2. Sources of infection
• Ingestion (Mouth).
• inhalation (Aerosols and droplet nuclei).
• Inoculation (skin abrasion).
• Body fluid.
3. Risk Group Classifications (1-4)
RG(1):Agents are not associated with disease in healthy adult humans. e.g. E. coli
K12 strains, B. subtilis, S. cerevisiae
RG(2): Agents are associated with human disease of varying severity (rarely
serious) and for which preventative or therapeutic interventions are often available. e.g.
Salmonella, Vibrio, Plasmodium, Hepatitis B Virus.
4. Risk Group Classifications (1-4)
RG(3): Agents are associated with serious or lethal human disease for which
preventative or therapeutic interventions may be available (high individual risk, low
community risk). e.g. Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HIV
RG(4): Agents are likely to cause serious or lethal human disease for which
preventative or therapeutic interventions are not usually available (high individual risk
and high community risk).
• e.g. Ebola and H1N1 virus
5. General Safety Rules
• Lab safety rules and symbols are needed so that students do not injure
themselves or their classmates.
• Read all assigned materials before the lab session.
• Do not touch any equipment, chemicals, or other materials until told to do
6. General Safety Rules
• The goal of the laboratory is to expose students to the wide variety of life in the
• the study of microbiology includes bacteria, viruses and fungi.
• All specimens that are received in the laboratory should be regarded as infectious
and handled with care.
8. General Safety Rules
• Keep long hair tied up and out of the way. Hair can contaminate and be
contaminated by microbial cultures.
Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water before and after lab
9. • Always wear shoes in lab
• Immediately report all
accidents and spills to the
• You spill = you clean up!
10. • Gloves must be worn for work and must be removed when handling taps,
note books etc and before leaving the laboratory.
• Injuries must be reported to your supervisor IMMEDIATELY.
• Do not take cultures from the lab area.
11. • Keep the lab bench free of
unnecessary materials. Don't use the
lab bench as a storage area for coats,
• Clean the lab bench with
disinfectant before and after lab.
12. • Do NOT Wear:
• Loose or Baggy clothing
13. • Do not carry out a new
or unfamiliar procedure
until you have been
fully trained &
for safe working
• DO NOT GUESS!!!!
Flammable – Any substance that will burn if exposed to an open
Explosive – A substance that may explode if exposed to heat or flame.
Toxic/Poison – A substance that can lead to death if inhaled, ingested,
or absorbed by the skin.
Irritant - A substance that causes inflammation upon contact with skin
or mucous membranes.
Environmental - Substances that are harmful to the environment.
They must be disposed of properly, not washed down the drain.
Corrosive – A substance that can destroy or burn living tissue and can
eat away at other materials.