2. Nurse Leaders
Guide and motivate nurses
Design, develop, implement, and sustain the
Act as a stabilizing influence among constant
Leadership: defined as a process of influencing the
behavior of either an individual or a group,
regardless of the reason, to achieve goals in a given
Management: Management is defined as the
coordination and integration of resources through
planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, and
controlling to accomplish specific institutional goals
Followership is defined as “a process whereby an
individual or individuals accept the influence of
others to accomplish a common goal”
4. Leadership and Care
Management is focused on task accomplishment
Leadership is focused on human relationship aspects
May be sequential, and are interrelated.
5. Leadership Overview
Core Leadership Components
It is a process
Occurs in groups
Involves common goals
6. Industrial organization
management (IOM’s) Areas of
Implementing evidence-based management
Balancing tensions between efficiency and reliability
Creating and sustaining trust
Actively managing the change process through
communication, feedback, training, sustained effort
and attention, and worker involvement
Creating a learning environment
7. The American Organization for
Nursing Leadership (AONL’s)
Nurse Executive Competencies
Communication and relationship management
Business skills and principles
Knowledge of the health care environment
8. Two Roles of a Nurse
Direct care provider
Day-to-day coordination of service delivery
Information flow regarding care and service delivery
9. The Leadership Role
A unique role and function
Motivated by challenge
14. Types of Leadership Theories
Focuses on identifying characteristics of leaders
Measures attitudes toward leader behavior
Focuses on observed behaviors of leaders and how
styles can be matched to situations
15. Practices of Exemplary Leadership
Model the way
Inspire a shared vision
Challenge the process
Enable others to act
Encourage the heart
18. Situational Leadership Theories
Leadership in groups is never a static circumstance
Groups move back and forth through stages
Leadership styles are fluid based on group needs
19. Leader Effectiveness Model
Hersey and Blanchard’s Tri-Dimensional Leader
Task behavior/relationship behavior
Four basic leadership styles
20. Transactional and
Functions in a caretaker role and is focused on day-to-
Motivates followers to perform to their full potential
over time by influencing a change in perceptions and
by providing a sense of direction.
24. The Management Process
Three Categories of Practices
Practices That Give Executives the Knowledge They
Practices That Help Executives Convert Knowledge
Practices That Ensure That the Whole Organization
Feels Responsible and Accountable
25. Five Managerial Mind-Sets
Reflective mind-set: Managing self
Analytic mind-set: Managing organizations
Worldly mind-set: Managing context
Collaborative mind-set: Managing relationships
Action mind-set: Managing change
Data from Gosling and Mintzberg (2003).
Identify the mission
Conduct an environmental scan
Analyze the situation
Identify strategies to reach goals
Set objectives to achieve goals
Assign responsibilities and time lines
Write a planning document
Celebrate success and completion
31. Leadership and Management
Affect how nurses feel about their work
Are important to nurses because of the size of
Are needed to guide and motivate nurses
Are needed to inspire nurses
32. Issues and Trends
Aging of baby boomers
“Big three” issues of access, cost, and quality
33. Question #1
Which statement regarding leadership and
management is false?
A. Leadership focuses on people while management
focuses on systems and structures.
B. Both leadership and management processes seek to
C. Strategies used to accomplish goals may be different
in leadership and management.
D. Leadership and management have discrete skill sets.
34. Question #2
Relationship management is a key leadership skill
A. Being liked by staff makes it easier to get things done.
B. Patient care requires a high degree of interdependence
on other care providers.
C. Transferring negative moods to staff can decrease
D. Helping staff cope with change is important.
Notas do Editor
Leadership is important for nurses because they need to possess knowledge and skills in the art and science of solving problems in work groups, systems of care, and the environment of care delivery.
Nursing is a service profession, the core mission of which is the care, restoration of health, and nurturing of human beings in their experiences of health and illness.
See Figure 1.1 Linkage of clinical and management domains.
See Figure 1.2 Components of a leadership moment.
Leadership styles are defined as different combinations of task and relationship behaviors used to influence others to accomplish goals.
See Figure 1.3 Continuum of leader behavior.
By contrast, leadership approaches described by men, as a generalization, tend to be influenced by the military and participating in team sports.
See Figure 1.4 Transactional and transformational leadership.
Nurse managers balance two competing needs: the needs of the staff related to growth, efficiency, motivation, morale, and accomplishment with the outcome of staff satisfaction and the needs of the employer for productivity, quality, and cost effectiveness with the outcome of productivity.
Organizing is a management function related to allocating and configuring resources to accomplish preferred goals and objectives.
Directing/leading is the managerial function of establishing direction and then influencing people to follow that direction.
Controlling is the management function of monitoring and adjusting the plan, processes, and resources to effectively and efficiently achieve goals.
See Box 1.1 Open System Elements and Health Care Examples
Correct answer: d
Rationale: Leadership and management have several areas of overlap in regard to skill set. For example, both require excellent communication skills. Differences between leadership and management can be seen in regard to focus (people versus systems/structures) and strategies used to accomplish goals.
Correct answer: b
Rationale: The definition of relationship management is the “use of effective communication with others to disarm conflict, and the ability to develop the emotional maturity of team members.” Without effective communication, real or perceived conflict can take hold of a work group and disrupt the flow of communication between and among other staff and disciplines. This can seriously impact care coordination, quality, and safety. Relationship management is not related to being liked, transferring negative moods to staff (self-management), or helping staff cope with change (social awareness).