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Sesame lecture

Sesame production guide in Ethiopia

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Sesame lecture

  1. 1. Aksum Unversity College of Agriculture Department of Plant Science Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production Compiled by: Abadi Berhane (MSc.) April, 2014 Shire 4/30/2014 1
  2. 2. Oil crops production Introduction Oil crops are important field crops in the world as well as in Ethiopia. The area and production of oil crops in Ethiopia in was 774,529.55ha 2010/11(6.55% of total area covered) and 6,339,987.49 Qts. (3.12% of total grain crops produced) respectively; The major oil crops in Ethiopia are: 4/30/2014 2
  3. 3. Cont… Nug, sesame and linseed covered 2.09% (247,611.17 hectares), 3.25 % (384,682.79 hectares) and 0.62 % (73,687.7 hectares) of the grain crop area;  and 0.71 % (1,448,474.82 Qts.), 1.61 % (about 3,277,409.22 Qts.) and 0.32% (654,205.76 Qts.) of the grain production, respectively. 4/30/2014 3
  4. 4. Oil crops production Highland oil crops - Sunflower, - Niger seed, - Rapeseed/mustard, - Linseed/flax - Castor, Lowland oil crops • sesame, • Soybean, • Safflower • Groundnut, etc. 4/30/2014 4
  5. 5. Sesame Introduction • Sesame is grown in areas with annual rainfall of 625-1100mm and temperature of above 270C. • It is tolerant to drought ; but sensitive to water logging; • Is grown deep, well drained, fertile sandy loam type of soils; • In ethiopia it grows in Amhara, Tigray, Benshangul Gumuz, and Somali regions. It also grows in the lowlands of Oromiya, and SNNP. 4/30/2014 5
  6. 6. Cont… Origin and distribution  is the most probably ancient oil crop,  the origin is thought to be Africa, and spread to West Asia, India, China and Japan; Most of the wild species are found in Africa. Is grown in tropics and subtropics (250 S and 250N). It also grows up to 400 in China, Russia and the USA, 300S in Australia. 4/30/2014 6
  7. 7. Cont… Production and productivity Globally, sesame is produced over an area of 8.8mha and annual production around 2.8mt  with average productivity of 382kg/ha; whereas, in Africa, average productivity ranges from 300 to 500kg/ha in pure stand; But, under good management it reaches as high as 3000kg/ha (Kafiriti and Deckers, 2001). 4/30/2014 7
  8. 8. Cont… Family: Pedaliaceae Genus: sesamum, contains 16 genera and 60 spp. Sesamum indicum L. (syn. S. orientale) (2n = 26) is the widely cultivated one. 4/30/2014 8
  9. 9. Crop description Common names • ‘selit, simsim’ • Sesame is a broadleaf plant • Plant height (1.5-2.0 meter) • Varieties differ in color of seed and flowers, size, growth habit and composition, • The crop is erect, branched, mostly annual; • It is warm season plant, • Deep thin taproot stem, 1m length; • Considerably tolerate drought, but sensitive during initial growth, 4/30/2014 9
  10. 10. Cont… • It has indeterminate growth; • Leaves are entire, lanceolate, and sometimes slightly serrated; • Leaf size: varies from 3 to 17.5 cm in length and 1 to1.7cm in width, and with the petiole length of 1 to 5cm. • Leaf color: is mostly dull, darkish-green or light green with a yellowish tint. • Flowers: bell-shaped white to pale-rose flowers 4/30/2014 10
  11. 11. Cont…. • Flowering starts 35-45 DAP and contineous 75-80 DAP • Pollination: it is normally self-pollinated but rarely to up to 50% from insect pollination; • Flowers open early in the morning and shed in the evening. • Anthers open and release pollen shortly after flower opening, which remain viable for 24 hours only. • The stigma remains receptive • one day prior to flower opening to another one day after flower opening. 4/30/2014 11
  12. 12. Cont… Fruiting  the fruiting structure is called capsule or pod; Formed 20-30 cm above the ground; Capsule lengths: vary from 2.5 to 8 cm, with a diameter of 0.5 to 2 cm; Capsules are attached to the stem at upright angle, usually hairy and contain about 50-90 small oleaginous seeds; 4/30/2014 12
  13. 13. Cont… • On average 1000 seeds weigh 2 to 4g; • Seed color: due to varietal variation, white, yellow, reddish brown; or grey, dark grey, 4/30/2014 13
  14. 14. Cont… Parameter Value (%) Protein 22-25 Oil content 43-50 Carbohydrate 3 Fiber 6.3 gram Nutritional content of sesame 4/30/2014 14
  15. 15. Cont… Sesame oil is yellow in color and used in shortenings, salad oil, margarine and other food products, 40-60% oil can be obtained ( variety, envt.) Sesame seed is rich in calcium oxalate and fatty acids; high in Vitamin A, B, & E, K, P, Mg; Sesame oil is a stable product because of a natural antioxidants sesamol and sesamolinol that reduce the rate of oxidation; …….. Preferable vegetable oil; 4/30/2014 15
  16. 16. Agro-ecology  Sesame grows well in hot to warm semi-arid plains (SA1-1) of western Tigray (mainly Humera) areas, rangiing from 500 to 1600 masl.  temperature: 21-280C;  RF: 300-800mm mean annual rainfall;  The 2nd major sesame area is characterized as hot to warm sub-moist plains (SM1-1) that includes north western Amhara region (Metema), 400-1400 masl.,  Temperature: greater than 210C;  RF: 200-1000mm mean annual RF;  It is also growing in Benshangul Gumuz, Oromia, SNNP (Gibe, Gojeb and Omo river basins) 4/30/2014 16
  17. 17. Cont… • Sesame requires hot conditions; • 25-370C through out the cycle; and 25-270C encourages rapid germination; • Below 200C temperature delays germination or inhibits; • Low temperature results in sterile pollens; and over 400C seriously affects fertilization; 4/30/2014 17
  18. 18. Cont… Soil type • Sesame is adapted to many soil types, but thrives best on; …… well drained and medium textured fertile soils; pH: 5-8 The best soils in ethiopia are light alluvial and chromic Vertisols; does not grow on heavy clay, salty and waterlogged soils; 4/30/2014 18
  19. 19. Cont… • If the environment is suitable, sesame germinates 5-7 days, • during the early stages, it has rapid growth to overcome weeds and to establish good stand; • Thinning is iimportant when plants reach 10 to 15cm height (10cm), • 222,000 to 250,000 plants/ha, 4/30/2014 19
  20. 20. Cont… Fertilizer application:  in Humera, application of 120kg/ha NPK (19:19:19) + K2SO4 50kg/ha + Urea 50kg/ha at planting gave 32% yield increment over the control. 4/30/2014 20
  21. 21. Cont… Water requirement • Sesame is drought resistant crop, after it is well established, it tolerates high water stress; • 300 to 800mm per annum is necessary for reasonable yield; • Optimum yields are obtained (500-650mm) in 3-4 months with good distribution, 4/30/2014 21
  22. 22. Agronomic practices Land preparation, sowing, and seed rate Sesame requires a warm, moist, weed free seedbed, 20-25cm ploughing depth is practical; Sesame seeds are small (sand or soil); 1:5 ratio Seed rate: 5-7kg/ha for row, and 7-10 for broadcasting, --------Metema (3-4 kg) and Humera (4-5kg/ha), Population: greater than 250,000 per ha; 4/30/2014 22
  23. 23. Cont… Variety selection • Due to the diverse agro-ecology, in Ethiopia, there are several sesame varieties; • In ethiopia, both the improved and local cultivars are branching types. Planting methods • Manually, or mechanically by hand operated seeder, ------- broadcasting, or drilling; 4/30/2014 23
  24. 24. Cont… Row spacing: • The recommended spacing in ethiopia is 10*40 making 250,000/ha, Planting depth: depending on soil type and variety (3-5cm),  planting time is the most critical phase. Moisture availability, length of rainy season and temperature are the 3 major factors. 4/30/2014 24
  25. 25. Cont… Cropping system • Intercropping: Sesame is grown as intercrop with sorghum in Harerghe and with tef in North Shewa. It requires high solar radiation and should be intercropped short crops stature. • Crop rotation: with sorghum, cotton, peanuts, soybean, onion and other vegetables; • Sole cropping: 4/30/2014 25
  26. 26. Insect pests and diseases management Weeds and their control Weeds affect: Quality, increased cost of production, and serve as alternate hosts for insect pests and diseases; Broadleaf and grasses are important weeds; Early weeding is important; Control: tillage (twice), hand weeding, use of herbicides; Example: metholachlor 960 EC@2.5lt/ha + hand weeding; 4/30/2014 26
  27. 27. Cont… Insect pests and their control: • Sesame yields are seriously affected by pests; Example: 1. Webworm (Antigastra catalaunalis), 2. Sesame seed bug (Elasmolomus sordidus) 3. Gall midge (Asphondilia sesami), 4. Termites; 5. Green vegetable bug (Nezara viridula), 6. African bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) 7. Grass hoppers, aphids, jassids, whitefly, crickets, warehouse moth and red flour beetle are the major pests 4/30/2014 27
  28. 28. Cont… Control:  spray chemicals (Malathion 50% EC, Ethiosulfan 35% EC 1-3 times, Karate 0.8% ULV,  Use of botanicals  Crop rotation, 4/30/2014 28 Bugs
  29. 29. Cont… Diseases and their control Bacterial blight in humid, phyllody in drier areas are serious diseases while;  powdery mildew and wilt are sporadic and minor economic loss. 4/30/2014 29
  30. 30. Cont… A. Bacterial blight Bacterial blight and bacterial leaf spot of sesame are caused by two pathogens; Xanthomonas sesami and Pseudomonas sesami.  it can cause complete yield failure;  Incidence may reach up to 100% in Wellega, Pawe, and Gambella where high humidity persists, while 10-50% in semi-arid areas like Were and Humera.  Water logging encourages the spread of the diseases; 4/30/2014 30
  31. 31. Cont… Bacterial blight control: A. Use of tolerant varieties such as Dicho for Wellega, Abassena for Pawe and Tate for Southern areas; B. Cultural practices: clean seed, stable removal, burning, deep plowing and crop rotation C. Hot water treatment@ 520C for 12-14 minutes; D. chemical: streptomycin solutions 750-1000ppm 4/30/2014 31
  32. 32. Cont… Phyllody: Phyllody is most destructive disease of sesame in drier areas like Werer, Babille, and Bisidimo and partly in North West. It causes deformation of leaves and flowers, Control: Do not use infected seeds, destroy infected plants, and burn, Jassids are alternate hosts, 4/30/2014 32
  33. 33. Cont… Wilt: • Is caused by fungus, • Fusarium oxysporium and Fusarium sesami, • Symptoms: infected terminal leaves turn yellowish, desiccate and droop, progresses down to the stem; Control: seed selection, early plowing and exposing the fungus to desiccation, avoiding water logging, field sanitation, and crop rotation. 4/30/2014 33
  34. 34. Crop maturity, harvesting and postharvest techniques of sesame Maturity: the LGP for sesame in ethiopia varies with the length of rainy season. • In Humera and other short rainy season areas, sesame matures within 100 days; • In Wellega, Benshangul Gumuz, Gambella and similar long season areas, it matures within 150 days; • Symptom: at maturity leaves and stems tend to change from green to yellow color, then to dark red, and finally, leaves falloff, 4/30/2014 34
  35. 35. Cont… Harvesting and stacking in sesame: 4/30/2014 35