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Obstacle Avoidance Robot (Powered by Arduino)

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Obstacle Avoidance Robot is powered by Arduino, Ultrasonic Sensor, and Servo Motor.

Publicada em: Indústria automotiva
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Obstacle Avoidance Robot (Powered by Arduino)

  1. 1. Obstacle Avoidance Robot Powered by Arduino
  2. 2. CircuitComponents Working Source Code Scope
  3. 3. Components
  4. 4. Components / 1. Chassis 2. Arduino UNO 3. DC Motor 4. Motor Driver 6. Servo Motor5. Ultrasonic Sensor
  5. 5. Components / 1. Chassis • Good quality robotic chassis for DIY projects • Laser cut super smooth double layer acrylic chassis • Contains Ultrasonic Sensor and Servo Motor holder
  6. 6. Components / 2. Arduino UNO Microcontroller ATmega328P Operating Voltage 5V Input Voltage 7-12V (recommended) 6-20V (limit) Digital I/O Pins 14 PWM Digital I/O Pins 6 Analog Input Pins 6 SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328P) EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328P) BUILTIN LED 13 Dimension 68.6 mm X 53.4 mm Weight 25g
  7. 7. Components / 2. Arduino UNO Open Source Hardware: Schematics • Arduino Uno is open-source hardware! You can build your own board Programming • The UNO is the best board to get started with electronics and coding • The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Arduino Software IDE Power • The Arduino Uno board can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply from 6 to 20 volts. The power source is selected automatically
  8. 8. Components / 3. DC Motor Voltage 3-6V DC Reduction Ratio 1:48 Maximum torque 800k.cm Material Plastic Weight 2.4 ounces Load Current 70mA (250mA MAX) No-load Speed 1:48 (3V)
  9. 9. Components / 4. L298N Motor Driver Driver Dual H Bridge Motor Driver IC Operating Voltage 7 to 35V Peak Current 2A Max Power Consumption 20W (When the temperature T = 75 °C Weight 33g
  10. 10. Components / 5. HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor Operating Voltage 5V Theoretical Measuring Distance 2cm to 450cm Practical Measuring Distance 2cm to 80cm Measuring Angle Covered <15° Operating Current <15mA Operating Frequency 40Hz
  11. 11. Components / 6. SG90 Micro Servo Motor Operating Voltage 5V Torque 2.5kg/cm Operating Speed 0.1s/60° Gear Type Plastic Rotation 0°-240° Weight 9g
  12. 12. Working
  13. 13. Working / 1. Calculating the Distance • Ultrasonic signals travel at the speed of sound • At 20°C the speed of sound is 343 m/s • Time measured by HC-SR04 is for return trip • Divide time in half to calculate distance 𝐷 = (Δt/2) × 𝑐 Δt = Time Delay C = Speed of Sound D = Distance Measured
  14. 14. Working / 2. Controlling the Speed and Direction of DC Motor Motor A Enable: • 5Volts = Enabled • Ground = Disabled • PWM = Speed Control Motor A: • Input 1: 5 Volts = Forward • Input 2: Ground = Forward Motor A: • Input 1: Ground = Reversed • Input 2: 5 Volts = Reversed *Motor B Inputs work the same way Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
  15. 15. Working / 3. Using Servo Motor to Rotate Ultrasonic Sensor • SG90 Micro Servos use DC motors • Potentiometer is used as feedback sensor • Internal controller board monitors and adjust position • Position controlled using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Torque • Amount of force servo can apply to a lever • Measured in kilogram centimetres (kg-cm) • Rated Torque: 2.5 kg-cm
  16. 16. Circuit
  17. 17. Circuit / Obstacle Avoidance Robot Schematic
  18. 18. Source Code
  19. 19. Source Code </> / Move Forward Function
  20. 20. Source Code </> / Move Backward Function
  21. 21. Source Code </> / Turn Right Function
  22. 22. Source Code </> / Turn Left Function
  23. 23. Source Code </> / Move Stop Function Distance Calculator Function
  24. 24. Source Code </> / Look Right Function Look Left Function
  25. 25. Source Code </> / Pin Declaration
  26. 26. Source Code </> / Arduino Setup Code
  27. 27. Source Code </> / Arduino Loop Code
  28. 28. Scope
  29. 29. Scope / Further Improvements and Future Scope 1. Adding a Camera • If interfaced with a camera, robot can be driven beyond line of sight • Range becomes practically unlimited as network have a large range 2. Use as a fire fighter robot • Addition of temperature sensor, water tank required • Required some changes in programming • It can work as an autonomous fire extinguisher 3. Obstacle detection for a Mining Vehicle 4. Driverless vehicles running along beams 5. Obstacle detecting system for a motor vehicle 6. Autonomous cleaning robot
  30. 30. Thank You

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