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CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
1
A
DISSERTATION ON
TO STUDY THE SWITCHING BEHAVIOUR OF
CONSUMER SPECIAL REFRENCE TO URBAN
MAR...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
2
STUDENT’S DECLARATION
This is to certify that Report entitled “To study the switching behavi...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
3
SUPERVISOR’S CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Report entitled “To study the switching beh...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
"I have taken efforts in this Dissertation. However, it would not have been ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
5
ABSTRACT
Basically my study focuses on consumer behavior, because now a day’s consumer behav...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
6
economic, behavioral, cognitive, motivational / trait / attitudinal, and situational perspec...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
7
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Title Page No.
Chapter-01 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Problem Identif...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
8
LIST OF TABLE
Sl. No. Title Page No.
01 Classification of respondents based on their Gender....
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
9
LIST OF FIGURES
Sl. No. Title Page No.
Fig. 01 Statistical technique for data collection
Fig...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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CHAPTER- 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
First of all I would like to elaborate that what i...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
11
Many of these chemicals are toxic but the cosmetics industry does not want you to know this...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
12
Key concepts of consumer behavior
1) Consumer behavior is motivational: The main question t...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
13
1.2 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Understanding consumer behavior is important for any organizatio...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
14
1.3 Needand significance of consumerbehavior
Consumer Behavior may be understood as the dec...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
15
 To find out the best method of promotion that will prove to be effective to attract
custo...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
16
III. other importance
1. Modern Philosophy:
It concerns with modern marketing philosophy – ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
17
7. Consumer Differentiation:
Market exhibits considerable differentiations. Each segment ne...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
18
It is to be mentioned that the study of consumer behavior is not only important for the cur...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
19
1.4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Abideen Z. Et al (2011) explore the effective advertising and its ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
20
competitive advantage. The recommendations for foreign car manufacturing are must maintain
...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
21
variables (consumer attitudes, intentions, and buying behavior) and three independent varia...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Product that “I buy from grocery store matters a lot to me”, meaning that most respondents ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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1.5 OBJACTIVES
 To find out the impact of different factors on consumer’s switching behavi...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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1.7RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is the process of solving the problem systemat...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It can involve collections ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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 Casual Research:
Causal Research the objective is to determine causality, test hypotheses...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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For example, researchers studying developmental psychology might select groups of people wh...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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long run, the sample represents the population. However, this does not guarantee that a par...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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v. Data Collection
In this research I have used primary and secondary information. Secondar...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Secondary Data
There is a considerable amount of secondary data available for researchers. ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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vi. Statistical technique for Data analysis
Research is both an art and a science. While mu...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Step-1: Identification of problem
The customers while buying a product goes through many st...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Examples:
 Newspaper articles (reporting events)
 Photographs
 Interviews (legal proceed...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Step-4: Data collection
In this research I have used primary and secondary information. Sec...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Step-5: Sample
Sample is the fraction of the population; sampling is a technique or a metho...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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Interpretation
From the above table no.1, it can be observed that majority of the responden...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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INTERPRETATION
From the above table3, it can be observed that majority of the respondents t...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON BASED ON THEIR CHOICE FOR
BYUING A PRODUCT
Table No.5
Part...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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decision, 18% of respondents opined that quality influences purchasing decision and 15%
of ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
40
1.8 Organization of the study
Introduction;
Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, ho...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
41
consumer behavior. Meaningful marketing programme is instrumental in realizing marketing
go...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
42
10. Developing New Products:
New product is developed in respect of needs and wants of the ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
43
 Place.
 Promotion.
Other Structure:
 Economic.
 Technological.
 Political.
 Cultural...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
44
 Roles/ Status.
Personal:
 Age/ Life cycle stage.
 Occupation.
 Economic circumstances....
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
45
CHAPTER-2
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE SWITCHING BEHAVIOUR OF
CONSUMER
Consumer preference p...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
46
2.2 Factors affecting consumer behavior:
Fig.2.2
2.3 CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
Fig.2...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
47
CHAPTER-3
DATA ANALUSIS AND INTERPRETATION
3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON THEIR GENDE...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THE GROUP OF PEOPLE
Table No.3.2
Attributes No. ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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3.3 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR AGE
Table No. 3.3
Age No. of respondents
2...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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respondents falls in the age group40-45,12% of the respondents are in the age group 26-30 a...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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INTERPRETATION
From the above table & chart no. 4, it can be observed that majority of the ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON BASED ON THEIR CHOICE FOR
BYUING A PRODUCT
Table No.3....
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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they buy product by seeing brand name , 17%of the respondents opined that they buy product ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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CHAPTER-4
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
4.1 FINDINGS
 Majority of the respondents were female th...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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4.2 CONCLUSIN
Thus, consumer behavior changes with brand, quality and market image of the p...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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CHAPTER-5
RECOMMENDATION
 Today’s consumers are very smart, so business should be carried ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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APPENDICES
QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Are you a brand loyal customer?
I. Yes II. No
1. Which attribut...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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I. Agree II. Disagree
III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree
5. Influence of Quality on ...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
59
III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree
11. Will you like to switch your brand preference...
CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (1972), Kevin Lane Keller
Principl...
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Dissertation report on “To study the switching behavior of consumer special reference to urban market ”which is submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B.Com(Hons.) .

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Dissertation report on switching behavior of consumer

  1. 1. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 1 A DISSERTATION ON TO STUDY THE SWITCHING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMER SPECIAL REFRENCE TO URBAN MARKET SUBMITTED BY ……… ENROLLMENT No …….. in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of BACHELOR OF COMMERCE MANGALAYATAN UNIVERSITY, ALIGARH MAY 2016
  2. 2. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 2 STUDENT’S DECLARATION This is to certify that Report entitled “To study the switching behavior of consumer special reference to urban market ”which is submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B.Com(Hons.) To Mangalayatan University, Aligarh comprises only my original work and due acknowledgement has been made in the text to all other material used. Date: Name Signature of the student
  3. 3. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 3 SUPERVISOR’S CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Report entitled “To study the switching behavior of consumer special reference to urban market” which is submitted by ….. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B.Com to Mangalayatan University, Aligarh is a record of the candidate’s own work carried out by him/her under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree. Date: Name Signature of Supervisor
  4. 4. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT "I have taken efforts in this Dissertation. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly indebted to ……. for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding dissertation & also for their support in completing the dissertation. I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & Members of Manglayatan University for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this Dissertation.
  5. 5. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 5 ABSTRACT Basically my study focuses on consumer behavior, because now a day’s consumer behavior is very important, while making decision before purchasing a product or brand. My study will investigate the relationship between those factors which influence consumer buying behavior while decision making. In my study I have select four variables in which “price, Quality and Brand Name” are independent variables and consumer behavior is dependent variable. In my research I will use positivism paradigm and will collect quantitative data through a survey questionnaire and will fill that questionnaires from respondents, of different demographic segment. I will prepare easy and simple questions which can easily understandable by the respondent, and will talk politely with respondent during filling of questionnaires. After collecting data I will put data in SPSS and use descriptive, correlation and regression analysis tests to conclude data. Complex global developments in all areas, as well as in the field of marketing have forced marketers to target their activities. In this paper attempted to provide a framework of consumer behavior. In this study, first definition of consumer behavior, the key concepts of consumer behavior and buying decision process and then model of consumer behavior is presented. In Present Marketing Scenario, the Study of Consumer Behavior has become essential. Consumers are the kings of markets. Without consumers no business organization can run. All the activities of the business concerns end with consumers and consumer satisfaction. Customer behavior study is based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Consumer buying behavior has become an integral part of strategic market planning. In order to develop a framework for the study consumer behavior it is helpful to begin by considering the evolution of the field of consumer research and the different paradigms of thought that have influenced the discipline. As described in this article, a set of dimensions can be identified in the literature, which can be used to characterize and differentiate the various perspectives on consumer research. It is argued that consumer behavior itself emerged as a distinct field of study during the 1960s; and is characterized by two broad paradigms, the positivist and the non-positivist. The positivist paradigm encompasses the
  6. 6. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 6 economic, behavioral, cognitive, motivational / trait / attitudinal, and situational perspectives; these perspectives are referred to as the traditional perspectives as they pre-date the development of the non-positivist paradigm. The positivist paradigm, which is still the dominant paradigm, emphasizes the supremacy of human reason and that there is a single, objective truth that can be discovered by science. The opposing, non-positivist paradigm, envelops the interpretive and postmodern perspectives, which have emerged more recently during the period post-1980 to date. The rational view and the ideology of a homogenous social culture and thereby deny the complex social and cultural world in which consumers live. The traditional, positivist perspective takes a very utilitarian approach to the benefits from consumption. While the non-positivist perspectives place much greater emphasis on the symbolic dimensions of choice. The objective of non-positivist research endeavor is to achieve a better understanding of consumer behaviour with no specific intent to influence consumer processes. This article aims to identify different streams of thought that could guide future consumer research.
  7. 7. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 7 CONTENTS Sl. No. Title Page No. Chapter-01 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Problem Identification 1.3 Need and significance of consumer behavior 1.4 Review of literature 1.5 Objective 1.6 Hypothesis 1.7 Research Method  Research Design  Selection of units  Sampling Techniques  Sample Size  Data Collection  Statistical technique for data analysis 1.8 Organization of the study 1.9 Limitations Chapter- 02 Conceptual framework of the switching behavior of consumer. Chapter- 03 Data analysis and interpretation of data Chapter- 04 Findings and Conclusion 4.1 Findings 4.2 Conclusion Chapter- 05 Recommendation Appendices Bibliography
  8. 8. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 8 LIST OF TABLE Sl. No. Title Page No. 01 Classification of respondents based on their Gender. 02 Classification of respondents based on the group of people. 03 Classification of respondents based on their age. 04 Classification of respondents based on the factor affecting buying decision. 05 Classification of respondents based on their choice for buying product. 3.1 Classification of respondents based on their Gender. 3.2 Classification of respondents based on the group of people. 3.3 Classification of respondents based on their age. 3.4 Classification of respondents based on the factor affecting buying decision. 3.5 Classification of respondents based on their choice for buying product.
  9. 9. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 9 LIST OF FIGURES Sl. No. Title Page No. Fig. 01 Statistical technique for data collection Fig. 2.1 Consumer preference purchase behavior Fig. 2.2 Factor affecting consumer behavior Fig. 2.3 Consumer decision making process Fig. 3.1 Classification based on their gender Fig. 3.2 Group of people Fig. 3.3 Classification based on their age Fig. 3.4 Factor affecting buying decision Fig. 3.5 Choice for buying a product
  10. 10. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 10 CHAPTER- 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction First of all I would like to elaborate that what is consumer behavior “those acts of individuals directly involved in obtaining and using economic goods and services including decision procure that and determine these acts”. Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. Every business focus on consumer behavior and they conducts study to find out the need and wants of consumers and also conduct research that how a marketer can change the behavior of consumer. There are many factors which influence the consumer behavior but I will study on only three variables “price, quality, and Brand Name” and will check the relationship of these three factors with consumer buying behavior. I will specify my study in cosmetic sector products. Because Cosmetic products are important consumer products with an essential role in everyone's life: apart from "traditional" cosmetic products, such as make-up and perfumes, it also includes products for personal hygiene, for example tooth-care products, shampoos and soaps. Definition: Consumer behavior include mental activity, emotional and physical that people use during selection, purchase, use and dispose of products and services that satisfy their needs and desires (Kotler, 1999) Today's cosmetic market is driven by innovation including new color pallets, treatments targeted to specific skin types and unique formulas concentrating on different needs. Most cosmetics products have a lifespan of less than five years and manufacturers reformulate 25% of their products every year. They need to improve products constantly in order to stay ahead in a highly competitive market where more choice and ever greater efficacy are expected by the consumer.
  11. 11. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 11 Many of these chemicals are toxic but the cosmetics industry does not want you to know this. Just like all the other big industries in the US, the cosmetics industry is all about making big profits (with 50 billion dollars in sales each year) and very little or absolutely nothing about providing you the public with a safe product. Even many people, who are very careful about what they eat, may well not be aware of the often toxic ingredients contained in cosmetics. In spite of their efforts to hide information, we need to start reading labels. If a product has too many ingredients with lengthy names, avoid it. Go for organic which are much less likely to have toxic chemicals Thousands of people are suffering the adverse affects from using cosmetic problems without realizing what the cause of their suffering is. This can be in the form of burning sensations, reddening of the skin, pimples or rashes. Others might not suffer from outward signs and symptoms but from actual systemic toxins. Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.[1] It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, marketing and economics. It attempts to understand the decision-making processes of buyers, both individually and in groups such as how emotions affect buying behavior. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, sports, reference groups, and society in general Consumer behavior in marketing is a new issue. So that the first books published does not reach before 1968 in this field. Most universities do not make any effort before 1970, but it has grown significantly in recent years, So that a special team of investigators was formed in 1970 about consumer behavior and in 1990 the group had 1500 members from 30 countries
  12. 12. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 12 Key concepts of consumer behavior 1) Consumer behavior is motivational: The main question that arises in this context is that "why consumer behaviors occur?”. Answer to this question is included in the definition of consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is to meet the needs and demands of him. Behavior is a tool to achieve objectives and target consumer derives from his needs and desires. (wilke, 2000) 2) Consumer behavior include many activities: All consumers have differences in terms of thoughts, feelings, and decisions and ... With each other. Marketers must pay attention to the activities of consumers, some consumers activities are: See this advertisement, purchase decision, the decision about how to pay (cash, credit) and... 3) Consumer behavior is a process: Consumer behavior, including the selection, purchase and consumption of goods and services that include elimination of three steps before buying activities, purchasing activities, activities after purchase. 4) Consumer behavior at different times has different complexity: Buy different product by different people has different implications. Buy some goods, involves all three- process step of the consumer Behavior, While buying some goods (goods that are consumed regularly) is very simple and does not require multiple steps. Customers try to make buying process simple through trusting others, loyalty to the brand 5) Consumer behavior includes different roles: Consumers in different time can play each of the three roles affective, buyers and consumer. When we buy something for our self we can play that 3 role. Sometimes by using others opinion buy something for some one that in this case we can play an individual role. 6) Consumer behavior is influenced by external factors: Consumer behavior is influenced by many external factors such as culture, subculture, and social classes ... Located. These effects can be short, medium or long term. 7) Consumer behavior is different in different people: Because people have different desires and needs, so their behavior is different And the difference consumer behavior make predict consumer behavior more difficult, to resolve this problem can categories the market.
  13. 13. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 13 1.2 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION Understanding consumer behavior is important for any organization before launching a product. If the organization failed to analyze how customer will respond to a particular product, the company will face losses. Consumer behavior is very complex because each consumer has different mind and attitude towards purchase, consumption and disposal of product (Solomon, 2009). Understanding the theories and concepts of consumer behavior helps to market the product or services successfully. Moreover, studying consumer behavior helps in many aspects. As there is constant change in the living standards, trend, fashion and change in technology; consumer's attitude towards the purchase of product varies (Kumar, 2004). Understanding these factors is of utmost importance because the marketing of product are largely dependent on these factors. Thus, consumer behavior serves as a successful tool for marketers in meeting their sales objectives. Consumer Behavior or the Buyer Behavior is referred to the behavior that is displayed by the individual while they are buying, consuming or disposing any particular product or services. These behaviors can be affected by multiple factors. Moreover, it also involves search for a product, evaluation of product where the consumer evaluate different features, purchase and consumption of product. Later the post purchase behavior of product is studied which shows the consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction where it involves disposal of product (Solomon, 2009). The customers while buying a product goes through many steps. The study of consumer behavior helps to understand how the buying decision is made and how they look for a product. Moreover, the understanding consumer behavior also helps marketers to know the what, where, when, how and why of the consumption of product consumption. These help marketers or organizations to know the reason behind the purchase of product by consumers and how it satisfies them. Among other factors, the basic needs like shelter and hunger along with craving for psychological fulfillment tends consumer to buy a certain product or services. This dissertation discusses the value to marketers of understanding and applying consumer behavior concepts and theories.
  14. 14. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 14 1.3 Needand significance of consumerbehavior Consumer Behavior may be understood as the decision process and physical activity individuals engage in evaluating, acquiring, using or disposing of products. The organizations cannot achieve success in their respective businesses if they fail to meet the requirements of the consumer. People are unique and their consumption habits are unique therefore marketers need to understand the behavior of the consumers in designing and developing right products to the right consumers. The modern marketing management tries to solve the basic problems of consumers in the area of consumption. To survive in the market, a firm has to be constantly innovating and understand the latest consumer needs and tastes. It will be extremely useful in exploiting marketing opportunities and in meeting the challenges that the Indian market offers Role or importance of study of consumer behavior can be explained with reference to the points stated as under: I. Importance of Consumer Behavior to business managers The main purpose behind marketing a product is to satisfy demands and wants of the Consumers. Study of consumer behavior helps to achieve this purpose. As consumers are the most important person for marketer or sales person, therefore it is important for them to consider the likes and dislikes the consumers so that they can provide them with the goods and services accordingly (Solomon, 2009). The more careful analysis helps in more exact prediction about the behavior of consumers of any product or services. The study of consumer behaviors helps business manager, sales person and marketers in the following way.  To design the best possible product or service that fully satisfies consumer's needs and demands.  To decide where the service or product would be made available for easy access of consumers.  To decide the price at which the consumers would be ready to buy that product or service.
  15. 15. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 15  To find out the best method of promotion that will prove to be effective to attract customers to buy a product.  To understand why, when, how, what and other factors that influence buying decision of the consumers. II. Importance of Consumer Behavior to Marketers It is important for marketers to study consumer behavior. It is important for them to know consumers as individual or groups opt for, purchase, consumer or dispose products and services and how they share their experience to satisfy their wants or needs (Solomon, 2009). This helps marketers to investigate and understand the way in which consumers behave so that they can position their products to specific group of people or targeted individuals. In regard to the marketer's view point, they assume that the basic purpose of marketing is to sell goods and services to more people so that more profit could be made. This principle of making profits is heavily applied by almost all marketers. Earlier, the marketers were successful in accomplishing their purpose. However, today, as the consumers are more aware about the use of product and other information of the product, it is not easy to sell or attract customer to buy the product (Kumar, 2004). Thus, in order to sell a product or service or to convince consumers to buy product, the marketers have to undergo through proper research to win them over. The following are some of the points discussed that explains the value to marketers of understanding and applying consumer behavior concepts and theories.  To understand Buying Behavior of consumers  To create and retain customers though online stores  To Understand the factors influencing Consumer's buying Behavior  To understand the consumer's decision to dispose a product or services  To increase the knowledge of sales person influence consumer to buy product  To help marketers to sale of product and create focused marketing strategies
  16. 16. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 16 III. other importance 1. Modern Philosophy: It concerns with modern marketing philosophy – identify consumers’ needs and satisfy them more effectively than competitors. It makes marketing consumer-oriented. It is the key to succeed. 2. Achievement of Goals: The key to a company’s survival, profitability, and growth in a highly competitive marketing environment is its ability to identify and satisfy unfulfilled consumer needs better and sooner than the competitors. Thus, consumer behaviour helps in achieving marketing goals. 3. Useful for Dealers and Salesmen: The study of consumer behavior is not useful for the company alone. Knowledge of consumer behavior is equally useful for middlemen and salesmen to perform their tasks effectively in meeting consumers needs and wants successfully. Consumer behavior, thus, improves performance of the entire distribution system. 4. More Relevant Marketing Programme: Marketing programme, consisting of product, price, promotion, and distribution decisions, can be prepared more objectively. The programme can be more relevant if it is based on the study of consumer behavior. Meaningful marketing programme is instrumental in realizing marketing goals. 5. Adjusting Marketing Programme over Time: Consumer behavior studies the consumer response pattern on a continuous basis. So, a marketer can easily come to know the changes taking place in the market. Based on the current market trend, the marketer can make necessary changes in marketing programme to adjust with the market. 6. Predicting Market Trend: Consumer behavior can also aid in projecting the future market trends. Marketer finds enough time to prepare for exploiting the emerging opportunities, and/or facing challenges and threats.
  17. 17. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 17 7. Consumer Differentiation: Market exhibits considerable differentiations. Each segment needs and wants different products. For every segment, a separate marketing programme is needed. Knowledge of consumer differentiation is a key to fit marking offers with different groups of buyers. Consumer behaviour study supplies the details about consumer differentiations. 8. Creation and Retention of Consumers: Marketers who base their offerings on recognition of consumer needs find a ready market for their products. Company finds it easy to sell its products. In the same way, the company, due to continuous study of consumer behavior and attempts to meet changing expectations of the buyers, can retain its consumers for a long period. 9. Competition: Consumer behavior study assists in facing competition, too. Based on consumers’ expectations, more competitive advantages can be offered. It is useful in improving competitive strengths of the company. 10. Developing New Products: New product is developed in respect of needs and wants of the target market. In order to develop the best-fit product, a marketer must know adequately about the market. Thus, the study of consumer behavior is the base for developing a new product successfully. 11. Dynamic Nature of Market: Consumer behavior focuses on dynamic nature of the market. It helps the manager to be dynamic, alert, and active in satisfying consumers better and sooner than competitors. Consumer behavior is indispensable to watch movements of the markets. 12. Effective Use of Productive Resources: The study of consumer behavior assists the manager to make the organisational efforts consumer-oriented. It ensures an exact use of resources for achieving maximum efficiency. Each unit of resources can contribute maximum to objectives.
  18. 18. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 18 It is to be mentioned that the study of consumer behavior is not only important for the current sales, but also helps in capturing the future market. Consumer behavior assumes: Take care of consumer needs, the consumers, in return, will take care of your needs. Most of problems can be reasonably solved by the study of consumer behavior. Modern marketing practice is almost impossible without the study of consumer behavior.
  19. 19. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 19 1.4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Abideen Z. Et al (2011) explore the effective advertising and its influence on consumer buying behavior. The purpose of their study was to explore that how advertisement an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, information, or services etc. they studied 3 variables in which consumer buying behavior was dependent and emotional and environmental response were independent. They investigate the relationship between independent variables which are environmental response and emotional response with attitudinal and behavioral aspect of consumer buying behavior. They collect data from 200 respondent living RAWALPINDI, ISLAMABAD and LAHORE. And analyze data through regression analysis by putting in SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) and find out that it is true that people purchase those brands with which they are emotionally attached. Nezakati H et al (2011) examines the factors influencing consumer buying behavior in automobile industry. The purpose of their research is to identify what factors will influence consumer buying behavior towards automobile industry in Malaysia. They took (Price consciousness, value consciousness, price-quality inference risk averseness, beliefs, perception, attitude, and group influences) as independent variable. And Intention to purchase of imported car as dependent variable. They collect data from 210 respondent and use multiple regression to analyze data and find that every consumer check the quality of the product and compare them with other brands and also his/her income, either it is affordable or not. In this study they find that consumer want to be a best quality of product instead all other factors. Manufacturing and marketers should play attention on what the major factors that will influence the consumer purchase behavior in order to sustain competitive in the market. Therefore, to successfully complete in the Malaysia market, marketers or manufacturing must emphasize the quality of the products in order to gain competitive advantages in the market especially local car manufacturing companies such as PROTON and PERODUA. Marketers and Manufacturing companies must remember quality is the factors that will influences consumer’s beliefs and also will influence the intention to purchase. Marketers also should increase the product quality in order to increase the consumer’s beliefs about the products by maintaining the quality to gain
  20. 20. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 20 competitive advantage. The recommendations for foreign car manufacturing are must maintain the quality of the car in order to gain competitive advantages in market. Haque A (2009) investigates the “Factors Influencing Buying Behavior of Piracy Products” in Malaysian market. The purpose of this study was to explore the influencing factors of the Malaysian consumers toward the pirated products. They studied factors social influence, personality believe, pricing and economy as independent variables to check their relationship on consumer perception. Their sample size was 550 but they found 500 questionnaires to be adequate for research purpose. Each of the response received was screened for errors, incomplete and missing responses. Out of which only 491 responses were considered complete and valid for data analysis. And they analyze their data through descriptive and regression analysis to make conclusion. They find that the majority of the Asian people try to get product at the most reasonable cost, which encouraged some business people to do piracy so that all the products of the various sorts reach the vast majority of the people. Hypothesis was developed for each of these variables showing the relationship that the variables have towards consumers’ perception on piracy. When the regression test was run, social influence, pricing and the economy showed that the null hypothesis should be rejected concluding that there is relationship between these variables and the dependent variable, which is consumers’ perception on piracy. Nevertheless, individuals personality and their believe proved that there is no significant relationship with consumers perception. Although most sources say that there is no ending to the word “piracy”. Li N and P Zhang (ND) determines the "Consumer online shopping attitudes and behavior," the purpose of their study is to synthesize the representative literature of consumer online shopping attitudes and behavior based on an analytical literature review. After considering the 35 empirical studies, they identified a total of ten interrelated factors which empirical evidence shows significant relationships. These ten factors or variables are "external environment, demographics, personal characteristics, Vender / service / product characteristics, quality site, as independent variables and Attitude regarding online shopping, intention to shop online decision making, online purchasing, customer satisfaction, as the dependent variable. The 35 empirical studies are analyzed in this study, of these 29 of them used research method. Three dependent
  21. 21. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 21 variables (consumer attitudes, intentions, and buying behavior) and three independent variables (personal characteristics, vendor / service / product characteristics, site quality) get the most attention. This seems to represent the main stream of research in this area. Attitudes toward online shopping and other factors, measuring intention to thirteen shop online and 14 studies the relationship between online purchasing and other factors. Fourteen studies considering personal characteristics, 16 vender / service / product characteristics, site quality and 20. It appears that personal characteristics, vender / service / product characteristics, and website quality significantly online shopping attitude, intention and behavior. The direct implication of their findings is aimed at more convenient consumer groups, improving product / service quality, and improving the quality of websites can positively influence consumer attitudes and behavior,. The role of the external environment, demography, online shopping decision-making and consumer satisfaction are less important. Any number of factors including the vender / service / product characteristics, site quality, attitude towards online shopping, intention to shop online, making online shopping and online purchases, can influence consumer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction directly affects on the attitude towards online shopping or to specific internet shops. Adhi W. and Safitri L. (ND) determines the CONSUMER’S PERCEIVED VALUE AND BUYING BEHAVIOR OF STORE BRANDs. And the aim of their study is to provide understanding on the subject of Consumers Perceived Values and buying behavior towards store brands products in the perspective of Indonesia’s consumers. They conduct this study in grocery field and find that Buying processes in grocery shopping involve many factors relating to the final decision of the consumers and those aspects influence Consumer Perceived Value and their buying behavior on deciding which type of product they would buy. They study nine different variables in which “involvement, loyalty, familiar, quality, price, risk.” as independent and “consumer perceived” values as mediating and “buying behavior and willingness to buy” as dependent variable. They collect data from 300 respondents and use different types of analysis after putting into SPSS. They use mean analysis to check out the tendency of respondent and use cross tab to show the distribution of two variables in cross tabulation. Reliability analysis used to reflect internal consistency, frequency distribution and multiple linear regression analysis. In mean analysis they find that the mean with low variable “The purchase of store brand grocery items is risky because the quality of store brands is inferior”, meaning that most respondents disagree (answered strongly disagree/disagree) with the statement. And mean with high value
  22. 22. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 22 Product that “I buy from grocery store matters a lot to me”, meaning that most respondents have the most agreed opinion with the statement. In crosstab analysis there is no relationship between willingness of buying store brands compared to national brands and their income level. There is also a relationship between recommendations of store brand grocery product to friends and their age group; group age of < 25 years old and > 40 years old have the tendency to recommend store brands to their friends and relatives. In overall, the findings shows that consumer’s perceived value contribute positively to their perceptions of store brands and the better knowledge on the aspects of store brand products due to their past experience in purchasing the items lead to positive perceptions which eventually will lead to good possibility for them in re-purchasing store brands products in the future. Koufaris M. (2002) investigate “Applying the Technology Acceptance Model and Flow Theory to Online Consumer Behavior” the purpose of their study is to check how emotional and cognitive responses to visiting a Web-based store for the first time can influence online consumers’ intention to return and their likelihood to make unplanned purchases. They studied 11 different types of variables in which “product involvement, web skills, value-added search mechanism, challenges” as independent variables and “perceived control, shopping enjoyment, concentration, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use” as mediating and “unplanned purchase and intention to return” as dependent variables. They conduct an quantitative study to examine to consumer behavior and collect data from 300 respondents which filled out in one week and after screening 280 questionnaire were properly found filled. And use mean, cross tabulation and linear regression analysis to analyze data after putting into SPSS. They found the results on unplanned purchases were surprising. And there is no relationship between unplanned purchases and the flow variables of shopping enjoyment, concentration, and perceived control. They also confirmed some prior research on flow. They found that perceived Web skills and positive challenges are positively related with shopping enjoyment and concentration of online consumers. From a substantive point of view, they examined how emotional and cognitive responses to the shopping experience on the Web can influence online consumer behavior, specifically, intention to return and unplanned purchases for new customers. Looking at the online consumer both as a shopper and a computer user, by blending theoretical paradigms from psychology, marketing, and information systems, we confirmed the dual nature of the online consumer as a traditional shopper and a computer user.
  23. 23. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 23 1.5 OBJACTIVES  To find out the impact of different factors on consumer’s switching behavior.  To find out the consumer preference & choices.  To find out the how consumer awareness affect the brand, price, Market Image of product etc. 1.6 HYPOTHESIS What are the factors affecting on consumer buying behavior?  H01: there is no significant impact of different factor on consumer behavior.  H02: there is no significant of awareness of consumer that create brand identity.  H03: : there is no significant impact of consumer preference & choice towards modern marketing
  24. 24. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 24 1.7RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the process of solving the problem systematically by research. The objective of the study is to solve the problem by using available data i. ResearchDesign A Research Design provides the framework to be used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data. Research design is a detailed blue print used to guide the research study towards its objectives. There are three traditional categories of research design namely:  Exploratory Research  Descriptive Research  Casual Research The choice of the most appropriate design depends largely on the objectives of the research and how much is known about the problem and these objectives.  Exploratory Research Exploratory research is used principally to gain a deeper understanding of something. The design is far more flexible and dynamic than that of descriptive research. This genre of research simply allows the marketer to gain a greater understanding of something that s/he doesn’t know enough about. For example, just because we know that 3G phones exist, it doesn’t necessarily mean that we understand how they work. Exploratory research can help in this instance. In Exploratory Research the objective is to gain background information, to define terms, to clarify problems and develop hypotheses, to establish research priorities, to develop questions to be answered. The objective of exploratory research is to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses.  Descriptive Research
  25. 25. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 25 Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It can involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a-certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form. When in-depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive research gathers quantifiable information that can be used for statistical inference on your target audience through data analysis. As a consequence this type of research takes the form of closed-ended questions, which limits its ability to provide unique insights. However, used properly it can help an organization better define and measure the significance of something about a group of respondents and the population they represent. A descriptive study is one in which information is collected without changing the environment (i.e., nothing is manipulated). Sometimes these are referred to as “ correlational ” or “ observational ” studies. The Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP) defines a descriptive study as “Any study that is not truly experimental.” In human research, a descriptive study can provide information about the naturally occurring health status, behavior, attitudes or other characteristics of a particular group. Descriptive studies are also conducted to relationships between things in the world around you. Descriptive studies can involve a one-time interaction with groups of people Descriptive studies, in which the researcher interacts with the participant, may involve surveys or interviews to collect the necessary information. Descriptive studies in which the researcher does not interact with the participant include observational studies of people in an environment and studies involving data collection using existing records.
  26. 26. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 26  Casual Research: Causal Research the objective is to determine causality, test hypotheses, to make "if-then" statements and to answer questions. Causal Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. The research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and allows market researchers to predict hypothetical scenarios upon which a company can base its business plan. For example, if a clothing company currently sells blue denim jeans, causal research can measure the impact of the company changing the product design to the color white. Following the research, company bosses will be able to decide whether changing the colour of the jeans to white would be profitable. To summarize, causal research is a way of seeing how actions now will affect a business in the future. The Research Design used for the survey is Descriptive Research and the type of research design is Gross-sectional A cross-sectional study involves looking at people who differ on one key characteristic (such as age) at one specific point in time. The data is collected at the same time from people who are similar on other characteristics but different on a key factor of interest such as age, income levels and geographic locations. Participants are usually separated into groups known as cohorts. For example, researchers might create cohorts of participants who are in their 20s, 30s and 40 This type of study uses different groups of people who differ in the variable of interest but who share other characteristics such as socioeconomic status, educational background and ethnicity. Cross-sectional studies are often used in developmental psychology, but this method is also utilized in many other areas including social science and education.
  27. 27. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 27 For example, researchers studying developmental psychology might select groups of people who are remarkably similar in most areas, but differ only in age. By doing this, any differences between groups can presumably be attributed to age differences rather than to other variables. ii. Selection of units In this research I have collected data from 100 respondents. Who live in different areas of Aligarh. I have personally questioned people by interviewing, group discussing and telephoning and have collected information about the different brand which they have used. iii. Sampling Technique Sample is the fraction of the population; sampling is a technique or a method of selection of samples. The researcher in carrying out this research adopted the most appropriate sampling technique for research that is the simple random technique. Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non-probability. In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. In non- probability sampling, members are selected from the population in some nonrandom manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In non-probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown. Sample is the fraction of the population; sampling is a technique or a method of selection of samples. The researcher in carrying out this research adopted the most appropriate sampling technique for research that is the simple random technique,  Simple Random Sampling Simple random sampling method, it is assumed that each and every unit in the population has equal chance of occurrence or equal probability of occurrence. In other words the sampling units are selected randomly. An unbiased random selection of individuals is important so that in the
  28. 28. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 28 long run, the sample represents the population. However, this does not guarantee that a particular sample is a perfect representation of the population. Simple random sampling merely allows one to draw externally valid conclusions about the entire population based on the sample. Conceptually, simple random sampling is the simplest of the probability sampling techniques. It requires a complete sampling frame, which may not be available or feasible to construct for large populations. Even if a complete frame is available, more efficient approaches may be possible if other useful information is available about the units in the population. The researchers have taken 100 samples randomly. Primary sources of data collected through questionnaire, magazines, journals and website are referred as a secondary source. iv. Sample size In this research I have collected data from 100 respondents. Who live in different areas of Aligarh. I have personally questioned people by interviewing, group discussing and telephoning and have collected information about the different brand which they have used. The sample consists of 4 types of respondents: Students 60% Professionals 20% Parents 5% Neighbors 15% Instrument Questionnaire Response Rate 100%
  29. 29. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 29 v. Data Collection In this research I have used primary and secondary information. Secondary information about the “factors affecting on consumer behavior” is gathered from the different sources such as articles. However for the primary information we have conducted questionnaire survey. We have used quantitative data for our research. Primary data can be collected in a number of ways using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Primary data: it can be collected in a number of ways using both qualitative and quantitative methods.  Quantitative research: it produces numbers and figures of consumers who are aware of products or services. The main methods of quantitative research methods are discussed below: Personal questionnaire: This lists questions on a form with specified answers from which the respondents must choose. Questions may be multiple choices or use various scaling methods. This can take place anywhere. Telephone interview: the use of telephone interviews has increased overtime and is popular as it is cost-effective. The speed of collection and processing of information is fast, and there is more situational control and respondents are easily accessible.  Qualitative research: it provides data on why people buy, their motivations and their impressions of products and services along with an insight into feelings, motives and values of the sample being studied. In turn this method helps us to understand consumer behavior through informal analysis methods. In-depth interviews: requires a trained interviewer who encourages the interviewee to discuss topics freely. Questions tend to be open ended, allowing creativity of thoughts and feelings to be expressed. Findings cannot be numerically recorded. Group discussions: Similar to depth interviews, yet this involves the gathering of a small number of people for a set amount of time to discuss topics under the leadership and direction of the researcher. This allows great interaction and is the most common method of qualitative data used.
  30. 30. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 30 Secondary Data There is a considerable amount of secondary data available for researchers. A source of secondary data, which has already been collected for some other purpose, has been used for the project. Secondary information has been collected to form the literature review and background on customer switching, Information was gathered from the Internet, University Library, Market reports, journals etc. The advantage of using secondary data is that it is accurate at the time it was produced, depending upon the source, and it provides information on how industries have evolved over the years. It also provides statistical information, which can help to analyze social, demographic and economic trends, and is time and cost effective. In addition to the above, using secondary data means the privacy of people is less invaded. The main disadvantage of using secondary data is that it has originally been collected for a purpose, which differs, from the current hypotheses being investigated. Furthermore secondary data can become out of date, as it was probably collected and published a few years ago and gaining access to it may be difficult and costly, ex. - market research reports.
  31. 31. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 31 vi. Statistical technique for Data analysis Research is both an art and a science. While much of the practice of research is based upon well- researched factors, many decisions about program activities can be made through a research which is guided by common sense and practicality. For data analysis steps are following: Fig-1 Recommendations Conclusion Findingand observation Data analysis& interpretation Sample size Sample Data collection Sources of data Research objective Identification of problem
  32. 32. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 32 Step-1: Identification of problem The customers while buying a product goes through many steps. The study of consumer behavior helps to understand how the buying decision is made and how they look for a product. Moreover, the understanding consumer behavior also helps marketers to know the what, where, when, how and why of the consumption of product consumption. These help marketers or organizations to know the reason behind the purchase of product by consumers and how it satisfies them. Among other factors, the basic needs like shelter and hunger along with craving for psychological fulfillment tends consumer to buy a certain product or services. This dissertation discusses the value to marketers of understanding and applying consumer behavior concepts and theories. Step- 2: ResearchObjective Objectives are the steps we are going to take to answer research questions or a specific list of tasks needed to accomplish the goals of the project.  To find out the impact of different factors on consumer’s buying behavior.  To find out the consumer preference & choices.  To find out the how consumer awareness affect the brand. Step-3: Sources of data Primary Sources: Primary sources are original materials on which research is based. They are firsthand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under consideration. They present information in its original form, neither interpreted nor condensed nor evaluated by other writers. Whether a source if primary can be determined by the way it is being used by the researcher. For example, a speech about the Declaration of Independence that was delivered by a noted statesman on its hundredth anniversary would be secondary source for a scholar studying the document’s philosophical origins. But it would be a primary source for a scholar studying how the Declaration’s meaning has changed for Americans over time.
  33. 33. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 33 Examples:  Newspaper articles (reporting events)  Photographs  Interviews (legal proceedings, personal, telephone, e-mail)  Correspondence  Trial transcripts  Fiction, poems, music  Experimental results  Autobiographies, personal narratives, memoirs  Diaries  Manuscripts  Data Secondary Sources: Secondary sources offer interpretation or analysis based on primary sources. They may explain primary sources and often uses them to support a specific thesis or argument or to persuade the reader to accept a certain point of view. Such works are one or more steps removed from the event—being written with the benefit of hindsight. Examples:  Journal articles  Biography  Encyclopedias  Dissertations  Research analysis  Works of criticism and interpretation  Newspaper articles (analyzing news)
  34. 34. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 34 Step-4: Data collection In this research I have used primary and secondary information. Secondary information about the “factors affecting on consumer behavior” is gathered from the different sources such as articles. However for the primary information we have conducted questionnaire survey. We have used quantitative data for our research. Primary data can be collected in a number of ways using both qualitative and quantitative methods.  Quantitative research: it produces numbers and figures of consumers who are aware of products or services. The main methods of quantitative research methods are discussed below: Personal questionnaire: This lists questions on a form with specified answers from which the respondents must choose. Questions may be multiple choices or use various scaling methods. This can take place anywhere. Telephone interview: the use of telephone interviews has increased overtime and is popular as it is cost-effective. The speed of collection and processing of information is fast, and there is more situational control and respondents are easily accessible.  Qualitative research: it provides data on why people buy, their motivations and their impressions of products and services along with an insight into feelings, motives and values of the sample being studied. In turn this method helps us to understand consumer behavior through informal analysis methods. In-depth interviews: requires a trained interviewer who encourages the interviewee to discuss topics freely. Questions tend to be open ended, allowing creativity of thoughts and feelings to be expressed. Findings cannot be numerically recorded. Group discussions: Similar to depth interviews, yet this involves the gathering of a small number of people for a set amount of time to discuss topics under the leadership and direction of the researcher. This allows great interaction and is the most common method of qualitative data used.
  35. 35. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 35 Step-5: Sample Sample is the fraction of the population; sampling is a technique or a method of selection of samples. The researcher in carrying out this research adopted the most appropriate sampling technique for research that is the simple random technique.  Simple Random Sampling Simple random sampling method, it is assumed that each and every unit in the population has equal chance of occurrence or equal probability of occurrence. In other words the sampling units are selected randomly. Conceptually, simple random sampling is the simplest of the probability sampling techniques. It requires a complete sampling frame, which may not be available or feasible to construct for large populations. Even if a complete frame is available, more efficient approaches may be possible if other useful information is available about the units in the population. I have taken 100 samples randomly. Primary sources of data collected through questionnaire, magazines, journals and website are referred as a secondary source. Step-6: Sample size In this research I have collected data from 100 respondents of different age group like as- students, neighbors, professionals, relatives etc. Who live in different areas of Aligarh. I have personally questioned people by interviewing, group discussing and telephoning and have collected information about the different brand which they have used. Step-7: Data analysis & Data interpretation CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON THEIR GENDER Table No. 1 Gender No. of respondents (%) Male 40% Female 60% Total 100
  36. 36. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 36 Interpretation From the above table no.1, it can be observed that majority of the respondents were female that is 60 % and male were 40 %. CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THE GROUP OF PEOPLE Table No.2 Attributes No. of respondents Percentage (%) Students 60 60 Professionals 20 20 Relatives 5 5 Neighbors 15 15 Response Rate 100 100 INTERPRETATION From the above table no.2, it can be observed that majority of the respondents Were student that is 60%, Professionals 20%, Neighbors 15% and 5% Relatives. CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR AGE Table No. 3 Age No. of respondents 20-25 45 26-30 12 31-35 18 36-40 10 40-45 15 Total 100
  37. 37. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 37 INTERPRETATION From the above table3, it can be observed that majority of the respondents that is 45% are under the age category 20-25, 18% are in the age category of 31-35, 15% of the respondents falls in the age group40-45,12% of the respondents are in the age group 26-30 and 10% of the respondents are in the age category of 36-40. CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THE FACTOR AFFECTING BUYING DECISION Table No.4 Factors No. of respondents Brand 35 Prize 15 Availability 22 Ease of use 10 Quality 18 Total 100 INTERPRETATION From the above table 4, it can be observed that majority of the respondents that is 35% of the respondents opined that brand influences purchasing decision, 22% of the respondents opined that they buy product by availability, 18% of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing quality, 15% of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing price and 10% of the respondents opined that they buy product according to their ease to use.
  38. 38. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 38 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON BASED ON THEIR CHOICE FOR BYUING A PRODUCT Table No.5 Particulars No. of respondents Percentage (%) Brand name 25 25 Price 36 36 Packaging 17 17 Features 14 14 Others 8 8 Total 100 100 INTERPRETATION from the above table it can be observed that majority of the respondents, that is, 36% of the respondent opined that they buy product by seeing price, 25%of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing brand name , 17%of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing packaging 14% of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing features, of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing other features. Step-8: Findings and observation  Majority of the respondents were female that is 60%, male were 40%.  Majority of the respondents were student that is 60%, 20% professionals, 15% neighbors, 5% relatives .  Majority of the respondents 45 % are under the age category of 20-25, 18% of respondents are in the age category of 31-35 and 15%of respondents are in the age category of 41-45, 12% of respondents are in the age category of26-30.  Majority of the respondents opined that various factors affect the buying decisions of products. The majority of the respondents that is 35% opined that 35 influences purchasing decision, 22% of respondents opined that availability influences purchasing
  39. 39. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 39 decision, 18% of respondents opined that quality influences purchasing decision and 15% of respondents opined that prize factors influences the purchasing decision, 10% of respondents opined that ease of use factors influences the purchasing decision.  Majority of the respondents that is 36% preferred prize of the product , 25% of respondents opined that brand factors influences their decision for purchasing a particular product, 17% of respondents opined that packaging influences their decision for purchasing a particular product, 14% of respondents opined that Features of the product influences their decision for purchasing a particular product, only 8% of respondents opined that other factors influences their decision for purchasing a particular product. Step-9: Conclusion Consumer behavior changes with brand, quality and market image of the product. Consumer taste and preference change with product to product. Knowing about consumer taste & preferences is need of a company for making a unique image in the market and maintain it also for gain more profit and growth of the organization. Today consumer wants brand with low price or suitable prize. Consumer goes with those products, which fulfills their need and satisfy them. In present, consumer is a king of market. Step-10 Recommendation  The collected data says that, the consumers are more price conscious, but with this, they are looking for good quality products too. So now company should design their marketing strategy where they can offer quality product with reasonable price.  For the betterment and making consumer well aware, a separate department at company level should be created which will take care of the issues and problems of consumers.  Company should think about price differentiate strategy for urban and consumer.  Company should design their marketing strategies in such a way, where a consumer would like to purchase the product repetitively due to associated benefit and by the time company get advantage of brand loyalty.  Continuous Research and Development activities should be focused upon to understand the changing pattern of test and preferences of the products by the customers and according the products should be developed.
  40. 40. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 40 1.8 Organization of the study Introduction; Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy a product. Every business focus on consumer behavior and they conducts study to find out the need and wants of consumers and also conduct research that how a marketer can change the behavior of consumer. There are many factors which influence the consumer behavior but I will study on only three variables “price, quality, and Brand Name” Importance of consumer behavior: Role or importance of study of consumer behavior can be explained with reference to the points stated as under: 1. Modern Philosophy: It concerns with modern marketing philosophy – identify consumers’ needs and satisfy them more effectively than competitors. It makes marketing consumer-oriented. It is the key to succeed. 2. Achievement of Goals: The key to a company’s survival, profitability, and growth in a highly competitive marketing environment is its ability to identify and satisfy unfulfilled consumer needs better and sooner than the competitors. Thus, consumer behavior helps in achieving marketing goals. 3. Useful for Dealers and Salesmen: The study of consumer behavior is not useful for the company alone. Knowledge of consumer behavior is equally useful for middlemen and salesmen to perform their tasks effectively in meeting consumers needs and wants successfully. Consumer behaviour, thus, improves performance of the entire distribution system. 4. More Relevant Marketing Programme: Marketing programme, consisting of product, price, promotion, and distribution decisions, can be prepared more objectively. The programme can be more relevant if it is based on the study of
  41. 41. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 41 consumer behavior. Meaningful marketing programme is instrumental in realizing marketing goals. 5. Adjusting Marketing Programme over Time: Consumer behavior studies the consumer response pattern on a continuous basis. So, a marketer can easily come to know the changes taking place in the market. Based on the current market trend, the marketer can make necessary changes in marketing programme to adjust with the market. 6. Predicting Market Trend: Consumer behavior can also aid in projecting the future market trends. Marketer finds enough time to prepare for exploiting the emerging opportunities, and/or facing challenges and threats. 7. Consumer Differentiation: Market exhibits considerable differentiations. Each segment needs and wants different products. For every segment, a separate marketing programme is needed. Knowledge of consumer differentiation is a key to fit marking offers with different groups of buyers. Consumer behaviour study supplies the details about consumer differentiations. 8. Creation and Retention of Consumers: Marketers who base their offerings on a recognition of consumer needs find a ready market for their products. Company finds it easy to sell its products. In the same way, the company, due to continuous study of consumer behavior and attempts to meet changing expectations of the buyers, can retain its consumers for a long period. 9. Competition: Consumer behavior study assists in facing competition, too. Based on consumers’ expectations, more competitive advantages can be offered. It is useful in improving competitive strengths of the company.
  42. 42. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 42 10. Developing New Products: New product is developed in respect of needs and wants of the target market. In order to develop the best-fit product, a marketer must know adequately about the market. Thus, the study of consumer behavior is the base for developing a new product successfully. 11. Dynamic Nature of Market: Consumer behavior focuses on dynamic nature of the market. It helps the manager to be dynamic, alert, and active in satisfying consumers better and sooner than competitors. Consumer behavior is indispensable to watch movements of the markets. 12. Effective Use of Productive Resources: The study of consumer behavior assists the manager to make the organisational efforts consumer-oriented. It ensures an exact use of resources for achieving maximum efficiency. Each unit of resources can contribute maximum to objectives. It is to be mentioned that the study of consumer behavior is not only important for the current sales, but also helps in capturing the future market. Consumer behavior assumes: Take care of consumer needs, the consumers, in return, will take care of your needs. Most of problems can be reasonably solved by the study of consumer behavior. Modern marketing practice is almost impossible without the study of consumer behavior. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR (Philip Kotler summary) DECISION MAKING BY CONSUMER:  Product Choice.  Brand Choice.  Dealer Choice.  Purchase Timing.  Purchase Amount. Marketing Structure:  Product.  Price.
  43. 43. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 43  Place.  Promotion. Other Structure:  Economic.  Technological.  Political.  Cultural. Buyer’s Character:  Social.  Cultural.  Personal.  Psychological. Buyer’s Decision Process:  Problem recognition.  Information search.  Evaluation.  Decision.  Post-Purchase behavior. FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOR: Product  Brand  Price  Quality Cultural:  Culture.  Sub – culture.  Social class. Social:  Reference groups.  Families.
  44. 44. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 44  Roles/ Status. Personal:  Age/ Life cycle stage.  Occupation.  Economic circumstances.  Lifestyles.  Personality/ self concept. Psychological:  Motivation.  Perception.  Learning.  Beliefs/ Attitudes. 1.9 LIMITATIONS For my study The sample size for the survey of customers was limited I will collect data from 100 respondents of a general public who uses the different products of city Aligarh, because I am a student and can’t collect data from whole Aligarh due to lack of resources and also lack of time.
  45. 45. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 45 CHAPTER-2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE SWITCHING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMER Consumer preference purchase behavior Consumer decision are influenced by DEPENDENT VARIABLES INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Fig- 2.1 consumer Influences Culture Personalty Income Attitude Knowledge OrganiZational Influences Brand price quality Advertising Packaging
  46. 46. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 46 2.2 Factors affecting consumer behavior: Fig.2.2 2.3 CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS Fig.2.3 Consumer Behavior Culture Culture Subculture Social Class Social Family Reference Role and status Personal Age Income Occupation Life style Personality Psychological Motivation Percaption Learning Attitude Economical Personal Income FamilyIncome Expected Income Liquidassets GOVT. Policy Post Purchase Purchase Decision Evaluating Alternatives Information search Need Awareness
  47. 47. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 47 CHAPTER-3 DATA ANALUSIS AND INTERPRETATION 3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON THEIR GENDER Table No.3.1 Fig.3.1 Interpretation From the above table no.1 & chart no. 1, it can be observed that majority of the respondents were female that is 60 % and male were 40 %. Gender No. of respondents (%) Male 40% Female 60% Total 100 40% 60% Male Female Total CLASSIFICATION BASED ON THEIR GENDER
  48. 48. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 48 3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THE GROUP OF PEOPLE Table No.3.2 Attributes No. of respondents Percentage (%) Students 60 60 Professionals 20 20 Relatives 5 5 Neighbors 15 15 Response Rate 100 100 Fig. 3.2 INTERPRETATION From the above table no.2 & chart no. 2, it can be observed that majority of the respondents Were student that is 60%, Professionals 20%, Neighbors 15% and 5% Relatives. 60 20 5 15 60 20 5 15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Students Professionals Parents Neighbors No. of respondents Percentage (%) GROUP OF PEOPLE
  49. 49. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 49 3.3 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR AGE Table No. 3.3 Age No. of respondents 20-25 45 26-30 12 31-35 18 36-40 10 40-45 15 Total 100 Fig. 3.3 INTERPRETATION From the above table & chart no. 4, it can be observed that majority of the respondents that is 45% are under the age category 20-25, 18% are in the age category of 31-35, 15% of the 45% 12% 18% 10% 15% CLASSIFICATIONOF THERESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR AGE 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 40-45 Total
  50. 50. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 50 respondents falls in the age group40-45,12% of the respondents are in the age group 26-30 and 10% of the respondents are in the age category of 36-40. 3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BASED ON THE FACTOR AFFECTING BUYING DECISION Table No.3.4 Factors No. of respondents Brand 35 Prize 15 Availability 22 Ease of use 10 Quality 18 Total 100 Fig. 3.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Brand Prize Availability Ease of use Quality FACTORS AFFACTING BUYING DECISION No. of respondents
  51. 51. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 51 INTERPRETATION From the above table & chart no. 4, it can be observed that majority of the respondents that is 35% of the respondents opined that brand influences purchasing decision, 22% of the respondents opined that they buy product by availability, 18% of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing quality, 15% of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing price and 10% of the respondents opined that they buy product according to their ease to use.
  52. 52. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 52 3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON BASED ON THEIR CHOICE FOR BYUING A PRODUCT Table No.3.5 Particulars No. of respondents Percentage (%) Brand name 25 25 Price 36 36 Packaging 17 17 Features 14 14 Others 8 8 Total 100 100 Fig. 3.5 INTERPRETATION from the above table & fig. 5 it can be observed that majority of the respondents, that is, 36% of the respondent opined that they buy product by seeing price, 25%of the respondents opined that 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Brand name price packaging Features Others No. of respondents Percentage (%) CHOICE FOR BUYING A PRODUCT
  53. 53. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 53 they buy product by seeing brand name , 17%of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing packaging 14% of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing features, of the respondents opined that they buy product by seeing other features.
  54. 54. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 54 CHAPTER-4 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION 4.1 FINDINGS  Majority of the respondents were female that is 60%, male were 40%.  Majority of the respondents were student that is 60%, 20% professionals, 15% neighbors, 5% relatives .  Majority of the respondents 45 % are under the age category of 20-25, 18% of respondents are in the age category of 31-35 and 15%of respondents are in the age category of 41-45, 12% of respondents are in the age category of26-30.  Majority of the respondents opined that various factors affect the buying decisions of products. The majority of the respondents that is 35% opined that 35 influences purchasing decision, 22% of respondents opined that availability influences purchasing decision, 18% of respondents opined that quality influences purchasing decision and 15% of respondents opined that prize factors influences the purchasing decision, 10% of respondents opined that ease of use factors influences the purchasing decision.  Majority of the respondents that is 36% preferred prize of the product , 25% of respondents opined that brand factors influences their decision for purchasing a particular product, 17% of respondents opined that packaging influences their decision for purchasing a particular product, 14% of respondents opined that Features of the product influences their decision for purchasing a particular product, only 8% of respondents opined that other factors influences their decision for purchasing a particular product.
  55. 55. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 55 4.2 CONCLUSIN Thus, consumer behavior changes with brand, quality and market image of the product. Consumer taste and preference change with product to product. Knowing about consumer taste & preferences is need of a company for making a unique image in the market and maintain it also for gain more profit and growth of the organization. Today consumer wants brand with low price or suitable prize. Consumer goes with those products, which fulfills their need and satisfy them. In present, consumer is a king of market. Consumer behavior theories and concepts are of most importance to the sales people or the marketers. As products are made to cater consumer's needs and demands, therefore, the products should be carefully marketed for the successful achievements of organizational goals. The study of consumer behavior helps them in analyzing different factors that has influence on the buying decision of the consumers. If the marketers failed to understand these factors, they would not meet their targets.
  56. 56. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 56 CHAPTER-5 RECOMMENDATION  Today’s consumers are very smart, so business should be carried out in an ethical ways. Even day by day various laws are being enforced for protecting consumer’s rights. Hence company should be transparent enough to provide details about various products and special campaigns should be launch to make consumers aware about how to differentiate spurious products and the company should legally resort to initiate action against those who are involved in it and strict legal actions should be enforced.  The collected data says that, the consumers are more price conscious, but with this, they are looking for good quality products too. So now company should design their marketing strategy where they can offer quality product with reasonable price.  For the betterment and making consumer well aware, a separate department at company level should be created which will take care of the issues and problems of consumers.  Company should think about price differentiate strategy for urban and consumer.  Company should design their marketing strategies in such a way, where a consumer would like to purchase the product repetitively due to associated benefit and by the time company get advantage of brand loyalty.  Continuous Research and Development activities should be focused upon to understand the changing pattern of test and preferences of the products by the customers and according the products should be developed.  F.M.C.G. Company may think for local level, state level, regional level, national level and international level event sponsorship to increase the awareness of the products.  It has been observed that, as far as consumer adoption process is concerned customers feet in category of late majority. They generally do not try the new products available in the market on experiment bases. So an attempt should be made by way of formulating effective strategies that consumer’s turn from late majority stage to the early majority stage and to increase the acceptance level towards modified or new products by consumers.
  57. 57. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 57 APPENDICES QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Are you a brand loyal customer? I. Yes II. No 1. Which attributes did attract you to purchase branded products? Rank these attributes in order of their importance to you. 2. What was the reason for the delay between the purchase decision and the actual purchase? I. Financial constraints II. Waiting for more innovative product III. Waiting for market response 3. What influenced you to buy the above stated brand(s)? I. Advertising II. Shop Display III. Word of mouth IV. Attractive packaging V. Family/Friend/Relatives VI. Any Other 4. Influence of Brand name on purchasing decision I. Brand Name II. Transparent III. Price IV. Cleanliness V. Easy Availability Others
  58. 58. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 58 I. Agree II. Disagree III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 5. Influence of Quality on Purchase Decision I. Agree II. Disagree III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 6. Influence of Price on Purchase Decision I. Agree II. Disagree III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 7. Influence of Product features on Purchase Decision I. Agree II. Disagree III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 8. Influence of Family members on Purchase Decision I. Agree II. Disagree III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 9. Influence of Peer group on Purchase Decision I. Agree II. Disagree III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 10. Influence of Advertisement on Purchase Decision I. Agree II. Disagree
  59. 59. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 59 III. Strongly Agree IV. Strongly disagree 11. Will you like to switch your brand preference if you get some promotional scheme with another brand? III. Yes IV. No 12. Do you think branded products are better than unbranded products? I. Yes II. No
  60. 60. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Marketing Management by Philip Kotler (1972), Kevin Lane Keller Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler (1980), Gary Armstrong Consumer Behavior WEBSITES www.google.com www.scholars.com www.wikipidia.com
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Dissertation report on “To study the switching behavior of consumer special reference to urban market ”which is submitted by me in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B.Com(Hons.) .

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