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Getting Started with AWS EC2. From Zero to Hero

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Presentation by George Yanev during the #AWSBulgaria User Group Meeting: http://www.meetup.com/AWS-Bulgaria/events/229990095/
#AWSBulgaria is a community for anyone interested in Amazon Web Services, cloud computing, DevOps.

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Getting Started with AWS EC2. From Zero to Hero

  1. 1. Getting Started with AWS EC2. From Zero to Hero 13 April 2016 George Yanev Telerik, a Progress Company DevOps Engineer
  2. 2. About Me ● Started as System Administrator with passion for Open Source. First distro Slackware. ● Few years ago get interested in coding and as Open Source enthusiast and System Administrator picked Python. ● Moved to DevOps as it match my believe that if you love what you do, you will find ways to do it better.
  3. 3. What to expect ● Introduction to EC2. ● Go beyond the introduction in some areas like Xen, Burstable instances, Instance type, Enhanced networking ● Dive in the Price Options
  4. 4. History Started in 25 August 2006 in BETA with m1.small instance Interesting facts: - m1.small instance from 2006 was 2.27 times more expensive than today - No persistent storage until 20 August 2008 when EBS was introduced - Only Linux - No AWS Management Console - No Auto Scaling
  5. 5. Let’s talk a little bit about the Hardware ● Data centers ● Racks ● Servers ● Networking ● Data storage
  6. 6. Hardware ● Rack ● Switch
  7. 7. Virtualization ● Hypervisor type is XEN ● Curious facts ○ Operating System is probably RedHat based ○ Different XEN version in the same region
  8. 8. EC2 Hypervisor guests types ● HVM (Hardware Virtual Machine a.k.a Hardware-assisted virtualization) ● PV (Paravirtualization)
  9. 9. HVM ● Guest system doesn’t know it has been virtualized ● By default slower than PV in I/O scenarios (not true anymore) ● Depends on the Hardware (Intel - VT, AMD - AMD-V) ● Secure Hardware isolation
  10. 10. HVM Speed HVM is currently at least on par as performance goes with PV thanks to: ● New hardware extensions: SR-IOV ● Xen improvements ● Kernel host improvements - vector callbacks, MSI remapping, interrupt remapping ● PV drivers - storage drivers, network drivers
  11. 11. EC2 Hypervisor guests pros ● HVM (Hardware Virtual Machine a.k.a Hardware-assisted virtualization) ○ Bursty CPU Loads. ○ High Memory Instances. ○ Enhanced Networking Instances. ● PV (Paravirtualization) ○ None If you like benchmarks: http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php? page=article&item=amazon_ec2_pvhvm&num=1
  12. 12. EC2 Instance type
  13. 13. Instance family ● T, M - General purpose ● C - Compute optimized ● R - Memory optimized ● I, D - Storage optimized ● G - GPU instances
  14. 14. Instance generation ● Each new generation add feature, boost performance. If you are unsure which generation to use, choose the latest.
  15. 15. Instance size ● Starting from nano reaching out to 8xlarge (and the monster X1 SAP HANA) ● http://www.ec2instances.info/
  16. 16. Instance types ● Next dozen of slides will try to explain ○ The different Instance types ○ Which role suits each Instance type ○ Instance types key facts
  17. 17. vCPU ● What exactly AWS means by vCPU? Each vCPU is a hyperthread of an Intel Xeon core. In general, one vCPU more-or-less correlates to half a physical core.
  18. 18. T2 (Burstable Performance Instances) ● Features ○ High Frequency Intel Xeon Processors with Turbo up to 3.3GHz ○ Burstable CPU, governed by CPU Credits, and consistent baseline performance ○ Lowest-cost general purpose instance type, and Free Tier eligible (t2.micro only) ○ Balance of compute, memory, and network resources
  19. 19. Burstable Performance Instances ● Burstable Performance Instances provide a baseline level of CPU performance with the ability to burst above the baseline.
  20. 20. Burstable Performance Instances #2 ● Understand how credit works
  21. 21. M4 (General Purpose Instances) ● Features ○ 2.4 GHz Intel Xeon® E5-2676 v3 (Haswell) processors. ○ EBS-optimized by default at no additional cost. ○ Support for Enhanced Networking. ○ Balance of compute, memory, and network resources. ● No local storage, only EBS. ● Probably the most versatile Instances. ● Fixed Performance Instances as opposed to the T2 instances.
  22. 22. EBS ● General Purpose SSD volumes. ● Provisioned IOPS SSD volumes. ● EBS Magnetic volumes. ● Snapshot capabilities. ● Bound to a specific Availability Zone. ● Not bound to the current instance.
  23. 23. General Purpose SSD volume ● Speed and credit accumulation depends on the volume size ● Initial I/O credit balance is 5 400 000. This is enough to sustain 30minutes of maximum burst.
  24. 24. EBS Optimized ● Free and enabled by default for M4, C4 and D2 Instances. ● Paying a fee if your instance is not M4, C4 or D2: http://aws.amazon. com/ec2/pricing/#EBS-Optimized_Instances ● Dedicated throughput between the EC2 Instance and Amazon EBS. Throughput Max 16K IOPS Max bandwidth (MB/s) 450 Mbps 3,600 56.25 M4.large EBS max performance
  25. 25. Enhanced Networking ● What is Enhanced Networking? ● How it’s working?
  26. 26. Enhanced Networking #2 ● Do you need it? In few words: probably not but depends on your usage. Benchmarks: http://blogs.scalablelogic.com/2013/12/enhanced-networking-in-aws- cloud.html
  27. 27. Enhanced Networking #3 ● Requirements ○ Instances of the following type: C4, C3, R3, I2, M4, and D2 ○ HVM AMI ○ Launch in VPC ○ Linux kernel module ixgbevf, minimum recommended version 2.14.2 ● How-to enable it: http://docs.aws.amazon. com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/enhanced-networking.html#test-enhanced- networking
  28. 28. M3 (General Purpose Instances) ● Compare to the M4 ○ No EBS Optimized by default. ○ Has a SSD-based instance storage for fast I/O performance. ○ Lack enhanced networking. ○ More expensive than M4
  29. 29. C4 (Compute Optimized Instances) ● Features ○ High frequency Intel Xeon E5-2666 v3 (Haswell) processors optimized specifically for EC2 ○ EBS-optimized ○ Ability to control processor C-state and P-state configuration on the c4.8xlarge instance type ○ Support for Enhanced Networking and Clustering
  30. 30. C3 (Compute Optimized Instances) ● Compare to the C4 ○ No EBS Optimized by default. ○ Has a SSD-based instance storage for fast I/O performance. ○ Lack enhanced networking. ○ More expensive than M4
  31. 31. R3 (Memory Optimized Instances) ● Features ○ High Frequency Intel Xeon E5-2670 v2 (Ivy Bridge) Processors ○ Lowest price point per GiB of RAM ○ SSD Storage ○ Support for Enhanced Networking Hint: EBS Optimized is not enabled by default Good for NoSQL databases like MongoDB, Distributed memory cache.
  32. 32. I2 (High I/O Optimized Instances) ● Features ○ High Frequency Intel Xeon E5-2670 v2 (Ivy Bridge) Processors ○ SSD Storage ○ Support for TRIM ○ Support for Enhanced Networking ○ High Random I/O performance
  33. 33. Purchasing Options ● First thing first. This site is a must: http://www.ec2instances.info/ while calculating the price. ● Three ways to pay for EC2 Instances ○ On-Demand ○ Reserved ○ Spot Instances
  34. 34. On-Demand Instances ● Key features: ○ Pay by the hour ○ Without any up-front payment or long-term commitment ○ Increase/Decrease compute capacity at will
  35. 35. Reserved Instances ● Key features: ○ Significant discount (up to 75%) compared to On-Demand instances. ○ Always available for the Operating System and Availability zone in which you purchased it. ○ If you don’t use it you lose money as you’ve already prepaid for it. ○ Somewhat hard to change or in some instances impossible to change. As example you can't move it in a different region. ○ You can sell it
  36. 36. Spot Instances ● Key features: ○ Usually lower hourly rates than On-Demand instances. ○ No upfront commitment (same as On-Demand instances). ○ You bid for the Spot Instances (they are AWS spare resource). ○ They will be shutdown if the current price is above the maximum you have specified.
  37. 37. Recap: Getting most of this presentation ● Use HVM AMI ● Use in the beginning On-Demand instances. They are flexible and you are paying only for each started hour. ● Choose instance By-Resource Approach ● Start with smaller instances and change with bigger if needed. Change instance type is cheap (stop/change/start) as long as you are using EBS and and the instance will not be moved to different Availability Zone. ● http://www.ec2instances.info/
  38. 38. Q&A
  39. 39. Thanks for your time! http://www.meetup.com/AWS-Bulgaria/ george.yanev@telerik.com #awsbulgaria