3. Group Dynamics
• refers to the attitudinal and behavioral characteristics
of a group.
• Group dynamics concern how groups form, their structure
and process, and how they function.
• Group dynamics are relevant in both formal and informal
groups of all types.
• Group dynamics is applied in different fields
5. Characteristics of a Group
1. Involves 2 or more persons
2. Formal social structure - the game has defined rules.
3. Common fate - they will swim together
4. Common goals - the destiny is the same and emotionally connected
5. Face-to-face interaction - they will talk with each other
6. Interdependence - each one is complimentary to the other
7. Self-definition as group members - what one is who belongs to the
8. Recognition by others - yes, you belong to the group.
6. Theories of Group Development
• Classic Theory: developed by George Homans. It
suggests that groups develop based on activities,
interactions, and sentiments.
• This theory reveals that when individuals share common
activities, they will have more interaction and will develop
attitudes (positive or negative) toward each other.
• The major element in this theory is the interaction of the
7. • Social Exchange Theory: This theory suggest that
individuals form relationships based on the implicit
expectation of mutually beneficial exchanges based on
trust and felt obligation.
• In this theory, a perception that exchange relationships
will be positive is essential if individuals are to be
attracted to and affiliate with a group.
8. • Social Identity Theory: This theory suggests that
individuals get a sense of identity and self-esteem based
upon their membership in salient groups.
• The nature of the group may be demographically based,
culturally based, or organizationally based.
• Individuals are motivated to belong to and contribute to
identity groups because of the sense of belongingness
and self-worth membership in the group imparts.
11. Group Formation
(Bruce Tuckman in the 1960s)
• According to Tuckman's theory, there are five stages of
5. Adjourning (mourning).
• At this stage, there are some uncertainty and confusion. The
nature of the task or leadership of the group has not been
• The major goals of the group have not been established
• It is an orientation period when members get to know one
another and share expectations about the group. Members
learn the purpose of the group as well as the rules to be
• This stage should not be rushed because trust and openness
must be developed. These feelings strengthen in later stages
• In this stage, the group is likely to see the highest level of
disagreement and conflict.
• Members often challenge group goals and struggle for power.
Individuals often vie for the leadership position during this
stage of development.
• This can be a positive experience for all groups if members can
achieve cohesiveness through resolution. Members often voice
concern and criticism in this phase.
• If members are not able to resolve the conflict, then the group
will often disband or continue in existence but will remain
ineffective and never advance to the other stages.
• This stage is characterized by the recognition of individual
differences and shared expectations.
• At this stage the group members will begin to develop a
feeling of group cohesion and identity. Cooperative effort
should begin to yield results.
• Responsibilities are divided among members and the
group decides how it will evaluate progress.
• This occurs when the group has matured and attains a
feeling of cohesiveness.
• At this stage of development, individuals accept one
another and conflict is resolved through group discussion.
• Members of the group make decisions through a rational
process that is focused on relevant goals rather than
• This stage is characterized by the disbandment of the group. It
is also referred to as mourning.
• Not all groups experience this stage of development.
• Some groups are relatively permanent .
• Reasons that groups disband vary, with common reasons
being the accomplishment of the task or individuals deciding to
go their own ways.
• Members of the group often experience feelings of closure and
sadness as they prepare to leave.
17. Group Structure
• This is the pattern of relationships among members that
hold the group together and help it achieve assigned
• It is the internal framework that defines members'
relations to one another over time.
• Group structure is also been defined as the underlying
pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among
members that define and organize the group.
• Common considerations include: group size, group
roles, group norms, and group cohesiveness.
19. ROLES in Group
• Roles can be defined as a tendency to behave, contribute
and interrelate with others in a particular way.
• Roles may be assigned formally, or defined through the
process of role differentiation.
• Role differentiation is the degree to which different group
members have specialized functions.
• A key role in a group is the leader, but there are other
important roles as well.
20. Task Roles
(help group to accomplish task)
• Information seeker & Information giver
• Coordinator, etc
• They are the informal rules that groups adopt to regulate
• Norms refer to what should be done and represent value
judgments about appropriate behaviour in social
• They are a fundamental aspect of group structure as they
provide direction and motivation, and organize the social
interactions of members.
23. Types of Norms
1. Prescriptive Norms: socially appropriate ways to
respond in a social situation, or what group members
are supposed to do.
2. Proscriptive Norms: actions that group members
should not do; prohibitive
3. Descriptive Norms: describe what people usually do.
4. Injunctive Norms: describe behaviours that people
ought to do; more evaluative in nature than a
• This refers to the bonding of group members or unity,
feelings of attraction for each other and desire to remain
part of the group.
• Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness
– agreement on group goals, frequency of interaction,
personal attractiveness, inter-group competition,
favourable evaluation, etc.
25. Turning Groups into Effective TEAMS
• NB: All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.
• Effective teams do not just happen. They are often difficult to
form because it takes time for members to learn how to work
• Teams are meticulously put together consisting of a group of
highly skilled, highly motivated individuals who have a clear
picture of their goals.
• Team-building helps to increase intra-group and inter-group
effectiveness to bring members together, make them share
their perception of each other and understand each other’s
point of view.
26. Eight Cs for effective TEAM
1. Clear Expectations
28. Expected Qualities of Group Leader
1. Proven leadership competence, in other smaller areas
eg as a class leader, etc.
2. Ability to create and sell a vision.
3. Inculcating a constructive spirit of discontent, or
wanting to find out “a better way of doing things”.
4. Willingness to take on responsibility.
5. Ability to complete tasks.
6. Mental toughness to face and overcome adversity
29. Expected Qualities of Team (Group) members
Sense of humour.
• Group Dynamics. Available at
Int/Group-Dynamics.html#ixzz7IJhR5S9m (Accessed on
• Smrti C. Group Dynamics: its characteristics, stages,
types, and other details, Available at
details-management/5363. (Accessed on 19/01/2022)