of activity like today. • Leisure was part of their daily routine
  5. China • China had a unique way of life. Ancient China followed a policy of isolation. • Didn’t care to associate with the rest of the world but instead desired to live unto itself • At first the topography of the land provided China with the necessary natural protection against invaders
  6. • laws were passed to keep foreigners out of the country • Ancestor worship was also an important part of their religious life • Individuality was suppressed • All persons were destined to live a rigid and stereotyped existence.
  7. • Little room was made for organized physical education and leisure activities • Leisure and Physical activity meant stressing the importance of the body and individual freedom of expression, which were contrary to the teachings of this ancient culture • Evidence exists of participation in physical education and sport activities in China despite the emphasis on intellectual excellence and the influence of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism, which stressed the studious, quiet, and contemplative life
  8. • In many Chinese classics, discussions of sons of rich families engaged in leisure and recreation activities e.g. music, dance and archery • Wrestling, jujitsu, boxing, ts'uchu (football), polo, water games, Chui wan (similar to golf), shuttlecock, and flying kites were also popular • Thus the more favored classes engaged in play, but the masses had little opportunity the supreme god.
  9. • As time went on Chinese medics thought that certain diseases were caused by inactivity • As a result, history discloses that the Cong Fu gymnastics were developed in 2698 B.C • These were medical gymnastics intended to keep the body in good organic condition • Therefore , kneeling, bending, lying, and standing exercises could be performed to treat disease
  10. Ancient India • In many ways, ancient India was similar to ancient China. • Indian people lived an existence that was very religious in nature ,Hinduism and Buddhism. • Hinduism stressed that the human soul passed through several reincarnations before being united with Brahma
  11. • The quickest and most certain way to attain this goal was to refrain from catering to the body and enjoying worldly things • The person who desired to be holy ignored the physical needs of the body and concentrated solely on spiritual needs • It can readily be seen that leisure and recreation activities had little place in the culture of these religious people.
  12. Buddhism emphasized that right living and thinking, including self denial, will help the individual's soul reach Nirvana, a divine state However Buddha's prohibitions of games, amusements, and exercises in ancient India did not totally prevent participation in such activities Evidence is available about pastimes such as dice, throwing balls, contests, tumbling, and chariot races, marbles, riding elephants and horses, swordsmanship, foot races, wrestling, boxing, and dancing
  13. The Greek Civilization • The Greeks were the first to distinguish between work and leisure • They promoted a balance between work and play as the routine to a healthy lifestyle and a healthy society. • In the ancient Greece, sport was an important part of the culture of every day life. • The major purpose of recreation was to test and improve military skills.
  14. Ancient Egypt • China and India stressed religious and intellectual matters • Egyptian youths were reared in a manner involving physical activity, leisure and recreation. • They were instructed in the use of various weapons and also required to participate in exercises and activities to make the body strong and capable of great endurance and stamina.
  15. • The Greeks strove for physical perfection and this objective affected all phases of their life; that is, on political and educational systems. • The modern Olympic movement is based on the sporting events from the ancient Greeks • Some of the words which associated with sport today derive from the Ancient Greek culture, for example gymnasium and stadium
  16. Sparta • The main objective of physical education and leisure activities was to contribute to a strong and powerful army • In Sparta the individual existed for the state, • Every one was required to help defend it against all enemies. This included women who had to be in good physical condition.
  17. • To determine the tempers and test bodies of babies mothers bathed them in wine • Boys, just after 6 years, were sent to a public barracks for compulsory public training. • Sparta build up one of the strongest armies in Greece.
  18. Athens • Athenians lived a democratic life, which did not seek to control and regulate leisure activities • Athenians engaged in physical education for development of their bodies • Ideally, they wanted to achieve proper balance in moral, mental, physical and aesthetic development.
  19. Ancient Rome • In Roman times, leisure meant entertainment. • The Roman calendar had 200 days of the year set aside for celebrations, 175 were for games • The great Roman engineers build public facilities for the masses to enjoy • The healing powers of spa waters were first recognized in Roman times
  20. • Slaves played music, competed in sports and took part in gladiatorial contests where success meant freedom, but failure meant death. • Further, Romans did not see the value of play as an enjoyable past time • Physical activity was considered important for good physical shape and readiness to serve the nation at short notice
  21. • Soldiers did rigid marching, running, jumping, swimming and javelin and discus throwing schedules
  22. LEISURE DURING THE DARK AGES We shall learn about • leisure during the Dark Ages, • Middle Ages and • Renaissance.
  23. The Dark Ages The Roman Empire collapsed about AD 476,resulting into a period of history referred to as the Dark Ages. It is argued that the tremendous costs associated with the lavish entertainment provided by the Romans led to the down fall of Rome The collapse of the Roman empire certainly had major impact on leisure mercenary
  24. This collapse left behind good lesson about keeping a strong nation i.e. a state must be physically as well as morally fit. The dark ages suggested that these were hard times with few opportunities for the masses to take part in leisure activities
  25. Middle Ages • The rise of Christianity after the Dark Ages led to leisure being associated with ‘holy days’ • In Britain religious festivals took place at key stages of the year Christmas, Easter, Sunday holy day e.t.c • Middle Ages were between the tenth and fourteenth centuries, leisure continued to be enjoyed by feudal lords
  26. • They enjoyed leisure activities like hunting, music, dance • Towards the end of the middle ages leisure began to take on an unpleasant bloody thirsty aspect. It meant drinking, gambling and bloody sports. How ever this also came to an end
  27. The Renaissance and Reformation Renaissance means ‘rebirth’ The Renaissance period was a change of life Many great and practical scholars made important scientific discoveries at home and Abroad Leisure was no longer available for only the privileged class It became available for every one in the society Important leaders and scholars who were responsible for popularizing physical education during this emerged.
  29. The German Influence Leisure activities in Germany during the modern period is associated with names such as • Basedow • Gutsmuths • Jahn and • Speiss.
  30. Johann Bernharil Basedow (1723 to 1790) • Early in life he went to Denmark as a teacher, where he witnessed leisure in practice as part of a combined physical and mental training program • After gaining experience in Denmark, he went back to Germany and decided to spend all his time reforming the educational methods. • He established a school at Dessau • In his model school, leisure activities played an important part in the daily program of all students.
  31. • The activities included dancing, fencing, riding, running, jumping, wrestling, swimming, skating, and marching. This was the first school in modern Europe that admitted children from all classes of society. • Basedow's innovation greatly influenced the growth of Leisure in Germany and in the rest of the world.
  32. Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths (1759 to 1839} He was influential in the field of Leisure and recreation through his association leisure Professors He was an instructor of physical education and Sports His beliefs and practices in physical education were recorded for history in various books
  33. Adolph Spies (1810 to 1858) • He was the founder of school gymnastics in Germany • He helped to make leisure a part of school life • His own theory was that the school should be inter- ested in the total growth of the child mental, emotional, physical, and social • Should be required of all students, with the possible exception of those whom a physician would excuse