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Master Seminar on Sustainable Agriculture

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Master Seminar on Sustainable Agriculture

  1. 1. WELCOME 1/34
  2. 2. Master Seminar On Sustainable Agriculture – Its scope, challenges and strategies in Indian Scenario Abhinav Yadav I.D.No - 1686 Department of Agronomy BANDA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY BANDA 210001 (UP) 2/34
  3. 3. Introduction • Sustainable agriculture should involve the successful management of resources for agriculture to satisfy changing human need while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. Or • Sustainable agriculture is the form of agriculture aim at meeting the food and fuel needs of the present generation without endangering the resource base for future generation. 3/34
  4. 4. Concept of Sustainable Agriculture • It embraces several form of nonconventional agriculture that are often called organic, alternate, ecological, low input agriculture etc. • In economic terms, the use of resource today should not reduce real income in future. • Sustainable development means protecting the natural resources needed for food production and cooking fuel, while expanding production to meet the need of growing population. 4/34
  5. 5. Aims of Sustainable Agriculture • Maintaining the human need of today and tomorrow with quality food. • Conserving the natural resources. • Economically viable farming practices. • Maintain soil health. • Minimal impact on wide environment. • Society acceptability. 5/34
  6. 6. Critical Challenges • Presently critical challenges are to feed the escalating human population under increasingly declining soil quality and changing climatic conditions. • In addition, productive farmlands in India are under constant threat from various forms of land degradation and loss of productivity. • Natural resources, viz. land and water, are under severe pressure in India. 6/34
  7. 7. Multiple concerns of Agricultural Sustainability Land degradation Water Erosion 23.62 mha Wind Erosion 8.90 mha Chemical Degradation 22.76 mha Physical Degradation 46.60 mha Ref. Bhattacharyya et al 7/34
  8. 8. Water and its Availability • The utilizable surface-water resource is estimated to reduce by 7% due to deforestation and soil erosion, while the loss due to water pollution is put at 20% (IEG, 2000). • There is an urgent need to preserve and maintain the water quality of surface and ground water resources for production and other purposes. • The problem of the falling groundwater table in central Punjab, where rice is a predominant crop, is because of the overdraft of water. 8/34
  9. 9. Total precipitation (400 M ha-m) Monsoon precipitation (300 M ha-m) Rest of precipitation (100 M ha-m) Infiltration in to soil (215) Immediate evaporation (70) Surface flow (115) Soil moisture (165) Groundwater (50) From precipitation (105) From snowfall (10) 9/34
  10. 10. Depletion of Soil Organic Carbon • In most Indian soils, soil organic carbon (SOC) content is low but it is also dynamic in nature. • In India, nearly 3.7 m ha is deteriorated due to depletion of SOC. • The removal or in-situ burning of crop residues, no or least addition of organic manures, and intensive cultivation are major reasons for depletion of SOC. • Soil of eastern plateau and hills regions Carbon contain 0.42%. 10/34
  11. 11. Deforestation • In India 24.1% (21.3% under forest cover and 2.8% under tree cover) of the total geographical area in the country is under forest/ tree cover as against the target of 33%.(ISFR 2015). Major causes of forest degradation:- • Development of industries. •Infrastructure development and human habitation . •Unrestricted exploitation of timber for commercial purposes. •Slash and burn method of cultivation 11/34
  12. 12. Loss of Biodiversity • Agro-biodiversity is the backbone of a nation’s food security and the basis of economic development as a whole. • Biodiversity is under pressure due to commercialization of agriculture. • Major causes of bio-diversity loss in India are over- exploitation, habitat destruction, pollution and species extinction. 12/34
  13. 13. Climate Change • The carbon dioxide (CO2 ) has the least global warming potential among major GHGs but due to its much higher concentration in the atmosphere, it is the major contributor towards global warming and climate change. Agriculture sector in India contributes 28% of the total GHGs emissions. • The global average contributions of GHGs from agriculture are only 13.5% (IPCC, 2007). • The per capita release of GHG emission is 1.02 tonnes/year in India. • The changes in temperature, precipitation, CO2 concentration, changes in frequency of infestation by pests and diseases caused agriculture vulnerable. 13/34
  14. 14. Agro-ecological Constraints Challenges in irrigated areas:- • Irrigated system occupies a unique place in Indian agriculture achieving nutritional security and production sustainability. • Around 46% of the cultivated area is under assured irrigation. • Irrigated productions systems in the country are mainly cereal dominated. • Last 2–3 decades, fast declining water-table and factor productivity in rice–wheat cropping system (RWCS) of IGP are the examples of overexploitation of natural resources. • More than 80% of the water available in the country is being used in agriculture, of which two-thirds is allocated to rice cultivation. 14/34
  15. 15. Challenges in rainfed agriculture:- •The rainfed agriculture is totally dependent on southwest monsoon and thus, it is synonymous with risk due to erratic monsoon. •Dry spells of 2 to 4 weeks during critical crop-growing stages cause partial or complete crop failure. •Climatic risks like droughts and floods, and poor water and nutrient retention capacity of soil and low soil organic matter impact rainfed agriculture highly vulnerable. 15/34
  16. 16. Constraints in Coastal Agriculture:- •Low productivity of coastal agriculture is attributed to its unfavorable agro-climatic conditions. •Coastal soils encounter several abiotic stresses, viz. salinity, acidity and waterlogging. •Acid sulphate soils in the coastal areas reveals that about 0.26 million ha area in Kerala and the Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands. 16/34
  17. 17. Ill-effect of shifting cultivation:- •About 2.0 million ha of forests are cleared every year by felling and burning the trees and shrubs. •In north-east India alone about 0.88 m ha area is under this method of cultivation. •High soil and nutrient loss, biodiversity decline, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission etc. are some of the negative impacts of jhum farming. 17/34
  18. 18. Constraints in Rice-fallows ecosystem:- •Rice-fallows (~14 m ha) is monocrop rice-based production system of south Asia, which mainly concentrated in India, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh. • In India, around 11.7 m ha (30% of the areas under rice production) remains fallow in the subsequent winter season. 18/34
  19. 19. Strategies for achieving agricultural sustainability Conservation agriculture :- It is endowed with 3 principles:- 1. Minimal soil disturbance. 2. Permanent soil cover. 3. Sensible crop rotation with legumes. • The use of agro-chemical for controlling weeds and the use of machineries are the integral to the CA. Country Name Area (mha) USA 43.2 Brazil 32.0 Argentina 31.0 India (38th ) 1.5 Ref:- Kassam et al 19/34
  20. 20. Precision agriculture • Precision or site-specific crop management refers to a management system of production agriculture, using diverse technologies to enhance field productivity and protect the environment. Precision agriculture follow 4 R principle :- 1. Right dose. 2. Right time. 3. Right place. 4. Right source 20/34
  21. 21. Precision Water Management • Rainfed agriculture in rainfed districts is to harvest a small portion of available surplus runoff in water-harvesting structures like farm pond and utilized for supplemental irrigation during critical crop-growth stages. • Precision agriculture by way of micro-irrigation (drip and sprinkler). Factor enhance the water use efficiency:- 1. Water is applied directly to the root zone of plants. 2. Water is applied at frequent intervals in precise quantities as per the crop-water requirement and . 3. Water is applied through a low-pressure pipe net work. 21/34
  22. 22. Integrated Nutrient Management • To ensure adequate and balanced nutrient supply, integrated approach is an important option to efficient use of chemical fertilizers in association with organic manures without detriment to soil fertility and improving crop productivity. • Integrated nutrient supply helps improve the physical, chemical and biological health of soil and avoids soil degradation and deterioration of water and environmental quality. • It promoting carbon sequestration and checking the losses of nutrients to water-bodies and atmosphere. 22/34
  23. 23. Carbon Sequestration • Soils are the largest carbon reservoir of the terrestrial carbon cycle. • It is estimated that the buildup of each tonne of soil organic matter removes 3.7 t of Co2 from atmosphere. • Promoting soil C sequestration is an effective strategy for reducing atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality. • Agricultural practices with a profound positive effect on SOC content are cover crops, agro forestry and agro-pastoral systems, rotations with deep-rooted crops, and crop residue management or mulching. 23/34
  24. 24. Universal soil health card scheme • The universal soil health card scheme (SHC), launched in 2014, is a very progressive and definitive step taken by the Government. • It has laid a strong foundation for science based soil-nutrient management. • There is need to connect Soil Health Card Portal with Integrated Fertilizer Management System (I-FMS) of Department of Fertilizers, to ensure that SHC-based fertilizer is supplied to all the farmers. 24/34
  25. 25. Diversification Food crops: • Food legumes/pulse crops endowed with the unique ability of BNF, deep root-system, low water requirements, and capacity to withstand drought. • Pulses can be a potential candidate for system diversification and for sustainable use of natural resources. • Diversification with legumes not only provides food self- sufficiency but also contribute to nutritional adequacy. High-value crops: • Horticultural crops play a unique role in India’s economy by improving the income of the rural populace and provide enormous scope to small and marginal farmers with higher return per unit of land. 25/34
  26. 26. Organic Farming • Organic farming is a system of crop production, which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed additives. Organic farming largely depend on crop rotation, crop residue, animal manures, green manures, off farm organic waste, mineral bearing rocks and aspect of biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and tilth, to supply plants nutrients and to control insect, pathogen and weeds (USDA). • It helps achieve multiple sustainability goals and will be of increasing importance in global food and ecosystem security. Top 3 states in Organic farming 26/34 MP 1st (1.63 mha) RJ 2nd (0.48 mha) MH 3rd (0.37 mha) UP 8th 0.15(mha)
  27. 27. Integrated Farming Systems • IFS is an entire complex of development, management and allocation of resources as well as decisions and activities, within an operational farm unit. • The selection of enterprises must be based on the cardinal principles of minimizing the competition and maximizing the complementarily between enterprises. Characteristics of IFS:- • Model should be self-input generating, seeking minimum requirement of external resources from the market. • IFS Model should able to generate year-round employment and income-perennial yield of income in contrast to seasonal nature of income. 27/34
  28. 28. Agro-forestry and Agro-pastoral Systems • Trees can be incorporated within a farming system by planting them on land which is not suitable for crop production. • The value of forests and trees in sequestering carbon and reducing carbon dioxide emission to atmosphere is being recognized increasingly worldwide. • Proper design and management of agro-forestry systems can make them effective carbon sinks. 28/34
  29. 29. Climate-change adaptation and mitigation • Adaptation is an anticipatory and planned process, managed through policies, technologies and developmental activities. • Mitigation strategies are important to reduce the drivers of climate change, it is adaptation strategies that are more essential to minimize its impacts. The adaptation options :- 1. Technological developments . 2. Government programmes and insurance products. 3. Farm-production practices. 4. Farm financial management. • Intercropping has a higher biological efficiency than sole cropping. 29/34
  30. 30. Biodiversity management • Agro-biodiversity builds the foundation of sustainable agricultural development and is an essential natural resource to ensure current and future food and nutrition security. • The effective and efficient management of agro-biodiversity is essential through management of gene banks, science-led innovations, crop diversification, use of lesser-known crops. 30/34
  31. 31. Recommendations and policy intervention • Recommendations which could be implemented for the solutions to real-field problems:- • Prevent land degradation and bring erosion within permissible limit for sustained productivity following appropriate technologies and conservation measures. • Use remote sensing and geographic information system-based decision. • Grow food legumes for self-sufficient in their N needs. • Conservation agriculture, soil-fertility mapping, crop residue, agri-animal waste, neem-coated urea should be adopted. 31/34
  32. 32. CONCLUSION • Degradation of natural resources remains the primary challenge to Indian Agriculture in the face of burgeoning population. Sustainable intensification (SI) remains a foremost goal of Indian agriculture in the 21st century. Besides achieving increased crop production per unit area, SI intends to take care of natural resources, ecosystem services, declining soil productivity, and also the evident consequences of ‘Green Revolution’. 32/34
  33. 33. References • Sustainability concern in Indian agriculture: needs science-led innovation and structural reforms . Ghosh et al. Indian Journal of Agronomy 65 (2): 131__143 (June 2020). • Conservation agriculture in India: History, progress and way forward. A.R. SHARMA. Indian Journal of Agronomy 66 (1): 1__18 (March 2021). • Principles of Agronomy by S.R.Reddy. • Soil degradation in India: Challenges and Potential solution. Bhattacharyya et al. Article in Sustainability · April 2015. 33/34
  34. 34. THANK YOU 34/34