2. The word ‘research’ means searching
again, or to search for something new or to
Modify existing ones.
Research as a scientific and systematic
search for pertinent information on a specific
3. Redman and Mory define research as
“systematized effort to gain new
Some people consider research as a
movement, a movement from the known to the
unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery
4. According to Clifford Woody research
comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or
suggested solutions; collecting, organising
and evaluating data; making deductions
and reaching conclusions; and at last
carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating
6. Surveys, structured interviews &
observations, and reviews of records or
documents for numeric information.
Primarily deductive process used to test
pre-specified concepts, constructs, and
hypotheses that make up a theory.
7. More objective: provides observed
effects (interpreted by researchers) of a
program on a problem or condition.
Less in-depth but more breadth of
information across a large number of cases
Fixed response options
8. Statistical tests are used for analysis.
Can be valid and reliable: largely
depends on the measurement device or
Time expenditure heavier on the
planning phase and lighter on the analysis
9. 2. QUALITATIVE STUDIES
Qualitative research is a process of
naturalistic inquiry that seeks in-depth
understanding of social phenomena within
their natural setting.
Qualitative research, is concerned with
qualitative phenomenon, that is, phenomena
relating to or involving quality or kind.
10. Rather than by logical and statistical
procedures, qualitative researchers use
multiple systems of inquiry for the study of
human phenomena including biography,
case study, historical analysis, discourse
analysis, ethnography, grounded theory and
11. Methods include focus groups,
in-depth interviews, and reviews of
documents for types of themes.
Primarily inductive process used to
formulate theory or hypotheses.
More subjective: describes a problem
or condition from the point of view of
those experiencing it
More in-depth information on a few
Unstructured or semi-structured
No statistical tests
Can be valid and reliable: largely
depends on skill and rigor of the researcher
13. Time expenditure lighter on the
planning end and heavier during the
14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH is a study that
strictly adheres to a scientific research design.
It includes a hypothesis, a variable that can
be manipulated by the researcher, and
variables that can be measured, calculated
15. Most importantly, experimental research
is completed in a controlled environment.
The researcher collects data and results
will either support or reject the hypothesis.
This method of research is referred to a
hypothesis testing or a deductive research
method (Babbie 4).
16. Experimental research seeks to
determine a relationship between two (2)
variables—the dependent variable and
the independent variable.
Data in experimental research must be
able to be quantified, or measured.
The simplest example of an experimental
research is conducting a laboratory test.
17. As long as research is being conducted
under scientifically acceptable conditions
it qualifies as an experimental research.
A true experimental research is considered to be
successful only when the researcher confirms that a
change in the dependent variable is solely
due to the manipulation of the independent variable.It
is important for an experimental research to establish
cause and effect of a phenomenon, which means, it
should be definite that effects observed from an
experiment are due to the cause.
18. There are three primary types of
experimental research design:
● Pre-experimental research design
● True experimental research design
● Quasi-experimental research design
The different types of experimental research
design are based on the how the researcher
classifies the subjects according to various
conditions and groups.
19. This is the simplest form of experimental
research design. A group, or various
groups, are kept under observation after
factors are considered for cause and effect.
It is usually conducted to understand whether
further investigation needs to be carried out
on the target group/s, due to which it is
considered to be cost-effective.
20. The pre-experimental research design is
further bifurcated into three types:
● One-shot Case Study Research Design
● One-group Pretest-posttest Research Design
● Static-group Comparison
21. True experimental research is the most
accurate form of experimental research
design as it relies on statistical analysis to
Prove or disprove a hypothesis.
It is the only type of Experimental
Design that can establish a cause-effect
relationship within a group/s. In a true
experiment, there are three factors which
need to be satisfied:
22. ● Control Group (Group of participants for
research that are familiar to the Experimental
group but experimental research rules do not
apply to them.) and Experimental Group
(Research participants on whom experimental
research rules do apply.)
● Variable which can be manipulated by the researcher
● Random distribution
This experimental research method is commonly
implemented in physical sciences
23. The prefix quasi means “resembling.” Thus
quasi-experimental research is research that
resembles experimental research but is not true
Although the independent variable is
manipulated, participants are not randomly
assigned to conditions or orders of conditions
24. Because the independent variable is
manipulated before the dependent variable
is measured, quasi-experimental research
eliminates the directionality problem.
25. But because participants are not randomly
assigned—making it likely that there are other
differences between conditions—quasi-
experimental research does not eliminate the
problem of confounding variables
In terms of internal validity, therefore, quasi-
experiments are generally somewhere between
corelational studies and true experiments.
26. Quasi-experiments are most likely to be
conducted in field settings in which random
assignment is difficult or impossible. They are
often conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of
a treatment—perhaps a type of psychotherapy
or an educational intervention.
27. ● Researchers have a stronger hold over
variables to obtain desired results.
● Subject or industry is not a criterion for
experimental research due to which any
industry can implement it for research
● Results are extremely specific.
● Once the results are analyzed, they can be
applied to various other similar aspects
28. ● Cause and effect of a hypothesis can be
derived so that researchers can analyze
● Experimental research can be used in
association with other research methods.
29. Nonexperimental research that lacks
the manipulation of an independent
variable, random assignment of
participants to conditions or orders of
conditions, or both.
30. • The research question or hypothesis can be
about a single variable rather than a
Statistical relationship between two variables
(e.g., How accurate are people’s first
• The research question can be about a
noncausal statistical relationship between
variables (e.g., Is there a correlation between
verbal intelligence and mathematical
31. • The research question can be about a causal
relationship, but the independent variable cannot
be manipulated or participants cannot be
randomly assigned to conditions or orders of
conditions(e.g., Does damage to a person’s
Hippocampus impair the formation of long-term
• The research question can be broad and
exploratory, or it can be about what it is like to
Have a particular experience (e.g., What is it like to
be a working mother diagnosed with depression?).
32. The choice between the experimental
and nonexperimental approaches is
generally dictated by the nature of the
If it is about a causal relationship and
involves an independent variable that can be
manipulated, the experimental approach is
Typically preferred. Otherwise, the non
experimental approach is preferred
33. Nonexperimental research falls into three
broad categories: single-variable research,
correlational and quasi-experimental research,
and qualitative research.
34. First, research can be nonexperimental
because it focuses on a single variable
rather than a statistical relationship
between two variables. Although there is
no widely shared term for this kind of
research, we will call it single-variable
35. Research can also be non experimental
because it focuses on a statistical relationship
between two variables but does not include
the manipulation of an independent variable,
random assignment of participants to
conditions or orders of conditions, or both. This
kind of research takes two basic forms:
correlational research and quasi experimental
36. In correlational research , the researcher
measures the two variables of interest with
little or no attempt to control extraneous
variables and then assesses the relationship
37. In quasi-experimental research , the
researcher manipulates an independent
variable but does not randomly assign
participants to conditions or orders of
The final way in which research can be
nonexperimental is that it can be qualitative .
In qualitative research , the data are usually
non numerical and are analyzed using non
38. 1.SURVEY RESEARCH
Survey research is a quantitative and
The variables of interest are measured
Survey researchers ask their participants
(who are often called respondents in survey
research) to report directly on their own
thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.
39. considerable attention is paid to the
issue of sampling.
In particular, survey researchers have a
strong preference for large random
samples because they provide the most
accurate estimates of what is true in the
40. survey research may be the only
approach in psychology in which random
sampling is routinely used.
Surveys can be long or short. They can
be conducted in person, by telephone,
through the mail,or over the Internet.
41. The survey method gathers data from a
relatively large number of cases at a
particular time; it is essentially cross-
Surveys are an example of field research.
42. Surveys may either be census or sample
surveys. They may also be classified as social
surveys, economic surveys or public opinion
surveys. Whatever be their type, the method of
data collection happens to be either
observation, or interview or
questionnaire/opinionnaire or some projective
technique(s). Case study method can as well
43. In case of surveys, research design must be
rigid, must make enough provision for
protection against bias and must maximise
reliability as the aim happens to be to obtain
complete and accurate information.
44. 2. ARCHIVAL RESEARCH
Archival research is a method of collecting
data from sources that already exist.
Common examples of archival research
sources are census records or survey data
that was collected in the past.
45. This method differs from empirical research in
which a hypothesis and areas of interest are
determined before data collection occurs.
Archival research methods include a broad
range of activities applied to facilitate the
investigation of documents and textual
materials produced by and about organizations.
46. archival methods are those that involve the
study of historical documents; that is,
documents created at some point in the
relatively distant past, providing us access
that we might not otherwise have to the
organizations, individuals, and events of that
47. 3.CASE STUDY
Case study research refers to an in-depth,
detailed study of an individual or a small group of
individuals. Such studies are typically qualitative
in nature, resulting in a narrative description of
behavior or experience.
48. Case study research is not used to determine
cause and effect, nor is it
used to discover generalizable truths or make
predictions. Rather, the emphasis in case study
research is placed on exploration and
description of a phenomenon.
49. The main characteristics of case study
research are that it is narrowly focused,
provides a high level of detail, and is able to
combine both objective and subjective data
to achieve an in-depth understanding.
50. There are several types of case study
methods. The method selected depends
upon the nature of the question being asked
and the goals of the researcher. Following is
a list of the different types
of case studies:
51. ● Illustrative – This type of method is used to
“illustrate” or describe an event or
situation in such a way that people can become
more familiar with the topic in
question and perhaps become acquainted with
the terminology associated with the topic.
52. ● Exploratory – This method is a condensed case
study and the purpose is to gather
basic, initial data that could be used to identify a
particular question for a larger
study. This study is not designed to produce detailed
data from which any
conclusions could be drawn. It is simply exploratory
53. ● Critical Instance – These studies are used to
examine situations of unique interest
or to challenge a universal or generalized belief.
Such studies are not to create new
generalizations. Rather, several situations or
events may be examined to raise questions or
challenge previously held assertions.
54. ● Cumulative – The cumulative method is
designed to pull together information for
several events/situations and aggregate it in
such a way that it allows for greater
generalization. It has the advantage of saving
time and money by not creating new and
● Case studies are more flexible than many
other types of research and allow the
researcher to discover and explore as the research
● Case studies emphasize in-depth content. The
researcher is able to delve deep and
use a variety of data sources to get a complete
● The data is collected in a natural setting and
56. ● Often leads to the creation of new hypotheses
that can be tested later.
● Case studies often shed new light on an
established theory that results in further
● Researchers are able to study and analyze
situations, events and behaviors that could be
created in a laboratory setting.
● The uniqueness of the data usually means that it
is not able to be replicated.
● Case studies have some level of subjectivity and
researcher bias may be a problem.
● Because of the in-depth nature of the data, it is not
possible to conduct the research
on a large scale.
● There are concerns about the reliability, validity
and generalizability of the results.
58. 4. ETHNOGRAPHY
Ethnography is a study through direct
observation of users in their natural
environment rather than in a lab.
The objective of this type of research is to gain
insights into how users interact with things in
their natural environment
Ethnography is a qualitative research study
looking at the social interaction of users in a
59. This research provides an in-depth insight into the
user’s views and actions along with the sights and
sounds they encounter during their day. It
provides the researcher with an understanding of
how those users see the world and how they
interact with everything around them.
Ethnography methods include direct observation,
diary studies, video recordings, photography etc
60. The length of the studies can vary depending
on the research that is being conducted.
They can range from a couple of hours of
observation, to studies that last several
61. There are two methods for observation:
Passive observation which can also be known as
‘shadowing’ is where a user or users are
shadowed while they go about their everyday
tasks observed by a researcher. Sometimes
before the research begins, users will be
interviewed on their own or in groups to learn
more about them and their needs
62. Observations will be documented throughout
the day using a number of methods such as
taking notes, photographs, sketches or videos.
The research may be conducted as part of
a team so that a larger number of users can be
observed and therefore gaining a greater insight
63. 2. Contextual interviews
Contextual interviews are where the researcher
will interact with users while observing them
going about their everyday tasks. The interviews
will be held in a natural environment, so as not to
feel too formal. The researcher will observe the
user going about their everyday tasks and ask
questions to gain insight
64. ETHNOGRAPHY AND CULTURE
Culture is the social behavior and
norms found in human societies. Culture is
considered a central concept in
anthropology, encompassing the range of
phenomena that are transmitted
through social learning in human societies.
65. Ethnography is the work of discovering and
describing a particular culture; culture is the
learned, shared knowledge that people use to
generate behavior and interpret experience. To
get at culture, ethnographers must learn the
meanings of action and experience from the
insider’s or informant’s point of view. The central
aim of ethnography is to understand another way
of life from the native point of view. Rather
than studying people , ethnography means
learning from people.
66. When doing ethnography, there are three
fundamental aspects of human experience to deal
1. Cultural behaviour: what people do
2. Cultural knowledge: what people know
3. Cultural artifacts: things people make and use
-Whenever you do ethnographic fieldwork, you
will want to distinguish among these three,
although in most situations they are usually mixed
-eg: cultural behaviour: reading
cultural artifacts: books, newspapers, billboards
67. Advantages of Ethnography research
● Ability to see first-hand how users interact
with technology in their natural environment
● Identify unexpected issues that you might not
have encountered in a usability test
● Opportunity to test new product ideas before
they are released to the market to see what
demand is like
68. ● Short studies may not get a user acting naturally
as they are aware of the researchers
● The cost of conducting ethnographic studies is
typically much higher than conducting a