Mais conteúdo relacionado



Nationalism in india By Aashny

  1. NATIONALISM IN INDIA The struggle against colonialism.
  2. . The sense of nationalism was created in the minds of the Europeans as well as the Indians. But there was a difference. In Europe, the feeling of nationalism was created in the minds of the people in order to achieve Unification. In India, the feeling of nationalism was created in the minds of people in order to fight againstColonialism and achieve Freedom. India was a colony of Britain. Colonialism was a result of the spread of Globalization. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
  3. The FirstWorldWar created a new economic and political situation.The Economic field was affected very badly. Britain had participated in the first world war.To meet their war needs, they imposed very taxes on the Indians in the form War Loans,Customs Duties and IncomeTaxes.They even imposed taxes on poor farmers. This led to an extreme hardship for the common people.
  4. The villages were called upon to supply soldiers and Forced Recruitment in the rural areas caused widespread anger.The people weren’t ready to join the military but they were forced to. This was followed by the Influenza Epidemic in 1920. Food crops failed and there was shortage of food. India was literally hit by a famine at this time. Proper medical facilities we re not available at that time. Proper food was just a dream. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic.The Indians wanted to fight against the Britishers.They wanted someone to lead them.
  5. MahatmaGandhi was born on 2nd October 1869, in Porbandar,Gujarat. He studied in London and later went to South Africa and successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation, which he called Satyagraha. MahatmaGandhi returned to India in the year 1915 and introduced his new method of mass agitation, the Satyagraha. Satyagraha meansTruth only wins. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. MahatmaGandhi believed thatTruth can change a person. He tried to unite the Indians through Satyagraha and Non-Violence.
  6. Gandhiji went to Bihar and gathered the peasants and farmers and organized the Champaran Movement in 1916 to fight against the forced Opium and Indigo cultivation. In 1917, he organized a Satyagraha in Kheda of Gujarat. The peasants of Kheda were affected by the crop failure and the plague epidemic and couldn’t pay revenue to the British Government. This Satyagraha allowed the peasants to demand the reduction of the revenue. In 1918, Gandhiji organized a Satyagraha in Ahmadabad for the cotton mill workers.
  7. RowlattAct was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. According to this act, the government can repress public meetings and gatherings against the British Government.The political leaders leading such activities can be imprisoned for 2 years, with no trials held.This was done so as to keep Indians inside their homes itself. MahatmaGandhi decided to launch a satyagraha against this unjust act. He declared a hartal on 6th of April in the year 1919. Rallies were organized in various cities and the workers went on strike in railway workshops.Afraid that the communication lines such as the railways and telegraph would be disrupted, the British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi.
  8. GENERAL DYER JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE A new leader, General Dyer was appointed in police department. He was a cruel leader. Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th April,1919 in Punjab. Jallianwala Bagh was actually a closed park where a large gathering was present.This gathering included people from both groups, the people who were protesting against the Britishers and the people who were there to attend the annual Baisakhi fair.This information had reached Dyer. He arrived at the location and ordered to open fire on the people.
  9. He blocked the exits, restricting the people to escape.This cased the death of more than 100 people. General Dyer declared later that his objective was to ‘produce a moral effect. He wanted to create a feeling of terror of and awe in the minds of the Satyagrahis. The people were angry at this and they stormed out and went on for strikes, clashes with the police and they even attacked government buildings.The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorize people.
  10. There was nation-wide violence since the Jallianwala Bagh. Gandhiji realized that he should bring the Hindus and Muslims together so that he can see unity in the country. One way to unite them was through the Khilafat issue.The 1st World war had ended with the defeat of OttomanTurkey.There were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor- the spiritual head of the Islamic world. To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, along with the help of MahatmaGandhi , led the Khilafat movement. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
  11. Non-Cooperation was a new method of mass agitation introduced by MahatmaGandhi. In his famous book Hind Swaraj, MahatmaGandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refuse to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj [Freedom] would come.The first step in launching a non- cooperation movement was with the surrender if titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
  12. f Students and teachers stopped going to government institutions.Government workers resigned from their jobs. MahatmaGandhi and RabindranathTagore returned the titles that were given to them. The economic sector was severely affected. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.The import of foreign goods halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance trade. People began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills went up.
  13. But in cities, non-cooperation movement slowed down gradually.There were reasons for this slow down. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.The boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in the place of the British ones .These were slow to come up. So the students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts. INTHE RURAL AREAS: The Non-cooperation spread to the rural areas from the urban cities. But it was not as effective as in the cities. The Non-Cooperation movement in the rural areas called SWADESHI MOVEMENT.This movement was similar to that of the tribal movements.
  14. The Swadeshi Movement was the most effective in Awadh.The peasants of Awadh were led by Baba Ramchandran. He was once an indentured laborer in Fiji. He fought against the talukdars and landlords and against their huge taxation system. He also fought against the Begar system.This movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. The same Non-cooperation movement was called GUERILLA MOVEMENT in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh. It was launched by the tribal groups.They fought against the forest measures introduced by the British government.These tribal groups were led by Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was a follower of MahatmaGandhi. He claimed himself as a magician and also claimed that he can cure people’s depression. Raju could make Astrological predictions and boasted that he could even survive bullets. He spread to the tribal groups about the MahatmaGandhi and the achievements of the Swadeshi movement. But he was a violent person and attacked the police station by killing the British officers. He was arrested and was executed.
  15. The Plantation workers of Assam had a completely different idea of Swaraj. For them Swaraj meant to be free from the landlords.They were suffering a lot from the Inland Emigration Act of 1859. According to this act, the Plantation workers were not allowed to leave the plantation grounds without the permission of the Plantation owner.When they heard about the Non-cooperation movement, they left the tea gardens and headed home, launching a swaraj movement. But they were caught and were brutally beaten up by the police.
  16. However, this movement did not last long.This movement only caused violence everywhere which disappointedGandhi. He decided to call of the movement since this wasn’t his idea of Satyagraha. He called off the movement in February 1922. He said that the Satyagrahis must me properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.They should know how to properly face aggression.
  17. SIMON COMMISSION The newTory Government In Britain established the Simon Commission in India under the leadership of Sir John Simon. It was set up in order to look into the functioning and constitutional system of India and suggest any changes. It was set up for a good purpose, but there were no Indian members in it. If the commission was set up for the betterment of India, It should have at least one Indian member so as to represent the ideas and emotions of the Indians and suggest a valid change. Hence, the Indians were completely against the setting up of this commission.When the SimonCommission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan, “SIMONGO BACK”.
  18. THE LAHORE CONGRESS SESSION In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalized the demand of ‘Poorna Swaraj’. or full independence for India. It was declared that 26 January 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to make a pledge to struggle for complete independence. But the celebrations attracted very little of attention. So Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.
  19. THE CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT LAUNCH ANDTHE SALT MARCH MahatmaGandhi realized that he should find an interest that is common among all the people irrespective of their caste, creed or religion. Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike., it was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, Gandhi declared, revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule. So Gandhiji decided to use Salt as a weapon.
  20. On 31st January, 1930, Gandhi sent a letter to LordViceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. His letter was, in a way, an ultimatum. If the demands were not fulfilled by 11th March, the letter stated, the Congress would launch a Civil Disobedience campaign. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So Mahatma Gandhi decided to start his famous Salt March. He was accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers from Sabarmati Ashram.They marched 240 miles, from Sabarmati Ashram to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi , for 24 days, 10 miles per day. While on this journey, Gandhi spread his ideas of Swaraj with the people.On 6th April the procession reached Dandi.Gandhiji ceremonially violated the Salt laws, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Now people were asked not only to refuse to cooperate with the Britishers but also to break the colonial rules.
  21. Unfortunately, Civil Disobedience also finally led to violence, arrests and deaths.The frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 100,000 people were arrested. MahatmaGandhi called off the movement. He was also arrested with the others. MahatmaGandhi and Irwin entered into a pact, the Gandhi-Irwin pact in which Gandhi agreed to attend the RoundTable Conference in London while the British Government agreed to release political prisoners. Gandhi kept his word and went to London but the British Government refused to release the political prisoners.
  22. THEVARIOUS PARTICIPANTS  BUSINESS CLASS G.D Birla and PurushottamdasThakurdas were the most important industrialists of that time. During the 19th century and the first world war, the sales of their Iron and Steel Industries went up due to the war demands of the Britishers. They supported the Civil Disobedience movement because of the boycott of foreign products and foreign industries.They established two organizations, Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce of Industries in 1927.After the failure of the Civil Disobedience Movement, they decided to withdraw their support. They were apprehensive of the spread 0f militant activities and worried about prolonged disruption of business, as well as of the growing socialism amongst the younger members of the Congress.
  23.  WOMEN Women came out in large numbers and supported MahatmaGandhi.They participated in all movements of Non-cooperation andCivil Disobedience. Most of them were from rich and wealthy families. From Rural areas, they came from rich peasant households.They realized that sacrificing their lives for their country is the most sacred duty. Gandhiji convinced that it was the duty of the women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.The Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.
  24.  Different groups of the society had different ideas of Swaraj.  The Dalits called themselves weaker sections or low class and never participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement .  The Congress party had to interest on the Dalits and showed no consideration on them. Congress party contained people who belonged to high class family.  After the failure of the Khilafat Movement, the Muslims were alienated.They cooperated in the Civil Disobedience movement.They set up organizations and fought for their religion.This led to the growth of Communalism in India.  The Muslims demanded a separate electorate, reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces.  The Muslims refused to cooperate with the Congress party.
  25. The Dalits were called ‘Harijans’ by Gandhi, meaning children of god.The Harijans did not have any rights in the society.They began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions, and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar emerged as their leader and organized the Dalits Depressed Class Association in 1930. He clashed with Gandhi at the 2nd RoundTable Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.When the BritishGovernment conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into a society.Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932. It gave the Depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and Central LegislativeCouncils
  26. The feeling was spread among the Indians through History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols. The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1970’s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.AbanindranathTagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In that painting Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure who is calm, composed and divine and spiritual. Devotion to this mother came to be seen as evidence of one’s nationalism.
  27. Sense of Nationalism also developed through a movement to revise Indian folklore. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths, and led the movement for folk revival. Some of the symbols were unified. During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolor flag was designed. It had eight lotuses representing the eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims. By 1921 Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolor and had a spinning wheel in the center, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.Carrying the flag ,holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
  28. Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.The British saw Indians as backward and primitive, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished.
  29. Growing anger against colonial government was bringing together various groups and classes of Indians into a common struggle for freedom in the first half of 20th century.The Congress under the leadership of MahatmaGandhi tried to channel people’s grievances in organised movements for independence.Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity. But as we have seen, diverse groups and classes participated in these movements with varied aspirations and expectations.As their grievances were wide-ranging, freedom from colonial rule also meant different things to different people.The Congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group and did not alienate another.This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down.The high points of Congress activity and Nationalist unity were followed by phases of disunity and inner conflict between groups. In other words, what was emerging a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.