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Span of management

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Span of management

  1. 1. 1 Span of Management
  2. 2. Objectives 2 • Atthe end ofthe chapter youwill be able to – Haveknowledgeabout spanofmanagement andits meaning – Understandhefactors affectingspanof management – Learnabout Graicunastheory ofspanof management
  3. 3. Introduction 3 • SpanofmanagementcanalsonamedasSpanof control, spanofauthority, spanofresponsibility or spanof supervision • Asound organization depends upon the effective performance ofwork by executives
  4. 4. Meaning • Spanofmanagementmeansthe number ofpeople managedefficiently byasingleofficerin an organization • It impliesthat asingleexecutiveshouldnot be expected to giveguidanceto move people • The limit ofnumber ofmembers for spanof control maybe increasedor decreased accordingto the levelsof management4
  5. 5. Meaning • The number ofemployeesreporting to a supervisor. • Traditional view, sevenor soper manager. • Manyorganizationstoday, 30 or more per manager. • Generally ifsupervisorsmust be closely involvedwith employeesspanshouldbe small. 5
  6. 6. Factors Affecting the Span of Management 6 • Character ofsupervision work – Thespanofcontrol maybe increasedwhenever the work isperformed and standardized • Leadership Qualities – Thepersonalabilityandcapacityofasupervisorcan influencethe spanof management
  7. 7. Factors Affecting the Span of Management 7 • Qualities of subordinate – Ifthe subordinateshaveenoughtalent to perform the work assignedto them, the managercancontrol more number of subordinates • Time availableto supervisor – Mostofthe executivesspendalot oftime for operating the work andadministrativeduties, hence theycancontrol lessernumber ofsubordinateshat the person whospendsfulltime for their supervision
  8. 8. Factors Affecting the Span of Management 8 • Nature of work – Incaseofthe repetitive natured work or the work the doesnot require extra ordinary talent, the supervisorcancontrol alargenumber of subordinates • Levelof supervision – Thedegree ofspanofcontrol canbe increasedat the bottom levelmanagement anddecreasedat top level management
  9. 9. Factors Affecting the Span of Management 9 • Delegation of authority – Ifthe authority delegatesthe powers ofdecision making,planningandexecution to the subordinates, the spanofcontrol maybe increased • Fixation of responsibility – Thesubordinate need not contact the supervisorif hisresponsibilitiesare clearly defined.
  10. 10. Factors Affecting the Span of Management 10 • Usingof standards – Standardsare usedinanorganizationto detect the errors or faultsinthe performance of work • Methodsof communication – One ofthe factors determiningthe spanofcontrol is MethodsofCommunicationwhichisdividedinto two OralandWritten
  11. 11. Graicunas theory of Span of Management 11 • Amanagementexpert V. M. Graicunas contributed muchto the spanof management • Histheory identified the relationship prevailing between the superior andsubordinate, which are classifiedin to three groups – Direct singlerelationship – Direct group relationship – Cross relationship
  12. 12. Direct Single Relationship • Inthis type ofrelationship the superior hasthe direct relationship with his subordinate • Thisrelationship isexplainedwith the chart below Supervisor A B C Subordinates 12
  13. 13. Direct Group Relationship • Inthis type ofrelationship the superior hasthe direct relationship with hissubordinates jointly • Thisrelationship isexplainedwith the chart below Supervisor A Consultation Consultation B C Subordinates 13 Attendance
  14. 14. Cross Relationship • Inthis type ofrelationship asubordinate has relationshipwith another subordinates mutually • Thisrelationship isexplainedwith the chart belowSupervisor A Relationship B C Subordinates 14
  15. 15. Formula • V.A. Graicunasprescribed the following formulato ascertain the number ofsuperiors’ andsubordinates’relationship Number ofrelationships = n(2n/2+n-1) where ‘n’isthe number of subordinates
  16. 16. Summary • Spanofmanagementmeansthe number of people managedefficientlybyasingleofficerin an organization • The factors affectingthe spanofmanagement include character ofthe supervision work, leadershipqualities etc
  17. 17. End of Chapter 10 Span of Management 17