• The systematic presentation of the findings in relation to
the research objectives isthe crucial part of the report.
• Should summarize findings rather than providing data
in great detail
• Should present results but not comment on them
• Data presentation should not repeat the data in the
visuals, but rather highlight the most important points.
• In the “standard” research paper approach, your
Results section should exclude data interpretation,
leaving it for the Discussion section
• Report the key findings
• What you found not why you found it and what it means to have
•Clear and concise summary of the data that was
collected and the results of any statistical tests.
•This section answers the question - What happened?
•The results section is one of the most feared sections
of the report.
– But the fear is not justified
Provide meaningful information - Avoid raw data!
Use of adjectives
Clear and simple description of the findings
- Text should compliment tables & figures
- Highlight important findings, not details required.
- OK to describe quantitative differences, e.g., higher, larger
- Avoid subjective terms, e.g., remarkable,
outstanding, interesting, significant
• Results section is data oriented and does NOT
• Tables, charts,& graphs are better for presenting findings
• Do not construct tables unlessthere is reasonable amount
of data to be presented.
• Beconsistent in how to present the data and the labels.
• Textto briefly summarize acomplex chart, table, or graph,
can be used, but do not present the same information in
• If there is any sort of atrend, useagraph.
• If only numbers sit there, useatable.
• Charts& graphs should clarify& not complicate, they
makethe report more interesting andgrab attention.
• But,they must bewell-designed and informative.
8. State the result and then present the data or cite a
figure or table.
In the 20 control subjects, the mean resting blood pressure
was 85 ± 5(SD) mmHg. In comparison, in the 30 patients, the
mean resting blood pressure was 94 ± 3(SD) mmHg. vs.
The mean resting blood pressure was 10% higher in the 30
patients than in the 20 control subjects (94 ± 3 [SD] vs 85
±5[SD] mmHg, P< 0.02).
Do not provide incomplete information
“People taking ibuprofen daily were more likely to have
asthma. More likely than whom?
9. Use of charts and Tables
• You need to
compare or look
• You require
• The data has to
• Is used to convey a
message that is
contained in the
shape of the data.
• Is used to show a
10. Mentioning tables and figures
• In citing tables and figures, emphasize the
finding, not the table or figure.
– Not so good: Table 3 shows that researchers
who attended the workshop published twice as
many papers per year.
Table 3 clearly shows that … It
is obvious from figure 4 that …
– Better: Researchers who attended the workshop
published twice as many papers per year (Table 3).
11. Basic rules for the preparation of
tables and graphs
Ideally, every table should:
• Be self-explanatory;
• Present values with the same number of decimal
places in all its cells
• Include a title informing what is being described
and where, as well as the number of observations
•Have a structureformed by three horizontal lines,
defining table heading and the end of the table at
its lower border;
•Not have vertical lines
• Provide additional information in table footer,
• Be inserted into a document only after being
mentioned in the text; and
• Be numbered by Arabic numerals.
14. Results: A Suggestion
• Look at the Results sections of some papers
in your target journal.
• Notice items such as the following:
– Inclusion of subheads (or not)
– Number of tables and figures
• Use these Results sections as models.