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Mechatronics students manual 2013 reg updated

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LAB MANUAL FOR 2013 REGULATION

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Mechatronics students manual 2013 reg updated

  1. 1. ME6712 – MECHATRONICS OBSERVATION NOTE BOOK
  2. 2. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 2 ME6712 – MECHATRONICS LAB MANUAL
  3. 3. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 3 ME6712 – MECHATRONICS LAB LIST OF EXERCISES I) INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONICS 1) Introduction to Mechatronics. II) PNEUMATICS 2) Operation of Single Acting Cylinder Using DCV. 3) Operation of Double Acting Cylinder Using DCV. 4) Impulse Pilot Operation of Double Acting Cylinder. 5) Controlling the Speed of the Cylinder Using Metering In Valve Circuit. 6) Controlling the Speed of the Cylinder Using Metering Out Valve Circuit. 7) Operation of Double Acting Cylinder with AND Logic Circuit. 8) Operation of Double Acting Cylinder with OR Logic Circuit. 9) Single Cycle Automation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Limit Switch. 10) Multi Cycle Automation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Limit Switch. 11) Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ). 12) Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders Using Cascading Method (A+ B+ B- A- ).
  4. 4. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 4 III) ELECTROPNEUMATICS 13) Operation of Single Acting Cylinder Using Single Solenoid Valve. 14) Operation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Single Solenoid Valve. 15) Operation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Double Solenoid Valve. 16) Single Cycle Automation of Double Acting Cylinder. 17) Multi Cycle Automation of Double Acting Cylinder. 18) Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ). 19) Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ). IV) ELECTROPNEUMATICS USING PLC 20) Actuation of Single Acting Cylinder with ON Delay Timer Using PLC. 21) Actuation of Single Acting Cylinder with OFF Delay Timer Using PLC. 22) Control of Double Acting Cylinder with UP Counter Using PLC. 23) Control of Double Acting Cylinder DOWN Counter Using PLC. 24) Operation of Single Acting Cylinder with AND Logic Using PLC. 25) Operation of Single Acting Cylinder with OR Logic Using PLC. 26) Automation of Single Acting Cylinder Using PLC. 27) Automation of Double Acting Cylinder Using PLC. 28) Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) Using PLC. 29) Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) Using PLC. V) HYDRAULICS 30) Operation of Single Acting Cylinder Using Single Solenoid Valve. 31) Operation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Double Solenoid Valve.
  5. 5. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 5 32) Operation of Hydraulic Motor Using Double Solenoid Valve. 33) Single Cycle Automation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Electrical Switch. 34) Multi Cycle Automation of Double Acting Cylinder Using Electrical Switch. 35) Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) Using HYDROSIM Software. 36) Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) Using HYDROSIM Software. 37) Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ C+ A- B- C- ) Using HYDROSIM Software. 38) Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- C+ C- ) Using HYDROSIM Software. VI) DESIGN AND TESTING OF FLUID POWER CIRCUITS 39) Actuation of Hydraulic Cylinder and To Find out Pressure VS Force. 40) Actuation of Hydraulic Cylinder and To Find out Speed VS Discharge. VII) SERVO MOTOR INTERFACING 41) Open Loop and Closed Loop Interfacing in DC Servo Motor. VIII) ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROG-RAMMING OF 8085 42) 8 Bit Addition 43) 8 Bit Subtraction 44) 8 Bit Multiplication 45) 8 Bit Division
  6. 6. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 6 46) Traffic Light Interface IX) STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER 47) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for clockwise rotation. 48) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for anticlockwise rotation. 49) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 360˚ clockwise rotation. 50) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 360˚ anticlockwise rotation. 51) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 180˚ clockwise rotation. 52) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 180˚ anticlockwise rotation. 53) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 270˚ clockwise rotation. 54) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 270˚ anticlockwise rotation. 55) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 90˚ clockwise rotation. 56) Stepper motor interfacing with 8051 Micro controller for 90˚ anticlockwise rotation. X) IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES 57) Study of image processing techniques. XI) ADDITIONAL CONTENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS 58) Performance of PID controller on Pressure Process. 59) Performance of PID controller on Flow Process. 60) Performance of PID controller on Temperature Process. 61) Open Loop and Closed Loop Interfacing in AC Servo Motor. STAFF IN CHARGE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT (R.ASHOK KUMAR Asst Prof) (Dr. M. BALASUBRAMANIAN PROF/HOD)
  7. 7. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 7 ME6712 – MECHATRONICS LAB SYLLABUS  Assembly language programming of 8085 – Addition – Subtraction – Multiplication – Division – Sorting – Code Conversion  Stepper motor interface.  Traffic light interface.  Speed control of DC motor.  Study of various types of transducers.  Study of hydraulic, pneumatic and electro-pneumatic circuits.  Modelling and analysis of basic hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical circuits using Software.  Study of PLC and its applications.  Study of image processing technique.
  8. 8. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 8 INDEX EXPT NO DATE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO SIGN 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18)
  9. 9. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 9 EXPT NO DATE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO SIGN 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37)
  10. 10. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 10 EXPT NO DATE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO SIGN 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56)
  11. 11. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 11 EXPT NO DATE NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO SIGN 57) 58) 59) 60) 61) 62) 63) 64) 65) 66) 67) 68) 69) 70) Signature of Lab in Charge Signature of HOD
  12. 12. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 12
  13. 13. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 13 INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONICS SYSTEM EXPT NO: 1 DATE: AIM: To study about the important features, about Mechatronics system. INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONICS SYSTEM: Mechatronics is one of the new and existing fields on the engineering landscape, subsuming parts of traditional engineering fields and requiring a broader approach to the design of system that we can formally call as Mechatronics system. Many industries improving their works through automation which is based on the inter connection between the electronic control systems and mechanical engineering. Such control systems generally use microprocessors as controllers and have electrical sensors extracting information from mechanical inputs through electrical actuators to mechanical systems. This can be considered to be application of computer based digital control techniques through electronic and electric interfaces to mechanical engineering problems. Successful design of Mechatronics can lead to products that are extremely attractive to customer in quality cost-effectiveness. MECHATRONICS DEFINITION: Mechatronics may be defined as a multi-disciplinary field of study that implies the synergistic integration of electronic engineering, electric engineering, control engineering
  14. 14. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 14
  15. 15. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 15 and computer technology with mechanical engineering for the design, manufacture, analysis and maintenance of a wide range of engineering products and processes. “Mechatronics brings together areas of technology involving sensors and measurement systems, drive and actuation systems, analysis of the behavior of systems microprocessor systems”. The integration across the traditional boundaries of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics and control engineering has to occur at the earliest stages of the design process if cheaper, more reliable; more flexible systems are to be developed. APPLICATIONS OF MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING: Mechatronics engineering finds application in the following fields.  Electronic home appliances  Electronic entertainment products  Engine systems (cars)  Large scale application
  16. 16. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 16 Schematic Layout of Hydraulic System
  17. 17. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 17 BASIC COMPONENTS OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM: Reservoir (or air tank): A reservoir is an oil supply tank. It is provided to hold the hydraulic liquid (usually oil). Pump: The pump is used to force the liquid into the system. Prime mover: A Prime mover, usually an electric motor, is used to drive the pump. Valves: Valves are refitted in the system to control liquid direction, pressure, and flow rate. Actuator: An actuator is provided to convert the liquid energy into mechanical force or torque to do useful work. The actuator is the actual working element of the system. The actuators can be either cylinders (to provide linear motion) or hydro motors (to provide rotary motion). Fluid-transfer piping: The hydraulic Piping is provided to carry the compressed liquid from one place to another.
  18. 18. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 18 Schematic Layout of Pneumatic System
  19. 19. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 19 BASIC COMPONENTS OF A PNEUMATIC SYSTEM: Reservoir (or air tank): An air tank is provided to store the compressed air required for the operations. Compressor: The compressor is used to compress the atmospheric air so as to increase the pressure of the air. Prime mover: A Prime mover, usually an electric motor, is used to drive the compressor. Valves: Valves are refitted in the system to control air direction, pressure, and flow rate. Actuator: An actuator is provided to convert the air energy into mechanical force or torque to do useful work. Fluid-transfer piping: Piping is provided to carry the compressed air from one place to another.
  20. 20. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 20 BASIC SYMBOLS USED IN HYDRAULIS AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEM: Symbols Description LINES -continuous line - flow line -dashed line - pilot, drain -envelope - long and short dashes around two or more component symbols CIRCULAR -large circle - pump, motor -small circle - Measuring devices -semi-circle - rotary actuator SQUARE -one square - pressure control function -two or three adjacent squares - directional control DIAMOND -diamond - Fluid conditioner (filter, separator, lubricator, heat exchanger) MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS -Spring -Flow Restriction TRIANGLE -solid - Direction of Hydraulic Fluid Flow -open - Direction of Pneumatic flow PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS Fixed Displacement Hydraulic Pump -unidirectional -bidirectional Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump -unidirectional Compressor -Compressor
  21. 21. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 21 Symbols Description MOTORS Fixed Displacement Hydraulic Motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Variable Displacement Hydraulic Motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Pneumatic Motor -unidirectional -bidirectional Rotary Actuator - hydraulic - pneumatic CYLINDERS Single Acting Cylinder -returned by external force -returned by spring or extended by spring force Double Acting Cylinders -single piston rod (fluid required to extend and retract) -double ended piston rod Cylinders With Cushions - single fixed cushion - double fixed cushion - single adjustable cushion - double adjustable cushion
  22. 22. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 22 Symbols Description DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES Directional Control Valve (2 Ports / 2 Positions) -Normally closed directional control valve with 2 ports and 2 finite positions. -Normally open directional control valve with 2 ports and 2 finite positions. Directional Control Valve (3 Ports / 2 Positions) -Normally closed directional control valve with 3 ports and 2 finite positions. -Normally open directional control valve with 3 ports and 2 finite positions. Directional Control Valve (4 Ports / 2 Positions) -directional control valve with 4 ports and 2 finite positions Directional Control Valve (4 Ports / 3 Positions) -directional control valve with 4 ports and 3 finite positions *-(center position can have various flow paths) Directional Control Valve (5 Ports / 2 Positions) Normally A Pneumatic Valve -directional control valve with 5 ports and 2 finite positions Directional Control Valve (5 Ports / 3 Positions) Normally A Pneumatic Valve -directional control valve with 5 ports and 3 finite positions CONTROL METHODS Manual Control -general symbol (without showing the control type) -pushbutton -lever -foot pedal Mechanical Control -plunger or tracer -spring
  23. 23. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 23 Symbols Description -roller -roller(one direction only) Electrical Control -Solenoid (the one winding) Pilot Operation -pneumatic -hydraulic Pilot Operated Two-Stage Valve -Pneumatic: Sol first stage -Pneumatic: Air pilot second stage -Hydraulic: Sol first stage -Hydraulic: Hyd pilot second stage CHECK VALVES, SHUTTLE VALVES, RAPID EXHAUST VALVES -check valve -free flow one direction, blocked flow in other direction -pilot operated check valve, pilot to close -pilot operated check valve, pilot to open Shuttle Valve -to isolate one part of a system from an alternate part of circuit Rapid Exhaust Valve/Pneumatic -installed close to an actuator for rapid movement of the actuator PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES Pressure Relief Valve(Safety Valve) Normally Closed - Line pressure is limited to the setting of the valve, secondary part is directed to tank
  24. 24. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 24 Symbols Description Proportional Pressure Relief - line pressure is limited to and proportional to an electronic signal Sequence Valve - When the line pressure reaches the setting of the valve, valve opens permitting flow to the secondary port. The pilot must be externally drained to tank. Pressure Reducing Valve - pressure downstream of valve is limited to the setting of the valve FLOW CONTROL VALVES Throttle valve -adjustable output flow Flow Control Valve -with fixed output (variations in inlet pressure do not affect rate of flow) -with fixed output and relief port to reservoir with relief for excess flow (variations in inlet pressure do not affect rate of flow) -with variable output -fixed orifice -metered flow toward right free flow to left -pressure compensated flow control fixed output flow regardless of load -pressure and temperature compensated -with variable output and relief port to reservoir Flow Dividing Valve -flow is divided equally to two outputs SHUT-OFF VALVE -Simplified symbol
  25. 25. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 25 Symbols Description FILTERS, WATER TRAPS, LUBRICATORS AND MISCELLANEOUS APPARATUS Filter or Strainer -filter Water Trap -with manual drain -with automatic drained Filter With Water Trap -with manual drain -automatic drain Air Dryer - refrigerant, or chemical removal of water from compressed air line Lubricator -oil vapor is indected into air line Conditioning unit -compound symbol of filter, regulator, lubricator unit -Simplified Symbol RESULT: Thus the important feature Mechatronics system was studied.
  26. 26. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 26 NORMAL POSITION
  27. 27. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 27 OPERATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER USING DCV EXPT NO: 2 DATE: AIM: To operate a single acting cylinder using the Directional Control Valve (DCV) in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Single Acting Cylinder  3/2 Push Button Spring Return DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the single acting cylinder was operated using DCV in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  28. 28. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 28 NORMAL POSITION
  29. 29. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 29 OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING DCV EXPT NO: 3 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using the Directional Control Valve (DCV) in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  5/2 Hand Levered Spring Return DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder was operated using DCV in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  30. 30. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 30 NORMAL POSITION
  31. 31. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 31 IMPLUSE PILOT OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER EXPT NO: 4 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using an impulse pilot valve in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Single Acting Cylinder  3/2 Hand Levered Spring Return DCV  5/2 Pilot Operated Spring Return DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder was operated using an impulse pilot valve in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  32. 32. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 32 NORMAL POSITION
  33. 33. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 33 CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF THE CYLINDER USING METERING IN VALVE CIRCUIT EXPT NO: 5 DATE: AIM: To control the speed of double acting cylinder using Metering In valve circuit in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  One Way Flow Control Valve  5/2 Push Button & Spring Return DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the speed of double acting cylinder was controlled using Metering In valve circuit in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  34. 34. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 34 NORMAL POSITION
  35. 35. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 35 CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF THE CYLINDER USING METERING OUT VALVE CIRCUIT EXPT NO: 6 DATE: AIM: To control the speed of double acting cylinder using Metering Out valve circuit in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  Flow Control Valve  5/2 Push Button & Spring Return DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the speed of double acting cylinder was controlled using Metering Out valve circuit in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  36. 36. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 36 NORMAL POSITION
  37. 37. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 37 OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH AND LOGIC CIRCUIT EXPT NO: 7 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using AND logic circuit in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  5/2 Pilot Operated & Spring Returned DCV  3/2 Push Button & Spring Returned DCV  Two Pressure Valve  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder using AND logic circuit was operated in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  38. 38. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 38 NORMAL POSITION
  39. 39. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 39 OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH OR LOGIC CIRCUIT EXPT NO: 8 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using OR logic circuit in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  5/2 Pilot Operated & Spring Returned DCV  3/2 Push Button & Spring Returned DCV  Shuttle Valve  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder using OR logic circuit was operated in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  40. 40. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 40 NORMAL POSITION
  41. 41. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 41 SINGLE CYCLE AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING LIMIT SWITCH EXPT NO: 9 DATE: AIM: To operate automatic operation of a double acting cylinder in a single cycle using limit switch in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated & Spring Return DCV  3/2 Push Button & Spring Return DCV  5/2 Pilot Operated DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the single cycle automation of double acting cylinder was operated by using limit switch in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  42. 42. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 42 NORMAL POSITION
  43. 43. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 43 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING LIMIT SWITCH EXPT NO: 10 DATE: AIM: To operate automatic operation of a double acting cylinder in a multi cycle using limit switch in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated & Spring Return DCV  5/2 Pilot Operated DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of double acting cylinder was operated by using limit switch in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  44. 44. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 44 NORMAL POSITION
  45. 45. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 45 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ A- B- ) EXPT NO: 11 DATE: AIM: To operate multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders in sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated Spring Return DCV  3/2 Emergency Stop DCV  5/2 Pilot Operated DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders was operated sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  46. 46. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 46 NORMAL POSITION
  47. 47. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 47 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS USING CASCADING METHOD (A+ B+ B- A- ) EXPT NO: 12 DATE: AIM: To operate a multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders in cascading method (A+ B+ B- A- ) in Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated Spring Return DCV  3/2 Emergency Stop DCV  5/2 Pilot Operated DCV  FRL Unit  Compressor PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders was operated by cascading method (A+ B+ B- A- ) in Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  48. 48. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 48 NORMAL POSITION
  49. 49. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 49 OPERATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER USING SINGLE SOLENOID VALVE EXPT NO: 13 DATE: AIM: To operate a single acting cylinder using the single solenoid valve in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  FLUIDSIM Software  Single Acting Cylinder  3/2 Solenoid Operated Spring Return Valve  FRL Unit  Compressor  Electrical connections  Push Button  Input / Output Relay Box  Make Switch  Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections.  Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage of air supply and correct it.  Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the single acting cylinder was operated using single solenoid valve in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  50. 50. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 50 NORMAL POSITION
  51. 51. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 51 OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING SINGLE SOLENOID VALVE EXPT NO: 14 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using the single solenoid valve in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED: FLUIDSIM Software Single Acting Cylinder 5/2 Solenoid Operated Spring Return DCV FRL Unit Compressor Electrical connections Push Button Input / Output Relay Box Make Switch Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE: Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections. Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply. The various components are connected as per circuit. Block the valve openings if necessary. Check the leakage of air supply and correct it. Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram. Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder was operated using single solenoid valve in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  52. 52. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 52 NORMAL POSITION
  53. 53. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 53 OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING DOUBLE SOLENOID VALVE EXPT NO: 15 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using the double solenoid valve in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED: FLUIDSIM Software Single Acting Cylinder 5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV FRL Unit Compressor Electrical connections Push Button Input / Output Relay Box Make Switch Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE: Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections. Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply. The various components are connected as per circuit. Block the valve openings if necessary. Check the leakage of air supply and correct it. Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram. Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder was operated using double solenoid valve in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  54. 54. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 54 NORMAL POSITION
  55. 55. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 55 SINGLE CYCLE AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING ELECTRICAL SWITCH EXPT NO: 16 DATE: AIM: To operate automatic operation of a double acting cylinder in a single cycle using electrical switch in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED: FLUIDSIM Software Single Acting Cylinder 5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV FRL Unit Compressor Electrical connections Push Button Input / Output Relay Box Make Switch Valve Solenoid Electrical Sensor Switch PROCEDURE: Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections. Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply. The various components are connected as per circuit. Block the valve openings if necessary. Check the leakage of air supply and correct it. Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram. Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the single cycle automation of double acting cylinder was operated by using electrical switch in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  56. 56. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 56 NORMAL POSITION
  57. 57. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 57 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING ELECTRICAL SWITCH EXPT NO: 17 DATE: AIM: To operate automatic operation of a double acting cylinder in a multi cycle using electrical switch in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED: FLUIDSIM Software Single Acting Cylinder 5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV FRL Unit Compressor Electrical connections Push Button Input / Output Relay Box Make Switch Valve Solenoid Electrical Sensor Switch PROCEDURE: Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections. Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply. The various components are connected as per circuit. Block the valve openings if necessary. Check the leakage of air supply and correct it. Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram. Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of double acting cylinder was operated by using electrical switch in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  58. 58. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 58 NORMAL POSITION
  59. 59. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 59 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ A- B- ) USING ELECTROPNEUMATIC KIT EXPT NO: 18 DATE: AIM: To operate multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders in sequences (A+ B+ A- B- ) in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED: FLUIDSIM Software Single Acting Cylinder 5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV FRL Unit Compressor Electrical connections Push Button Input / Output Relay Box Make Switch Valve Solenoid Electrical Sensor Switch PROCEDURE: Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections. Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply. The various components are connected as per circuit. Block the valve openings if necessary. Check the leakage of air supply and correct it. Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram. Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders was operated sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  60. 60. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 60 NORMAL POSITION
  61. 61. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 61 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ B- A- ) USING ELECTROPNEUMATIC KIT EXPT NO: 19 DATE: AIM: To operate multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders in sequences (A+ B+ B- A- ) in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED: FLUIDSIM Software Single Acting Cylinder 5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV FRL Unit Compressor Electrical connections Push Button Input / Output Relay Box Make Switch Valve Solenoid Electrical Sensor Switch PROCEDURE: Draw the circuit in FLUIDSIM software and check the connections. Connect the FRL unit to the main air supply. The various components are connected as per circuit. Block the valve openings if necessary. Check the leakage of air supply and correct it. Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram. Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders was operated sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) in Electro Pneumatic Trainer Kit.
  62. 62. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 62 NORMAL POSITION
  63. 63. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 63 ACTUATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH ON DELAY TIMER USING PLC EXPT NO: 20 DATE: AIM: To simulate the single acting cylinder with ON Delay Timer using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  3/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw the ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC.  Sometimes delay the cylinder should be activated. RESULT: Thus the actuation of single acting cylinder with ON Delay Timer was done using PLC.
  64. 64. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 64 NORMAL POSITION
  65. 65. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 65 ACTUATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH OFF DELAY TIMER USING PLC EXPT NO: 21 DATE: AIM: To simulate the single acting cylinder with OFF Delay Timer using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  3/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC.  Sometimes delay the cylinder should be activated. RESULT: Thus the actuation of single acting cylinder with OFF Delay Timer was done using PLC.
  66. 66. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 66 NORMAL POSITION
  67. 67. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 67 CONTROL OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH UP COUNTER USING PLC EXPT NO: 22 DATE: AIM: To simulate the double acting cylinder with UP Counter using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder is actuated with UP Counter using PLC.
  68. 68. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 68 NORMAL POSITION
  69. 69. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 69 CONTROL OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH DOWN COUNTER USING PLC EXPT NO: 23 DATE: AIM: To simulate the double acting cylinder with DOWN Counter using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder is actuated with DOWN Counter using PLC.
  70. 70. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 70 NORMAL POSITION
  71. 71. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 71 OPERATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH AND LOGIC USING PLC EXPT NO: 24 DATE: AIM: To simulate the single acting cylinder with AND logic using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  3/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC.  When two inputs (1i, 2i) are high, the output is high. RESULT: Thus the single acting cylinder is actuated with AND logic using PLC.
  72. 72. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 72 NORMAL POSITION
  73. 73. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 73 OPERATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER WITH OR LOGIC USING PLC EXPT NO: 25 DATE: AIM: To simulate the single acting cylinder with OR logic using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  3/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC.  When any one input (1i, 2i) is high, the output is high RESULT: Thus the single acting cylinder is actuated with OR logic using PLC.
  74. 74. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 74 NORMAL POSITION
  75. 75. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 75 AUTOMATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER USING PLC EXPT NO: 26 DATE: AIM: To simulate the automatic sequence of single acting cylinder using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  3/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Double Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Output of PLC (Q1) is direct connecting to input of solenoid coil.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC.  Observe the working of single acting cylinder is automatic reciprocating. RESULT: Thus the automation of single acting cylinder is done by using PLC.
  76. 76. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 76 NORMAL POSITION
  77. 77. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 77 AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING PLC EXPT NO: 27 DATE: AIM: To simulate the automatic sequence of double acting cylinder using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Flow Control Valve  Double Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop.  Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Both Outputs of PLC (Q1 and Q2) are direct connecting to inputs of solenoid coils.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software.  Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit.  Run the PLC.  Observe the working of double acting cylinder is automatic reciprocating. RESULT: Thus the automation of double acting cylinder is done by using PLC.
  78. 78. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 78 NORMAL POSITION
  79. 79. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 79 AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ A- B- ) USING PLC EXPT NO: 28 DATE: AIM: To operate multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders in sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Flow Control Valve  Double Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop. Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Both Outputs of PLC (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) are direct connecting to inputs of solenoid coils.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software. Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit. Run the PLC.  Observe the working of double acting cylinder is automatic reciprocating using the circuit A+ B+ A- B- . RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders is operated in sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) using PLC.
  80. 80. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 80 NORMAL POSITION
  81. 81. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 81 AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ B- A- ) USING PLC EXPT NO: 29 DATE: AIM: To operate multi cycle automation of multiple cylinders in sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) using PLC APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Compressor  FRL Unit  5/2 Solenoid Operated DCV  Flow Control Valve  Single Acting Cylinder  PLC  Versa Pro Software. PROCEDURE:  Connect the pneumatic as per circuit diagram.  Provide +24V and –24V from PLC trainer to panel.  Open the versa pro software in desktop. Interface PLC with PC using RS232 cable.  Draw a ladder diagram.  Both Outputs of PLC (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) are direct connecting to inputs of solenoid coils.  Following the opening procedure of versa pro software. Check the ladder diagram.  Connect the air supply to FRL unit. Run the PLC.  Observe the working of double acting cylinder is automatic reciprocating using the circuit A+ B+ B- A- . RESULT: Thus the single cycle automation of multiple cylinders is operated in sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) using PLC.
  82. 82. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 82 NORMAL POSITION
  83. 83. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 83 OPERATION OF SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER USING SINGLE SOLENOID VALVE EXPT NO: 30 DATE: AIM: To operate a single acting cylinder using single solenoid valve in Hydraulic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Single Acting Cylinder  Flow Control Valve  3/2 Solenoid Operated & Spring Returned DCV  Pump  Electrical connections  Push Button  Input / Output Relay Box  Make Switch  Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the single acting cylinder was operated using single solenoid valve in Hydraulic Trainer Kit
  84. 84. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 84 NORMAL POSITION
  85. 85. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 85 OPERATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING DOUBLE SOLENOID VALVE EXPT NO: 31 DATE: AIM: To operate a double acting cylinder using double solenoid valve in Hydraulic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  Flow Control Valve  4/3 Solenoid Operated DCV  Pump  Electrical connections  Push Button  Input / Output Relay Box  Make Switch  Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the double acting cylinder was operated using double solenoid valve in Hydraulic Trainer Kit
  86. 86. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 86 NORMAL POSITION
  87. 87. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 87 OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC MOTOR USING DOUBLE SOLENOID VALVE EXPT NO: 32 DATE: AIM: To operate a hydraulic motor using double solenoid valve in Hydraulic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Hydraulic Motor  Flow Control Valve  4/3 Solenoid operated DCV  Pump  Electrical connections  Push Button  Input / Output Relay Box  Make Switch  Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram.  Open the valve and operate the motor. RESULT: Thus the hydraulic motor was operated using double solenoid valve in Hydraulic Trainer Kit
  88. 88. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 88 NORMAL POSITION
  89. 89. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 89 SINGLE CYCLE AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING ELECTRICAL SWITCH EXPT NO: 33 DATE: AIM: To operate automatic operation of a double acting cylinder in a single cycle using electrical switch in Hydraulic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  4/3 Solenoid Operated DCV  Pump  One Way Flow Control Valve  Electrical connections  Push Button  Input / Output Relay Box  Make Switch  Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the single cycle automation of double acting cylinder was operated by using electrical switch in Hydraulic Trainer Kit.
  90. 90. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 90 NORMAL POSITION
  91. 91. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 91 MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER USING LIMIT SWITCH EXPT NO: 34 DATE: AIM: To operate automatic operation of a double acting cylinder in a multi cycle using electrical switch in Hydraulic Trainer Kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  4/3 Solenoid Operated DCV  Pump  One Way Flow Control Valve  Electrical connections  Push Button  Input / Output Relay Box  Make Switch  Valve Solenoid PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Connect the electrical circuit as per ladder diagram.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the multi cycle automation of double acting cylinder was operated by using electrical switch in Hydraulic Trainer Kit.
  92. 92. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 92 NORMAL POSITION
  93. 93. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 93 SIMULATION OF MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ A- B- ) USING HYDROSIM SOFTWARE EXPT NO: 35 DATE: AIM: To simulate a Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) using HYDROSIM software. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated Spring Return DCV  2/2 Emergency Stop DCV  4/2 Pilot Operated DCV  One Way Flow Control Valve  Pump PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ A- B- ) Using HYDROSIM Software was done.
  94. 94. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 94 NORMAL POSITION
  95. 95. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 95 SIMULATION OF MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ B- A- ) USING HYDROSIM SOFTWARE EXPT NO: 36 DATE: AIM: To simulate a Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) using HYDROSIM Software. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated Spring Return DCV  2/2 Emergency Stop DCV  4/2 Pilot Operated DCV  One Way Flow Control Valve  Pump PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- ) Using HYDROSIM Software was done.
  96. 96. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 96 NORMAL POSITION
  97. 97. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 97 SIMULATION OF MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ C+ A- B- C- ) USING HYDROSIM SOFTWARE EXPT NO: 37 DATE: AIM: To simulate a Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ C+ A- B- C- ) using HYDROSIM Software. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated Spring Return DCV  2/2 Emergency Stop DCV  4/2 Pilot Operated DCV  One Way Flow Control Valve  Pump PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ C+ A- B- C- ) Using HYDROSIM Software was done.
  98. 98. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 98 NORMAL POSITION
  99. 99. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 99 SIMULATION OF MULTI CYCLE AUTOMATION OF MULTIPLE CYLINDERS IN SEQUENCE (A+ B+ B- A- C+ C- ) USING HYDROSIM SOFTWARE EXPT NO: 38 DATE: AIM: To simulate a Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- C+ C- ) using HYDROSIM Software. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  HYDROSIM Software  Double Acting Cylinder  3/2 Roller Operated Spring Return DCV  2/2 Emergency Stop DCV  4/2 Pilot Operated DCV  One Way Flow Control Valve  Pump PROCEDURE:  Draw the circuit in HYDROSIM software and check the connections.  The various components are connected as per circuit.  Block the valve openings if necessary.  Check the leakage and correct it.  Open the valve and operate the cylinder. RESULT: Thus the Simulation of Multi Cycle Automation of Multiple Cylinders in Sequence (A+ B+ B- A- C+ C- ) Using HYDROSIM Software was done.
  100. 100. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 100 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
  101. 101. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 101 ACTUATION OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND TO FIND OUT PRESSURE VS FORCE EXPT NO: 39 DATE: AIM: To actuate the hydraulic cylinder and find out the Pressure VS Force. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Oil Tank  Single – Phase Motor  Gear Pump  Pressure Relief Valve  4/3 Double Solenoid Valve  Double Acting Cylinder  Load Cell  Data Actuation Card than Lab View Software. FORMULA: P = F / A A = ( π / 4) * D2 P Pressure Kg/cm2 F Force Kg A Area cm2 D Diameter of Cylinder cm Cylinder diameter = 50mm Cylinder rod diameter = 30mm Cylinder stroke length = 150mm
  102. 102. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 102 TABULATION: S.No Pressure Kg/cm2 Displayed Force Kg Calculated Force Kg % of Error 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) MODEL CALCULATION:
  103. 103. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 103 Error = Displayed Force – Calculated Force / Displayed Force % of Error = Error * 100 PROCEDURE:  Switch on the electrical power supply with motor.  Switch on the power supply to the control unit.  Open the lab view software in the system.  Inter face hydraulic trainer with system using RS-232.  Open the force. Go to operate, click the run. Than power on (below).  Now extend the system by pressing the up button.  Load cell indicate the force value in the monitor.  Now adjust the pressure regulator and set the maximum pressure as 25kg/cm2 .  Retract the cylinder.  Once again forward the cylinder; you have adjusted the pressure in pressure regulator.  You have seen the force value in monitoring.  Repeat the force value for different pressure. GRAPH: Pressure VS Force
  104. 104. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 104 MODEL GRAPH:
  105. 105. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 105 RESULT: The actuation of double acting cylinder was carried out and the curve between pressure and force is been obtained.
  106. 106. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 106 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
  107. 107. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 107 ACTUATION OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND TO FIND OUT SPEED VS DISCHARGE EXPT NO: 40 DATE: AIM: To actuate the hydraulic cylinder and find out the Speed VS Discharge APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Oil Tank  Single – Phase Motor  Gear Pump  Pressure Relief Valve  4/3 Double Solenoid Valve  Double Acting Cylinder  Load Cell  Data Actuation Card than Lab View Software. FORMULA: V = Q / A Flow = Discharge V = F / A F = V * A A = ( π / 4) * D2 V Velocity cm / sec Q Discharge liters / sec F Flow liters / sec A Area cm2
  108. 108. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 108 TABULATION: S.No Velocity in UP Speed cm / sec Velocity in DOWN Speed cm / sec Discharge in UP Flow Liters / sec Discharge in DOWN Flow Liters / sec 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) MODEL CALCULATION:
  109. 109. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 109 D Diameter of Cylinder cm Cylinder diameter = 50mm Cylinder rod diameter = 30mm Cylinder stroke length = 150mm PROCEDURE:  Switch on the electrical power supply with motor.  Switch on the power supply to the control unit.  Open the lab view software in the system.  Inter face hydraulic trainer with system using RS-232.  Open the Speed. Go to operate, click the run. Than power on (below).  Now extend the system by pressing the up button.  Now regulate the flow control valve, contract the system by pressing down position. After seen monitor in velocity cm/sec.  Now adjust the flow control valves and set the maximum flow, to find the up and velocity.  Repeat the force value for different pressure. GRAPH: Speed VS Discharge
  110. 110. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 110 MODEL GRAPH:
  111. 111. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 111 RESULT: The actuation of double acting cylinder was carried out and the curve between speed and discharge is been obtained.
  112. 112. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 112
  113. 113. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 113 OPEN LOOP AND CLOSED LOOP INTERFACING IN DC SERVO MOTOR EXPT NO: 41 DATE: AIM: To study the DC servo motor speed control using open loop and closed loop interfacing APPARATUS REQUIRED:  DC Servo Motor  PEC16M7 Module  Micro-4011 kit  34-pin FRC cable  RS-232 cable  15 pin connector PROCEDURE:  Switch ON power supply of the PEC16M7 module, Micro-4011and DC Motor.  Switch ON the 12V DC ON/OFF switch.  Switch ON the power ON/OFF switch in the PEC16M7 module.  Press the reset switch in the PEC16M7 module and Micro-4011.  LCD in the Micro-4011 displays as follows with a delay of few seconds.  Select speed control.  Select open loop.  Set the duty cycle between (50 - 98) %  Now the motor will start to run corresponding to the duty cycle.  Then press the reset button.  Add the load to the loading area and note down the speed in tabular column.
  114. 114. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 114 TABULATION: S.No Load (Kg) Speed (Rpm) OPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  115. 115. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 115  Press reset button and select the closed loop.  Select PID control  Then set the speed of the motor  Add the load to the loading area and note down the speed in tabular column. GRAPH: OPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM Load VS Speed CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM Load VS Speed RESULT: Thus the DC servo motor speed control using open loop and closed loop interfacing was done and the characteristics curves are obtained.
  116. 116. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 116
  117. 117. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 117 ADDITION OF THE TWO 8 BIT NUMBERS EXPT NO: 42 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language for adding two 8 bit numbers by using microprocessor kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  8085 Micro Controller Kit ALGORITHM: Step 1 : Start the microprocessor Step 2 : Initialize the carry as ‘Zero’ Step 3 : Load the first 8 bit data into the accumulator Step 4 : Copy the contents of accumulator into the register ‘B’ Step 5 : Load the second 8 bit data into the accumulator. Step 6 : Add the 2 - 8 bit data’s and check for carry. Step 7 : Jump on if no carry Step 8 : Increment carry if there is a carry Step 9 : Store the added request in accumulator Step 10 : Move the carry value to accumulator Step 11 : Store the carry value in accumulator Step 12 : Stop the program execution.
  118. 118. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 118 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OP CODE COMMENTS 4100 MVI C,00 0E 00 Initialize the carry as zero 4102 LDA 4300 3A 00 43 Load the first 8 bit data 4105 MOV, B,A 47 Copy the value of 8 bit data into register B 4106 LDA 4301 3A 01 43 Load the second 8 bit data into the accumulator 4109 ADD B 80 Add the two values 410A Loop JNC D2 0E 41 Jump on if no carry 410D INR C 0C If carry is there increment it by one 410E Loop STA 4302 32 02 43 Store the added value in the accumulator 4111 MOV A,C 79 Move the value of carry to the accumulator from register C 4112 STA 4303 32 03 43 Store the value of carry in accumulator 4115 HLT 76 Stop the program execution CALCULATION:
  119. 119. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 119 INPUT WITHOUT CARRY: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4300 04 4301 02 INPUT WITH CARRY: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4300 FF 4301 FF OUTPUT WITHOUT CARRY: OUTPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4302 06 4303 00 (CARRY) OUTPUT WITH CARRY: OUTPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4302 FE 4303 01 (CARRY) RESULT: The assembly language program for 8 bit addition of two numbers was executed successfully by using 8085 micro processing kit.
  120. 120. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 120
  121. 121. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 121 SUBTRACTION OF THE TWO 8 BIT NUMBERS EXPT NO: 43 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language for subtracting two 8 bit numbers by using microprocessor kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  8085 Micro Controller Kit ALGORITHM: Step 1 : Start the microprocessor Step 2 : Initialize the carry as ‘Zero’ Step 3 : Load the first 8 bit data into the accumulator Step 4 : Copy the contents of accumulator into the register ‘B’ Step 5 : Load the second 8 bit data into the accumulator. Step 6 : Add the 2 - 8 bit data’s and check for borrow. Step 7 : Jump on if no borrow Step 8 : Increment borrow if there is Step 9 : 2’s compliment of accumulator is found out Step 10 : Store the result in accumulator Step 11 : Move the borrow value from ‘C’ to accumulator Step 12 : Store the borrow value in accumulator Step 13 : Stop the program execution.
  122. 122. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 122 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OP CODE COMMENTS 4100 MVI C,00 0E 00 Initialize the carry as zero 4102 LDA 4300 3A 00 43 Load the first 8 bit data 4105 MOV, B,A 47 Copy the value of 8 bit data into register B 4106 LDA 4301 3A 01 43 Load the second 8 bit data into the accumulator 4109 SUB B 90 Add the two values 410A Loop JNC D2 0E 41 Jump on if no carry 410D INR C 0C If carry is there increment it by one 410E Loop CMA 2F Compliment of 2nd data 410F ADI, 01 C6 01 Add one to 1’s compliment of 2nd data 4111 STA 4302 32 02 43 Store the result in accumulator 4114 MOV A,C 79 Move the value of borrow to the accumulator from register C 4115 STA 4303 32 03 43 Store the value of carry in accumulator 4118 HLT 76 Stop the program execution
  123. 123. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 123 INPUT WITHOUT BORROW: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4300 05 4301 07 INPUT WITH BORROW: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4300 07 4301 05 OUTPUT WITHOUT BORROW: OUTPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4302 02 4303 00 (BORROW) OUTPUT WITH BORROW: OUTPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4302 02 4303 01 (BORROW) RESULT: The assembly language program for 8 bit subtraction of two numbers was executed successfully by using 8085 micro processing kit.
  124. 124. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 124
  125. 125. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 125 MULTIPLICATION OF THE TWO 8 BIT NUMBERS EXPT NO: 44 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language for multiplication two 8 bit numbers by using microprocessor kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  8085 Micro Controller Kit ALGORITHM: Step 1 : Start the microprocessor Step 2 : Get the 1st 8 bit number Step 3 : Move the 1st 8 bit number to register ‘B’ Step 4 : Get the 2nd 8 bit number Step 5 : Move the 2nd 8 bit number to register ‘C’ Step 6 : Initialize the accumulator as zero Step 7 : Initialize the carry as zero Step 8 : Add both register ‘B’ value as accumulator Step 9 : Jump on if no carry Step 10 : Increment carry by 1 if there is Step 11 : Decrement the 2nd value and repeat from step 8, till the 2nd value becomes zero Step 12 : Store the multiplied value in accumulator Step 13 : Move the carry value to accumulator Step 14 : Store the carry value in accumulator Step 15 : Stop the program execution
  126. 126. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 126 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OP CODE COMMENTS 4100 MVI C,00 0E 00 Initialize the carry as zero 4102 LDA 4500 3A 00 45 Load the first 8 bit number 4105 MOV B, A 47 Move the 1st 8 bit data to register ‘B’ 4106 LDA 4501 3A 01 45 Load the 2nd 8 it number 4109 MOV C, A 4F Move the 2nd 8 bit data to register ‘C’ 410A MVI A, 00 3E 00 Initialize the accumulator as zero 410C MVI D, 00 16 00 Initialize the carry as zero 410E ADD B 80 Add the contents of ‘B’ and accumulator 410F JNC D2 11 41 Jump if no carry 4112 INR D 14 Increment carry if there is 4113 DCR C OD Decrement the value ‘C’ 4114 JNZ C2 0C 41 Jump if number zero 4117 STA 4502 32 02 45 Store the result in accumulator 411A MOV A, D 7A Move the carry into accumulator 411B STA 4503 32 03 45 Store the result in accumulator 411E HLT 76 Stop the program execution
  127. 127. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 127 INPUT: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4500 04 4501 02 OUTPUT: OUTPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4502 08 4503 00 RESULT: The assembly language program for 8 bit multiplication of two numbers was executed successfully by using 8085 micro processing kit.
  128. 128. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 128
  129. 129. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 129 DIVISION OF THE TWO 8 BIT NUMBERS EXPT NO: 45 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language for division two 8 bit numbers by using microprocessor kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  8085 Micro Controller Kit ALGORITHM: Step 1 : Start the microprocessor Step 2 : Initialize the quotient as zero Step 3 : Get the 1st 8 bit number Step 4 : Move the 1st 8 bit number to register ‘B’ Step 5 : Get the 2nd 8 bit number Step 6 : Compare both values Step 7 : Jump if divisor is greater than the dividend Step 8 : Subtract the dividend value by divisor value Step 9 : Increment Quotient Step 10 : Jump to step 7, till the dividend becomes zero Step 11 : Store the result (Quotient) value in accumulator Step 12 : Move the remainder value to accumulator Step 13 : Store the result in accumulator Step 14 : Stop the program execution
  130. 130. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 130 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OP CODE COMMENTS 4100 MVI C,00 0E 00 Initialize the Quotient as zero 4102 LDA 4500 3A 00 45 Load the first 8 bit number 4105 MOV B, A 47 Copy the 1st 8 bit data to register ‘B’ 4106 LDA 4501 3A 01 45 Load the 2nd 8 it number 4109 CMP B B8 Compare the 2 values 410A JC (LDP) DA 12 41 Jump if dividend lesser than divisor 410D LOOP 1 SUB B 90 Subtract the 1st value by 2nd value 410E INR C 0C Increment Quotient (410D) 410F JMP (LDP, 41) C3 0D 41 Jump to Loop 1 till the value of dividend becomes zero 4112 LOOP 2 STA 4502 32 02 45 Store the value in accumulator 4115 MOV A,C 79 Move the value of remainder to accumulator 4116 STA 4503 32 03 45 Store the result in accumulator 4119 HLT 76 Stop the program execution 1001 Subtraction 10 – I 111 10 – II 101 10 – III 11 10 – IV 1 – Carry Quotient 4 Carry 1
  131. 131. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 131 INPUT: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4500 09 4501 02 OUTPUT: OUTPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4502 04 (Quotient) 4503 01 (Reminder) RESULT: The assembly language program for 8 bit division of two numbers was executed successfully by using 8085 micro processing kit.
  132. 132. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 132
  133. 133. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 133 TRAFFIC LIGHT INTERFACE EXPT NO: 46 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language for controlling the traffic light interface by using microprocessor kit. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  8085 Micro Controller Kit  Traffic light interface kit PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OP CODE 4100 START LXI H, DATA 21 00 45 4103 MVI C, 0C 0E 0C 4105 MOV A, M 7E 4106 OUT CNT D3 0F 4108 INX H 23 4109 LOOP 1 MOV A, M 7E 410A OUT APRT D3 0C 410C INX H 23 410D MOV A, M 7E 410E OUT BPRT D3 0D 4110 CALL DELAY CD 1B 41 4113 INX H 23 4114 DCR C 0D 4115 JNZ LOOP 1 C2 09 41 4118 JMP START C3 00 41
  134. 134. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 134 MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OP CODE 411B DELAY PUSH B C5 411C MVI C, 05 0E 05 411E LOOP 3 LXI D, FFFF 11 FF FF 4121 LOOP 2 DCX D 1B 4122 MOV A, D 7A 4123 ORA E B3 4124 JNZ LOOP 2 C2 21 41 4127 DCR C 0D 4128 JNZ LOOP 3 C2 1E 41 412B POP B C1 412C RET C9
  135. 135. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 135 INPUT: INPUT ADDRESS VALUE 4500 80 1A A1 64 4504 A4 81 5A 64 4508 54 8A B1 A8 450C B4 88 DA 68 4510 D8 1A E8 46 4514 E8 83 78 86 74 RESULT: The assembly language program for traffic light interface was executed successfully by using 8085 micro processing kit.
  136. 136. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 136 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #FF 7C FF 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 09H, 05H, 06H, 0AH 09 05 06 0A 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  137. 137. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 137 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR CLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 47 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in clockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in clockwise direction.
  138. 138. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 138 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #FF 7C FF 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 0AH, 06H, 05H, 09H 0A 06 05 09 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  139. 139. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 139 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 48 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in anticlockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in anticlockwise direction.
  140. 140. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 140 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #C8 7C C8 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 09H, 05H, 06H, 0AH 09 05 06 0A 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  141. 141. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 141 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 360˚ CLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 49 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 360˚ clockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 360˚ clockwise direction.
  142. 142. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 142 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #C8 7C C8 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 0AH, 06H, 05H, 09H 0A 06 05 09 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  143. 143. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 143 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 360˚ ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 50 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 360˚ anticlockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 360˚ anticlockwise direction.
  144. 144. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 144 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #64 7C 64 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 09H, 05H, 06H, 0AH 09 05 06 0A 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  145. 145. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 145 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 180˚ CLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 51 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 180˚ clockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 180˚ clockwise direction.
  146. 146. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 146 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #64 7C 64 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 0AH, 06H, 05H, 09H 0A 06 05 09 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  147. 147. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 147 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 180˚ ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 52 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 180˚ anticlockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 180˚ anticlockwise direction.
  148. 148. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 148 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #96 7C 96 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 09H, 05H, 06H, 0AH 09 05 06 0A 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  149. 149. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 149 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 270˚ CLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 53 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 270˚ clockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 270˚ clockwise direction.
  150. 150. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 150 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #96 7C 96 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 0AH, 06H, 05H, 09H 0A 06 05 09 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  151. 151. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 151 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 270˚ ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 54 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 270˚ anticlockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 270˚ anticlockwise direction.
  152. 152. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 152 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #32 7C 32 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 09H, 05H, 06H, 0AH 09 05 06 0A 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  153. 153. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 153 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 90˚ CLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 55 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 90˚ clockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 90˚ clockwise direction.
  154. 154. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 154 PROGRAM: MEMORY ADDRESS LABEL MNEMONICS OBJECT CODES 4100 MOV R4. #32 7C 32 4102 START MOV DPTR, # LOOK UP 90 41 14 4105 MOV R0, #04 78 04 4107 JO MOVX A, @DPTR E0 4108 PUSH DPH C0 83 410A PUSH DPL C0 82 410C MOV DPTR, #FFCOH 90 FF C0 410F MOVX @DPTR, A F0 4110 DJNZ R4, CALL DC 06 4112 HLT SJMP HLT 80 FE 4114 LOOK UP DB 0AH, 06H, 05H, 09H 0A 06 05 09 4118 CALL MOV R2, #03 7A 03 411A DLY2 MOV R1, #FFH 79 FF 411C DLY1 MOV R1, #FFH 7B FF 411E DLY DJNZ R3, DLY DB FE 4120 DJNZ R1, DLY1 D9 FA 4122 DJNZ R2, DLY2 DA F6 4124 POP DPL D0 82 4126 POP DPH D0 83 4128 INC DPTR A3 4129 DJNZ R0, JO D8 DC 412B SJMP START 80 D5 412D END
  155. 155. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 155 STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051 MICRO CONTROLLER FOR 90˚ ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION EXPT NO: 56 DATE: AIM: To write an assembly language program for driving the stepper motor in 90˚ anticlockwise direction. APPARATUS REQUIRED:  Stepper Motor  8051 Micro Controller Kit RESULT: Thus the stepper motor was driven in 90˚ anticlockwise direction.
  156. 156. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 156
  157. 157. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 157 STUDY OF IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES EXPT NO: 57 DATE: AIM: To study about image processing techniques. INTRODUCTION: Digital image processing is always an interesting field as it gives improved pictorial information for human interpretation and processing of image data for storage, transmission, and representation for machine perception. Image Processing is a technique to enhance raw images received from cameras/sensors placed on satellites, space probes and aircrafts or pictures taken in normal day-to-day life for various applications. This field of image processing significantly improved in recent times and extended to various fields of science and technology. The image processing mainly deals with image acquisition, Image enhancement, image segmentation, feature extraction, image classification etc. The basic definition of image processing refers to processing of digital image, i.e removing the noise and any kind of irregularities present in an image using the digital computer. The noise or irregularity may creep into the image either during its formation or during transformation etc. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING: The term digital image processing generally refers to processing of a two-dimensional picture by a digital computer. In a broader context, it implies digital processing of any two- dimensional data. A digital image is an array of real numbers represented by a finite number of bits. The principle advantage of Digital Image Processing methods is it versatility, repeatability and the preservation of original data precision. The various Image Processing techniques are:  Image pre-processing  Image enhancement  Image segmentation  Feature extraction  Image classification
  158. 158. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 158 IMAGE PREPROCESSING: In image preprocessing, image data recorded by sensors on a satellite restrain errors related to geometry and brightness values of the pixels. These errors are corrected using appropriate mathematical models which are either definite or statistical models. Image enhancement is the modification of image by changing the pixel brightness values to improve its visual impact. Image enhancement involves a collection of techniques that are used to improve the visual appearance of an image, or to convert the image to a form which is better suited for human or machine interpretation. Sometimes images obtained from satellites and conventional and digital cameras lack in contrast and brightness because of the limitations of imaging sub systems and illumination conditions while capturing image. Images may have different types of noise. In image enhancement, the goal is to accentuate certain image features for subsequent analysis or for image display. Examples include contrast and edge enhancement, pseudo-coloring, noise filtering, sharpening, and magnifying. Image enhancement is useful in feature extraction, image analysis and an image display. The enhancement process itself does not increase the inherent information content in the data. It simply emphasizes certain specified image characteristics. Enhancement algorithms are generally interactive and application dependent. Some of the enhancement techniques are:  Contrast Stretching  Noise Filtering  Histogram Modification Contrast Stretching: Some images (eg. over water bodies, deserts, dense forests, snow, clouds and under hazy conditions over heterogeneous regions) are homogeneous i.e., they do not have much change in their levels. In terms of histogram representation, they are characterized as the occurrence of very narrow peaks. The homogeneity can also be due to the incorrect illumination of the scene. Ultimately the images hence obtained are not easily interpretable due to poor human perceptibility. This is because there exists only a narrow range of gray- levels in the image having provision for wider range of gray-levels. The contrast stretching methods are designed exclusively for frequently encountered situations. Different stretching
  159. 159. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 159 techniques have been developed to stretch the narrow range to the whole of the available dynamic range. Noise Filtering: Noise Filtering is used to filter the unnecessary information from an image. It is also used to remove various types of noises from the images. Mostly this feature is interactive. Various filters like low pass, high pass, mean, median etc., are available Histogram Modification: Histogram has a lot of importance in image enhancement. It reflects the characteristics of image. By modifying the histogram, image characteristics can be modified. One such example is Histogram Equalization. Histogram equalization is a nonlinear stretch that redistributes pixel values so that there is approximately the same number of pixels with each value within a range. The result approximates a flat histogram. Therefore, contrast is increased at the peaks and lessened at the tails IMAGE SEGMENTATION: Segmentation is one of the key problems in image processing. Image segmentation is the process that subdivides an image into its constituent parts or objects. The level to which this subdivision is carried out depends on the problem being solved, i.e., the segmentation should stop when the objects of interest in an application have been isolated e.g., in
  160. 160. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 160 autonomous air-to-ground target acquisition, suppose our interest lies in identifying vehicles on a road, the first step is to segment the road from the image and then to segment the contents of the road down to potential vehicles. Image thresholding techniques are used for image segmentation. FEATURE EXTRACTION: The feature extraction techniques are developed to extract features in synthetic aperture radar images. This technique extracts high-level features needed in order to perform classification of targets. Features are those items which uniquely describe a target, such as size, shape, composition, location etc. Segmentation techniques are used to isolate the desired object from the scene so that measurements can be made on it subsequently. Quantitative measurements of object features allow classification and description of the image. When the pre-processing and the desired level of segmentation has been achieved, some feature extraction technique is applied to the segments to obtain features, which is followed by application of classification and post processing techniques. It is essential to focus on the feature extraction phase as it has an observable impact on the efficiency of the recognition system. Feature selection of a feature extraction method is the single most important factor in achieving high recognition performance. Feature extraction has been given as “extracting from the raw data information that is most suitable for classification purposes, while minimizing the within class pattern variability and enhancing the between class pattern variability”. Thus, selection of a suitable feature extraction technique according to the input to be applied needs to be done with utmost care. IMAGE CLASSIFICATION: The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm performs better with the total transmission energy metric than the maximum number of hops metric. The proposed algorithm provides energy efficient path for data transmission and maximizes the lifetime of entire network. As the performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed between two metrics in future with some modifications in design considerations the performance of the proposed algorithm can be compared with other energy efficient algorithm. We have used very small
  161. 161. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 161 network of 5 nodes, as number of nodes increases the complexity will increase. We can increase the number of nodes and analyze the performance. Image classification is the labeling of a pixel or a group of pixels based on its grey value. Classification is one of the most often used methods of information extraction. In Classification, usually multiple features are used for a set of pixels i.e., many images of a particular object are needed. In Remote Sensing area, this procedure assumes that the imagery of a specific geographic area is collected in multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and is in good registration. Most of the information extraction techniques rely on analysis of the spectral reflectance properties of such imagery and employ special algorithms designed to perform various types of 'spectral analysis'. The process of multispectral classification can be performed using either of the two methods: Supervised or Unsupervised. In Supervised classification, the identity and location of some of the land cover types such as urban, wetland, forest etc., are known as priori through a combination of field works and toposheets. The analyst attempts to locate specific sites in the remotely sensed data that represents homogeneous examples of these land cover types. These areas are commonly referred as TRAINING SITES because the spectral characteristics of these known areas are used to 'train' the classification algorithm for eventual land cover mapping of reminder of the image. Multivariate statistical parameters are calculated for each training site. Every pixel both within and outside these training sites is then evaluated and assigned to a class of which it has the highest likelihood of being a member. In an Unsupervised classification, the identities of land cover types has to be specified as classes within a scene are not generally known as priori because ground truth is lacking or surface features within the scene are not well defined. The computer is required to group pixel data into different spectral classes according to some statistically determined criteria. The
  162. 162. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 162 comparison in medical area is the labeling of cells based on their shape, size, color and texture, which act as features. This method is also useful for MRI images.
  163. 163. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 163 RESULT: Thus the various process in image processing techniques were studied.
  164. 164. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechatronics Lab Manual By Ashok Kumar. R (AP / MECH) 164

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