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Garment dyeing technique

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Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile)
Page 1 of 49
Introduction:
Garment dyeing is the proc...
Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile)
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given colour as fashion requires, machin...
Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile)
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 Flexibility of items to be dyed
 Comp...
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Garment dyeing technique

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Garment dyeing is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries) subsequent to manufacturing, as opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market. Garment dyeing has been slowly emerging as a process to meet the ephemeral fashion trends adopted by the consumers and new machines and methods have made this process to wear a brighter future for it.The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.
Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.,)
Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer, but only in the shades that are selling
Reduced discounted sales at inventory
Best way to achieved relaxed, casual look .Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed, pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc.,
A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market.
Traditionally,

Garment dyeing is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries) subsequent to manufacturing, as opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market. Garment dyeing has been slowly emerging as a process to meet the ephemeral fashion trends adopted by the consumers and new machines and methods have made this process to wear a brighter future for it.The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.
Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.,)
Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer, but only in the shades that are selling
Reduced discounted sales at inventory
Best way to achieved relaxed, casual look .Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed, pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc.,
A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market.
Traditionally,

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Garment dyeing technique

  1. 1. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 1 of 49 Introduction: Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully fashioned garments (such as pants, pullovers, t-shirts, jeans, sweaters, dresses, bathrobes, casual jackets, shirts, skirts, hosieries) subsequent to manufacturing, as opposed to the conventional method of manufacturing garments from pre-dyed fabrics. [1] Most garments are made of cotton knit goods and/or cotton woven fabrics. Garment dyeing may be defined as the ―application of color to fully fashioned apparel articles, may be in the form of garments cut and sewn either prepared or unprepared knitted fabrics and then dyed, garments and / or components knitted from either prepared or unprepared yarn and then dyed, garments manufactured from either prepared or unprepared woven fabric and then dyed and mixed fabric garments i.e. woven and knitted fabrics manufactured from prepared fabrics and then dyed‖. The benefits of processing good through garment dyeing procedure revolve around quick response and improved inventory control. Differentiation is made between garment dyeing and hosiery dyeing where socks and ladies stockings have been dyed in the prepared form .Garment dyeing is the obvious way to meet the needs i.e. quick response to fashion change, lead times have been reduced to 4 to 5 days from 2 to 3 weeks as minimum with other processing routes [7].Although several other fabrics can be found in the whole or in part such as wool, nylon, silk, acrylic, polyester and others. Due to cost savings and fashion trends, garment dyeing has been gaining importance and popularity in the past years and will continue to do so in the future. [1] Reason for Garment dyeing Traditionally, garments are constructed from fabrics that are pre dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing.  The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors.  Quick Response to the market (bar coding etc.,)  Ability to supply a wide range of colorations to the retailer, but only in the shades that are selling  Reduced discounted sales at inventory  Best way to achieved relaxed, casual look  Ability to create special effects such as tie dyed, pigment dyed and washed down in a single process etc.,  A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market. Traditionally, garments are constructed from fabrics that are pre-dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing. The advantage of this process is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors. A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market. [1] During the last decade, the market has been forcing textile companies to supply sports- and leisurewear in extremely reduced times and in the trendiest colours of the moment. Obviously the standard textile production cycle, contemplating a dyeing process followed by make-up and distribution, which does not run with very short times, leads to a considerable loss of sales. [4] The piece dyeing process ensures very short times from the customers’ demand to the fulfilment of market needs for cool colours and stylish finishing processes. To meet large or small demands for a
  2. 2. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 2 of 49 given colour as fashion requires, machine manufacturers now offer many garment dyeing and finishing machines. These are generally rotating machines, similar to large-size industrial washing machines; the garments are loaded in special baskets for finishing operations. The machine size and equipment allow the maximum flexibility to meet the most different needs as described in the following.[2] Garment dyed clothing has a soft and sensual appeal to the touch and to the eyes, that cannot be matched by piece dyed goods. They are soft and cuddly, with that lived in look and feel of your favorite shirt, right off the shelf. The look and feel of garment dyed clothing is the look and feel desired for resort wear, corporate casual wear, and children's wear. [3] Special considerations to garment dyer  Very good communications between all parties involved  Preparation - may be done on piece goods or on garments clean substrate for dyeing reduced shrinkage (preferably squared) for woven’s should be less than 5% for knits should be less than 8%  Metal components should be non-ferrous pewter buttons are acceptable  Non-metal components that are not sensitive to dye chemistry or temperatures at a boil are acceptable  polyester zippers, buttons, etc. which are clear or predyed tie dyed splatter dyed  weathered pigment dye and wash down in a single process nickel plated brass zippers are acceptable  Velcro - clear or predyed  special polyamide buttons which are dyeable  Threads must be of same fiber as the fabric in the garment or "grinning" will occur.  Pre dyed threads may be used  Corespun threads with a strength or stretch yam in the core and the desired fiber on the outside  Covered threads may be used  "Tacking" of sleeves and pant legs to prevent tangling Categories of Garment Dyeing The dyeing of the garments requires more care than the dyeing of the fabric, though there is very little difference in the dyeing procedures. This is due to the fact that processing of garments involves value added goods. The entire garment dyeing activities may be broken down in to four categories: 1. Fully fashioned garment dyeing carried out by major dyers and finishers 2. Cut and sewn garment covering woven and knitted fabrics. 3. Dyeing of 100% cotton goods for boutique trade suitable for hand washing. and 4. Washing, desizing, bleaching denim goods, leading to stone wash, snow wash, over dyeing and highlighting effects. Advantages of Garment Dyeing  Flexibility towards fast changing market trends  Quick response and rapid turnaround  Flexibility towards dye shades and finishes  Flexibility of lot size
  3. 3. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 3 of 49  Flexibility of items to be dyed  Comparatively less rejection  Low inventory  Less capital investments  Fancy effects  Handling of smaller lots economically.  Enables various special effects to achieve. Distressed look can be effectively imparted. Unsold light shades can be converted into medium and deep shades. By the time the garment has been in a boiling dyebath and then tumble-dried, it will have adopted its lowest energy state and will not suffer further shrinkage under consumer washing conditions. Latest fashion trends can be effectively incorporated through garment wet processing by immediate feedback from the customer. Disadvantages of Garment Dyeing  Labor intensive process and requires thorough checking of every piece  Higher ―seconds‖ rate  Poor appearance  Poor reproducibility of shades  Special care in the selection of fittings  More material handling  High cost of processing This is little complicated dyeing process. Garment accessories like zips, buttons, etc impose restrictions. The garments produced from woven fabrics create many problems and it has been found that the existing textile treatment styles as developed for piece dyed fabric cannot be just assembled for garment wet processing operation such as garment dyeing, unless they have been engineered from the original design stage for garment dyeing.[2]  The factors governing processing of ready-made garments are • Sewing Thread • Metal Components. Shrink behavior • Accessories • Foreign substances • Interlining • Care labeling. Selection of Fabric  Lots or batches of greige fabric must be selected that will dye up identical in shade.  Loom state fabric must be converted into RFD (ready for Dyeing) Stage. - Desized, Scoured for dark colours, - Desized, Scoured and bleached for light colours To get the best-looking garments. - Desized, Scoured, bleached and mercerized
  4. 4. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 4 of 49 For heavily swelling fibres such as cotton, the elasticized areas, waist bands and cuffs, must be fairly slack, and seams should not be too tight or bulky.[1]  Shrinking behavior of the fabric must be uniform before garment dyeing.  Articles which are prone to Crease marks or Pilling effects should be turned inside out and dyed with the addition of a non-foaming lubricant while adopting the shortest possible dyeing process.  Fabrics should be free from foreign materials (Contamination)  The interlinings used are to be checked for their performance to satisfy the requirement. - Dyes to be taken as same as the outer fabric. - The gum should not be removed off from the surface - The resin in the interlinings should not make adverse effect on the dyeing color. Selection of Accessories  Buttons, Studs and Zippers:  Free from Nickel  Polyester buttons for pre determined colors.  Nylon preferred  Wooden to be verified before usage.  Brass, antiq brass, silver, gun metal, golden zippers can be used and to be checked before the bulk process.  Studs and Buttons may be used after dyeing of the garment most of the cases to avoid breakages and damages to the fabric.  Care Labels& Embroideries  Care labels to be used are to be good in fastness properties.  It should not absorb the dyes from the bath.  Polyester care labels are mostly used.  A pouch may be used to avoid dye penetration on the care labels.  Embroidery threads are used as polyester threads for pre confirmed colors.  If the effect is required, then RFD cotton yarn is used for the embroidery as like sewing threads.[1] Selection of Sewing Thread  Cotton thread is preferred in most of the garment dyeing.  They should be of same lot.  Polyester threads can be used only in pre determined colors.  Nylon threads can be used. Proper care should be taken in maintaining consistency.  Sewing threads to be of high strength to withstand the required seam strength.  Mostly heavy threads than normal polyester threads are used.  Should be free from hairiness.  Threads with low tension to be applied while sewing to balance the shrinkage of threads.  Depending upon the requirement, the thread numbers can be used.  Core spun yarn also be used for better performance of seams.[1]
  5. 5. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 5 of 49 Selection of Sewing Sewing Recommendations:  Stitch density  Thread Tension  Stitch and Seam type  Needle size Garment dyeing process In the world of fast fashion when time to market is paramount, garment dyeing post make up is increasingly adopted by manufacturers. Apparel dyeing has implications for the finished quality of the garments and this bulletin explains how to minimise the negative impact of this process on general seam appearance and sewing related issues. We explain the dos and don'ts of sewing post dyed garments. Generally, apparel is constructed from fabrics that are pre-dyed (piece dyed) before the actual cutting and sewing. The colour and quantity are committed to at the fabric dyeing stage with resultant long lead times to market and less forecast accuracy. For seasonal fashion colours it is possible to react much closer to actual market demand if the apparel is post dyed. This involves the production of garments from undyed fabric and components and subsequently dyeing them in the required quantities.[8] The dyeing of the garments requires more care than the dyeing of the fabric, though there is very little difference in the dyeing procedures. Reactive dyes appear to be very much attractive in the dyeing of cotton garments similar to fabric dyeing. Dyeing of cotton fabrics with sulphur dyes require more precautions to avoid damage to the garments; presence of impurities like iron up to 20 ppm may alter the yield and also adversely affects copper containing buttons. Exhaust dyeing with pigments is possible only with materials pretreated with a cationic agent which imparts substantivity to overcome the non-substantitive in nature of the pigments. Exhaust dyeing of garments with pigment involves prewash-pretreatment-exhaust dyeing-stone wash (optional)-fixation-thermo treatment . Once the goods are prepared it is necessary to apply a chemical auxiliary that will impart substantivity to the pigment e.g. cationic agent and once the cationic charge is applied to the cotton piece or garments, the pigments can be applied together with an antifoaming agent and anionic dispersing agent. The exhaust method is followed by curing operation at 120 – 130o C for 20 min in presence of the catalyst . Colour differences observed in the selvedges in the case of fabric dyeing can be sorted out using clustering techniques and shade sorting (555) methods [7]. Post dyeing has many advantages: 1. Simple one shade production 2. Stock reduction - finished goods and trimmings 3. Allowance for specialized finishes, which are applicable to the whole garment. i.e., tie dye, spray dye, dip dye and pigment dye
  6. 6. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 6 of 49 Advantages Are Also Associated With Disadvantages. There are some negatives of post-dyeing garments Not suited to all fabrics  On densely woven lightweight fabrics there is a high risk of seam pucker if cotton sewing threads are used of relatively high grist to achieve adequate seam strength. 100% cotton fabrics are low in elongation and therefore the fabric yarns are displaced around the needle and thread increasing the degree of seam pucker  On lightweight fabrics that require fine ticket sizes of thread, seam strength can be compromised  Fabrics with high stretch properties, such as those containing Lycra can give problems with seam extension due to the low elongation properties of 100% cotton sewing threads Not always providing the desired final appearance  Garments that follow the post dye route have a "casual / washed down" appearance. Where a pristine finished look is required the post dye route is not recommended  When manufacturing intimate apparel, the desired softness of the seam that is provided by textured sewing threads (i.e. Coats Seamsoft) is not achievable with 100% cotton sewing threads[8] Potentially high damage and repairs rate  Post dyeing is a relatively harsh process that can result in damage to the garments  When making garments in the "greige" state needle and / or feed dog damage is not always evident. The garment dye process can expose these small levels of damage resulting in a high level of seconds
  7. 7. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 7 of 49 High risk of inappropriate sewing thread use  It is imperative when embarking on a garment dye program that ALL of the previously used sewing threads are cleared from the sewing machines and the thread storage areas, and that ALL sewing threads are segregated and clearly marked  Past experience has shown that on numerous occasions, failure to remove the residual thread from ALL lockstitch, stitch type bobbins on the sewing line (including the bobbins in the machine drawers etc.), has resulted in large quantities of garments being produced which are not saleable or repairable due to even the slightest contamination of the seams No guarantees of absolute compatibility even in apparently ideal situations – fabric shrinkage  Fabric shrinkage is often higher than the minimal amount of shrinkage in the sewing threads. This can result in a high degree of seam pucker. This seam pucker is often perceived as excessive thread shrinkage Fabric swelling  The fabric shrinkage levels (x and y) may well be low in percentage terms but in the third (z) dimension, the fabrics construction yarns may volumise significantly resulting in there being insufficient sewing thread in the seam causing poor seam extensibility and seam pucker in the woven fabric[8] Required machine for garment dyeing Garments Dyeing Machine Specification: Machine: Belly Machine Brand Name: Nagai Shina Origin: China Capacity: 250 kg Model No: NS-2260 RPM: 28 Total Quantity: 18 pcs Maximum Temperature- 100° c Machine: Front Loading Machine/Computer Machine. Brand Name: DANIS Origin: Turkey Capacity: 450 kg Model No: MKM-525 RPM: 30(Fixed) Total Quantity: 08 pcs Machine: Hydro Machine Brand Name: DANIS Origin: Turkey Capacity: 250 kg Machine: Hydro Machine Brand Name: DANIS Origin: Turkey Capacity: 250 kg Model No: D- 2233 RPM: 800N-1000N Total Quantity: 08 pcs Machine: Dryer Machine (Steam Dryer) Brand Name: DANIS Origin: Turkey Capacity: 180 kg Model No: D-2218 RPM: 30 Total Quantity: 06 pcs Machine: Dryer Machine (Gas Dryer) Brand Name: DANIS Origin: Turkey Capacity: 180 kg Model No: D-2218 RPM: 30 Total Quantity: 08 pcs
  8. 8. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 8 of 49 Flow chart of garment dyeing for medium / dark shade with reactive dyes. [5]
  9. 9. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 9 of 49 Flow chart of garment dyeing for light shade with reactive dyes. [5]
  10. 10. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 10 of 49 Technique used for Garment dyeing There are various technique used for garment dyeing; recently some latest technology has developed for garment dyeing in our industry. 1. Tie dyeing 2. Dip dyeing 3. Spray dyeing 4. Over dyeing 5. Cold dyeing 6. High white dyeing 7. Washable dyeing 8. Reverse dyeing 9. Top dyeing Tie dyeing Tie-dye is a process of dyeing textiles or clothing which is made from knit or woven fabric, usually cotton; typically using bright colors. Tie dye is a popular technique used to create colorful designs and patterns on clothing. Various techniques have been used to tie dye clothing for more than 6000 years. Today, tie dye is a great way to jazz up plain t-shirts and other garments using colorfast dyes and creative folding techniques. Tie-dying became fashionable in the late 1960s & early 1970s as part of hippie style. It was popularized in the U.S. by musicians such as John Sebastian and Janis Joplin. It is same as that of batik printing but here the dye is resisted by knots that are tied in the cloth before it is immersed in dye bath. The outside of the knotted portion is dyed, but inside is not penetrated if the knot is firmly tied. This gives a characteristic blurred or mottled effect. [6] Advantage of Tie dyeing • Interesting design created on fabric • No m/c cost is there Disadvantage of Tie dyeing • Costly • Laborious • Time taking • Skilled labor required
  11. 11. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 11 of 49 Hand crush tie dye tunic kaftan with hand bead work Hand tie dye cotton tunic Tie dyeing on T- shirt
  12. 12. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 12 of 49 Tying technique Knot Tying Spirals Electric Bunching
  13. 13. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 13 of 49 Rosettes Stripes Circles
  14. 14. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 14 of 49 Pleats Dyeing recipe Pigment dyes-% (depends on shade) Binder-1-1.5gm/l Flow chart of Tie dyeing Shorting garment Scouring (detergent-1-1.5% at 70c for 10 min) Hydro extractor (remove excess water)
  15. 15. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 15 of 49 Dryer (for drying the garments) Tie the garments (as per requirement) Dyeing (garment load onto the dye bath for 15-20 mins) Bath drain Rinse (2 times) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Tie open Dryer (for drying the garments) Color fixing (1-2gm/l) *In tie dyeing process there is no way to re process or rematch Tie effect on twill garment We may get tie effect by enzyme wash on a dyed garment. Dyeing may be done by direct or reactive or lava (low reactive dyeing). Process sequence of tie dyeing wash Take white garment Desizing Soda ash-1-1.5 gm/l Detergent-1 gm/l Time-10 min Temperature-80c Neutralization Acetic acid-.3 gm/l Time-5 min Temperature-45c Dyeing Direct dyes Scarlet BL-.5% Dark blue GL-.8% Yellow 2RL-.02% Salt-20 gm/l Time-10 min (sample check)
  16. 16. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 16 of 49 Fixing Fixing agent-1 gm/l Time-5 min Temperature-45c Reactive dyes Red FNR-.05% Blue FNR-.07% Yellow FN2R-.8% Salt-20 gm/l Soda ash-10 gm/l Time-10- 15min (sample check) Temperature-60-70c Soaping Soaping agent (europen R) - 1gm/l Time-5 min Temperature-70c Lava dyes (low reactive dyes) Lava yellow-GLF-.6% Lava ponix GLF-.3% Lava blue GLF-.02% Caustic soda-.5 gm/l Salt-20 gm/l Soda ash- 10 gm/l Time-15-20 min Temperature-50-55c Neutralizing Acetic acid-.5 gm/l Time-5 min Temperature-45c Soaping Detergent - 1gm/l Time-5 min Temperature-50c Hydro extractor (3-5 min) Dryer for drying Time-45 min Temperature-60c Tying Packed by a knit bag Tie wash effect on pant after garment dyeing
  17. 17. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 17 of 49 Tie washes (tying condition) Acetic acid-.5 gm/l Enzyme-1-2 gm/l Time- 40 min (sample check) Temperature-45c Ph-4.5-5.5 Un Tying the sample Tie washes (Un tying wet condition, this wash is necessary to remove unfixed dyes and make even shade) Acetic acid-.5 gm/l Enzyme-1-2 gm/l Time- 10-15 min (sample check) Temperature-45c Ph-4.5-5.5 Softener-1-2gm/l at room temp. for 5 min Hydro extractor (remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) *If shade doesn’t match need toping, it is also called tinting by toner. Dip dyeing If somebody wants to dip dye of a garments need a dip dyeing machine. Tie dyeing makes every garment unique, so garment specialist gives the steps to make any piece of clothing special with the proper way of dip dyeing. It's best to dye the sleeves and bottom separately: Roll up the part you're not dyeing into a plastic bag to protect it, and secure with a rubber band. Dye, rinse, and let dry between the two dips. For items you plan to launder, set the colors by washing the finished objects in synthrapol detergent. This concentrated, pH-balanced detergent will keep the dye from bleeding onto undyed parts of the fabric. Dip dyeing technique Materials  Sheer jersey long-sleeve T-shirt, in White,  Large plastic storage bin or galvanized-steel bin  Stir stick  All-purpose liquid dye  Sample fabric or paper towel  Sewing pins  Synthrapol detergent (optional)
  18. 18. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 18 of 49 Steps of dip dyeing Step 1 Wash and dry the fabric or garment to remove any finishes that resist dye. Fill plastic bin with hot water to a depth of at least 6 inches. Stir in dye, starting with a small amount and adding more as desired. Dip a sample strip of fabric or paper towel to test the color. If too dark, add water; if too light, add dye. Let solution settle, so there are no bubbles at the surface. Step 2 Determine where you want the top of the dyed band to be; use pins to mark that line on fabric. Holding your fabric as straight as possible, dip into dye solution to just below the pin line (make sure you don't dip the pins; the fabric will wick the dye higher). Keep fabric in dye until it turns the desired color (it will dry slightly lighter). Step 3 Rinse fabric in cold water to remove excess dye until the water runs clear. Hang to dry. If desired, wash item with synthrapol detergent. Dip dyeing hoody shirt/jacket
  19. 19. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 19 of 49 Flow chart of Dip dyeing Shorting garment Scouring (detergent-1-1.5% at 70c for 10 min) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Garment may be wet/ dry state Apply binder 1-1.5gm/l (Catanizer 2-2.5 gm/l if any) Dip a sample into the dye bath (as per shade) Keep garment in dyebath and shake until it turns the desired color Shaking 15-20 times for 10-15 min Hanging the garment on the dye bath (5-6 hours) Curing (80-90c for 30-40 mins) * When the garment dry slightly it will lighter. The top of the dyed band is gradually lighter than the bottom part. In dip dyeing face and back side of garment dyed but in spray dyeing only one side is dyed. Dip dyeing machine Application There are two types of dip dyeing machine garment and rope dyeing machine. This type rope form dip dyeing machine is applicable for loose type rope form dip dyeing the acrylic and knitted cotton fabric, such as scouring, dyeing, bleaching, washing, soaping process. Technical parameter and main specification 1, Dyeing tank working volume:2800L. 2, Capacity of dyeing cotton and knitted fabric:105L 3, Cloth guiding folder block:10 blocks; cloth guiding folder distance:180mm 4, Working width:1800mm. 5, Dyeing tank :2100mm.
  20. 20. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 20 of 49 6, Machine shape size:L*W*H 3390*3060*2510mm 7, Motor power:1.5KW. Specifications Normal temperature dyeing. Suitable for hank yarn and garment of cotton, silk, acrylic fabric, artificial wool etc. Purpose: Under normal temperature, it is suitable for hand dyeing of fabric and hank yarn and garment of cotton, silk, acrylic fabric, artificial wool etc.
  21. 21. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 21 of 49 Specification of dip dyeing machine: Model Output(piece/lb s) weight(kg) Head Power Engine(kw ) Power Engine Dyeing Pump(kw) Speed- reducing(1:60 ) Dimension(mm ) DR-50 50/60 250 0 0.55 70type 1220*980*2800 DR- 100 100/120 310 1.5 0.55 80type 1220*1860*3000 DR- 200 200/250 560 2.2 0.75 100type 2030*2050*3010 DR- 300 300/370 800 4 1.1 120type 2840*2300*3010 DR- 400 400/500 1000 4 1.1 120type 4320*2300*3010 Spray dyeing This is one kind of dyeing which give white effect on a specific area of garments. All type of textile & garments are suitable for spray dyeing. It is also called pigment spray. Color pigment paste is used for this type of dyeing. This spray can be water based colours. These are designed and developed using superior quality material giving very soft hand feel, vintage look & colour fastness towards world class standards & world class ECO system. Bring a new look to home décor, clothing and accessories with Simply Spray fabric or garment paints – the only non-toxic, non flammable, virtually odorless aerosol paint for fabrics or garments. Bring a new look to home décor, clothing and accessories with Simply Spray fabric paints — the only non-toxic, non-flammable, virtually odorless aerosol paint for fabrics. By spray dyeing we create a totally unique look, Soft Fabric Paint, Stencil Spray, Upholstery Fabric Paint, Leather Cote, Vinyl Cote, Project Paint, Paint It Black, Spray Blood, Glow In the Dark and Puff Paint offer unique uses and tools. This eco-friendly, water-based paints will not harm the environment when discarded and are safe to use indoors and with kids.
  22. 22. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 22 of 49 In spray dyeing first need select the garment. Mainly ready for dyeing (RFD) is used. In spray dyeing only one side is dyed it may face or back depend on what I want. We may get same effect by dip dyeing but not for all design. We may spray back side of the garment. Dyeing recipe :( for a standard shade for 15 pieces body) Black-PABN-20gm Oxal(fixing agent)-25gm Pin well (wax/silicone)-15 gm Nk binder (for pigment)-50gm Water----------------------890ml Total -1000gm(for 15 pieces) Spray dyeing back side of the garment
  23. 23. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 23 of 49 Flow chart of Spray dyeing Shorting garment (RFD) Enzyme the garment (.5gm/l at 55c for 50 mins) Dryer (for drying the garments at 70-80c) Garment wear on dummy Spray the solution onto the garment Curing for knit (120c for 30-40 mins) Curing for woven (130-150c for 30-35 mins) Binder for color fixing Softener/Silicone *In spray dyeing the color effect is visible only the face side of a garment. In side of the garment is not colored. Pigment dyes are suitable for spray dyeing. Spray dyeing for getting old looking We may get old looking by spray dyeing. Especially pigment black, yellow, red and so many colors used on a dyeing by spray gun. Recipe: White paste-1-2% Pigment black- 2% Prinoil(oil to make soft the spray area)- 1-2gm/l Oxal(fixing agent)-.5-1 gm/l Flow chart of Spray dyeing Desizing 1gm/l (10 min at 70c) Enzyme .5-1gm/l (20 min at 45c) Spray the solution as per recipe onto the garment Curing for knit (130c for 35-40 mins)
  24. 24. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 24 of 49 Binder (3gm/l, 50c for 5-10 mins) for color fixing Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydro extractor (remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Cold garment dyeing Cold garment dyeing is also called oil dyeing. By spray dyeing we get uneven look. Face and back we get different look. Dyeing recipe :( for a standard shade) Black-DBBN-20gm Blue DBA--30gm Yellow-25 gm Black BSF -300gm Flow chart of Dip dyeing Shorting garment (Ready for dyeing garment) Scouring (detergent-1-1.5% at 80c for 10 min) Rinse-1 Spray dyeing T-shirt for getting old looking
  25. 25. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 25 of 49 Acid wash Rinse-2 Wet body Sample load into the dye bath (as per shade at room temp. for 15 mins) Bath drain Rinse (2 times) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Curing (80-90c for 30-40 mins) Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) *In cold garment dyeing we get uneven look. For remove excess color we may used close binder (deep to light).If the garment light over to required shade we may tint by direct dyes to meet required shade. For softening the garment mainly cationic softener is used. Over dyeing (Over Dyeing) to dye for a second or third time with a different color Over dyeing is such a rewarding way of rescuing an ugly or unsatisfactory colored cloth. It gives uneven look. Over dyeing doesn’t mean all-time dyeing the garment which is previously dyed. Mainly over dyeing is normal dyeing or piece dyeing process. But in over dyeing process sometimes printed garment is dyeing, basically pigment printed. This method is the best process of the dyeing of garments. However, the penetration of the dye solution may not be completely passed to the fibers such as between the seams, buttons, zippers etc. Normally, it is used for lingerie, socks, sweater dyeing etc. In over dyeing process reactive, direct and pigment dyes are commonly used.  Two times garments dyeing are called over dyeing.  First garment is dyed by pigment dyes then direct dyes this is also called over dyeing.  Tinting by any kind of toner is also called over dyeing.  Ready for dyeing (RFD) is dyed by any color is called over dyeing.  Fabric is dyed in any color then make garment without accessories finally after making garment again dyed by same dyes is also called over dyeing  Ready for dyeing(RFD) is printed by suitable technique then dyed by reactive or direct or pigment dyes is called over dyeing
  26. 26. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 26 of 49 Over dyeing of a garment with reactive dyes Dyeing recipe: (for a standard shade) Reactive black dyes = 0.8 % Reactive red dyes = 1.0 % Reactive yellow dyes = 0.05 % Salt = 30 g/l Soda = 10 g/l Flow chart of over dyeing with reactive dyes on undyed garment Process sequence Load Garment Scouring (Detergent-.1-1.5% at 80c for 10 min ) Anticreasing-.5%+A.Acid-.6%+Leveling-1.5% Load garment into the dye bath (60c) Run for 5 min Salt = 30 g/l Run for 5 min Soda = 10 g/l Run for 35 min Shade Check Bath Drain (BD) Rinse-1 Rinse-2 Fixing -1gm/l (45c for 30 mins) Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments)
  27. 27. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 27 of 49 Over dyeing of a garment with direct dyes on undyed garment Dyeing recipe: (for a standard shade) Direct black dyes = 0.7 % Direct red dyes = 1.0 % Direct yellow dyes = 0.06 % Salt = 30 g/l Flow chart of over dyeing with direct dyes Process sequence Load Garment Scouring (Detergent-.1-1.5% at 80c for 10 mins ) Anticreasing-.5%+A.Acid-.6%+Leveling-1.5% Load garment into the dye bath (80c) Run for 5 min Salt = 30 g/l Run for 45 min Shade Check Bath Drain (BD) Rinse-1 Rinse-2 Fixing -1gm/l (45c for 30 mins) Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Over dyeing of a garment with pigment dyes on undyed garment Dyeing recipe: (for a standard shade) Pigment black dyes = 0.9 % Pigment red dyes = 1.6 % Pigment yellow dyes = 0.08 % Binder=1-1.5 g/l Catanizer=2-2.5 gm/l
  28. 28. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 28 of 49 Flow chart of over dyeing with pigment dyes Process sequence Load Garment Scouring (Detergent-.1-1.5% at 80c for 10 mins ) Catanizer(2-2.5 gm/l at 60c for 30 mins) Rinse (for 5 mins) Load garment into the dye bath (60c for 30 mins) Bath Drain (BD) Rinse (2 times) Apply cross binder (to remove unfixed dyes) Rinse (2 times) Shade Check Rinse-1 Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l(40c for 5-10 mins) Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) *Pigment dyes is not suitable for deep shade because dyeing cost is not meet, so when deep shade is required garment is tint by direct dyes. Over dyeing garment
  29. 29. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 29 of 49 Over dyeing process for a dyed garment For over dyeing of a dyed garment select the dye which is previously used for dyeing the fabric that form the garment. In the below I shown a standard recipe and flow chart which is previously dyed with reactive dye during fabric form. Now over dyeing is done by reactive dyes. It gives uneven look. When buyer said it will over dyeing we try to dyeing light during fabric dyeing. We may use extra toner to give effective tone. In market different types of toner is available. Dyeing recipe: (for a standard shade) Reactive black dyes = 0.08 % Reactive red dyes = .01 % Reactive yellow dyes = 0.05 % Salt = 30 g/l Soda = 10 g/l Flow chart of over dyeing for dyed garment with reactive dyes Process sequence Load dyed Garment Anticreasing-.5%+A.Acid-.6%+Leveling-1.5% Load dyed garment into the dye bath(60c) Run for 5 min Salt = 30 g/l Run for 5 min Soda = 10 g/l
  30. 30. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 30 of 49 Run for 35 min Shade Check Bath Drain (BD) Rinse-1 Rinse-2 Fixing -1gm/l (45c for 30 mins) Softener-1-2gm/l and silicone-1-2gm/l Hydroextractor(remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) Top dyeing Top dyeing is also called garment top dyeing. In top dyeing process only top side of garment is dyeing with reactive or direct dyes. Top dyeing is carried out in varying sized vessels as dictated by the order weight of garments. This is a manual process. Reverse dyeing Reverse dyeing is a recent technological development in garment dyeing. In garment dyeing commonly we use reactive, direct or pigment dyes but a special dyes is use for reverse dyeing after dyeing this is give uneven look. In garment dyeing mainly we received two types of grey one is full grey color and another is white grey color. Process sequence of reverse dyeing For full grey color need full scouring Caustic soda-.5 gm/l Hydrogen peroxide- 1 gm/l Detergent-1 gm/l Time-10 min Temperature-80c For white grey color need normal scouring Soda-1 gm/l Detergent-1 gm/l Time-10 min Temperature-80c
  31. 31. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 31 of 49 Catanizing: Mordient MAC (catanizer)-2 gm/ltr Ph-8.5-9 Run at room temp. For 5 mins Temperature raises 60c for 10 mins Rinse….. (2 times) Curing in industrial woven at 140c for 15-20 mins Dyeing Direct special dyes (dyes and % depends on as per shade) Salt-20 gm/l Time-10-15 min Temperature-80c Fixing Fixing agent-1 gm/l Time-5 min Temperature-45c Softener-1-2gm/l at room temp. for 5 min Hydro extractor (remove excess water) Dryer (for drying the garments) *In Reverse Dyeing use catanizer, catanizer create a positive charge so dyes fixed haphazardly on the body that gives uneven look. High white dyeing High white dyeing is a recent technological development. In garment dyeing commonly we use reactive, direct or pigment dyes but a Spanish Garmun dyes chemical manufacturing company developed some dyes in many hue but after fixing we get white tone. This is special dyes reactive and direct combined they create new chromophore. After normal dyeing if we use pp (potassium permanganate) treatment basically reddish or yellowish tone is visible, but after High white dyeing if we use pp (potassium permanganate) treatment we get white tone. Process flow chart of Hi-White Dyeing Scouring: Crossdan ABLC (detergent) = 1 gm/ltr Time = 10 min Temperature = 70°C Rinse….. (2 times)
  32. 32. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 32 of 49 Catanizing: Mordient MAC (catanizer)= 3 gm/ltr Caustic Soda = 1.5 gm/ltr Time = 15 min Temperature = 50°C Rinse….. (2 times) Dyeing: Yellow H/W = 1% Red H/W = 0.75% Time = 20 min Temperature = 60°C Rinse….. (2 times) Fixing: Hydrocool SUN (Fixing agent) = 1 gm/ltr Time = 5 min Temperature = 30°C Rinse….. (2 times) Softener: C.Soft CF =2 gm/ltr Time = 5 min Temperature = 30°C Acetic Acid = 0.2 gm/ltr pH = 5.5 Hi-White dyeing pant
  33. 33. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 33 of 49 Washable dyeing Washable dyeing is a recent technological development in garment dyeing. In garment dyeing commonly we use reactive, direct or pigment dyes but an Italian asutex dyes chemical manufacturing company developed a special dyes after dyeing this is washable. After normal dyeing to get uneven look need enzyme or acid wash or caustic peroxide wash. If we use washable dyes no need enzyme or acid wash or caustic peroxide wash to get uneven look. After washable dyeing an uneven wash look is visible. So it saves time and cost effective. Fading and uneven looking is depends on what I want, before bulk production sample development is essential to get proper recipe. Process flow chart of Washable Dyeing Scouring: Crossdan ABLC (detergent)= 1 gm/ltr Time = 10 min Temperature = 70°C Rinse….. (2 times) Catanizing: Mordient MAC (catanizer)= 3 gm/ltr Caustic Soda = 1.5 gm/ltr Time = 20 min Temperature = 50°C Rinse….. (2 times) Dyeing: Black W-BN = 3% Gluber Salt = 30 gm/ltr Time = 30 min Temperature = 80°C Rinse….. (2 times) Fixing: Hydrocool SUN (Fixing agent)= 1 gm/ltr Time = 5 min Temperature = 50°C Rinse….. (2 times) Softener: C.Soft CF =2 gm/ltr Time = 5 min Temperature = 40°C Acetic Acid = 0.2 gm/ltr pH = 5.5
  34. 34. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 34 of 49 *In both Washable Dyeing and Hi-White Dyeing use catanizer, catanizer create a positive charge so dyes fixed haphazardly on the body that gives uneven look. Garment Dyeing Machines There are two types of equipment regularly used for garment dyeing. 1. Paddle machines  A high liquor ratio is required for paddle machines, which is less economical and may limit shade reproducibility. 2. Rotary drums  Rotary drum machines are sometimes preferred for garments, which require gentler handling, such as sweaters.  Many machinery companies have developed sophisticated rotary dyeing machines, which incorporate state-of-the-art technology. [1] Types of Machines 1. Paddle machines: A. Horizontal Paddle Machine B. Lateral / oval paddle C. HT Paddle Machines 2. Rotary drums A. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine 3. Toroid Dyeing Machine 4. Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine 5. The Gyrobox 6. The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine 7. Leemetals epicyclic Paddle dyeing machine Washable dyeing with acid wash Washable dyeing with PP spray
  35. 35. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 35 of 49 1. Paddle Dyeing Machine There are direct and indirect heating pipes at the bottom of the cylinder, which can be used for heating, cooling and insulation, being easy and safe to operate. It uses the accurate time controller that can automatically control the impeller's positive and negative running, to make dyeing products in the cylinder stir equably to ensure the dyeing effect. A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat. This is a slow process, but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods. Horizontal Paddle Machines (over head paddle machine) consist of a curved beck like lower suction to contain the materials and the dye liquor. The goods are moved by a rotating paddle, which extends across the width of the machine. Half immersed paddles cause the material to move upwards and downwards throughout the liquor. The temperature can be raised to 98o C in such system. In lateral / oval paddle machines consist of oval tank to enhance the fluid flow and the processing the goods. In the middle of this tank is a closed oval island. The paddle moves in a lateral direction and is not half submerged in the liquor and the temperature can be increased up to 98o C. [2] Paddle dyeing machines
  36. 36. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 36 of 49 Working Principle:  A process of dyeing textiles in a machine that gently move the goods using paddles similar to a paddle wheel on a boat.  This is a slow process, but there is extremely little abrasion on the goods. 1A. Horizontal Paddle Machines  (over head paddle machine) consist of a curved beck like lower suction to contain the materials and the dye liquor.  The goods are moved by a rotating paddle, which extends across the width of the machine.  Half immersed paddles cause the material to move upwards and downwards through out the liquor.  The temperature can be raised to 98o C in such system.
  37. 37. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 37 of 49 Machine Features of GD-3S-500: GD-3S-500 Garment Dyeing Machine is mainly used for dyeing clothes, socks, hats, etc. with the material of wool, acrylic fibres, nylon, cotton, rayon, cashmere like, blended spinning and other knitted fabrics. The machine runs safely and stably without any noise, and is equipped with durable work pieces and stepless speed changes devices. [2] The impeller's running speed can be adjusted according to different fabrics and loads. Image: GD-3S-500 Garment Dyeing Machine [2] 1B. Lateral / oval paddle  This machines consist of oval tank to enhance the fluid flow and the processing the goods.  In the middle of this tank is a closed oval island.  The paddle moves in a lateral direction and is not half submerged in the liquor.  The temperature can be increased up to 98o C.[1]
  38. 38. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 38 of 49 1C. HT Paddle Machines  It works according to the principle of horizontal paddle machine.  however, the temperature can be raised up to 140o C.  PES articles are preferably dyed on HT paddles.[1] HT Paddle Machines work according to the principle of horizontal paddle machine; however, the temperature can be raised up to 140o C. PES articles are preferably dyed on HT paddles. General Parameters & Features In paddle machines,  The dyeing can be carried out with 30:1 to 40:1 Liquor to Material Ratio.  Lower ratios reduces optimum movement of the goods, lead to unleveled dyeing, crease formation.  For gentleness, the blades of the paddle are either curved or have rounded edges.  The rotating speed of the paddle can be regulated from 1.5 to 40 rpm.  Circulation of the liquor should be strong enough to prevent goods from sinking to the bottom.  Paddle machines are suitable for dyeing articles of all substrates in all forms of make ups.  The goods are normally dyed using PP/PET bags.[1] 2A. Rotary Drum Dyeing Machine These machines work on the principle of ―movement of textile material and stationary liquor".  ―Movement of textile material and stationary liquor‖.  The rotary drum dyeing machine consists of rotating perforated cylindrical drum , which rotates slowly inside a vessel of slightly bigger in size.  The internal drum is divided into compartments to ensure rotation of goods with the drum rotation.  The outer vessel holds the required quantity of dye liquor.  High temperature drum machines are capable of processing the garments up to 140o C.
  39. 39. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 39 of 49 Inner drums without dividing walls are provided with ribs that carry the goods along for a certain time, partially lifting them up out of the liquor. These machines can operate at very low liquor ratios and can dye the goods up to 98 -140o C. This is suitable for knits as well as other garments. Liquor circulation can be intensified using additional jets. Drums can be rotated in both the directions. One feature that can be used to reduce abrasion on delicate garments or to minimize tangling is a compartmental chamber, sometimes referred to as a "Y" pocke the rotary drum machines are very simple to operate and are quite compact in size. The cost of unit is also not high. Drum dyeing-centrifuging machines are also called ―multipurpose drum machines‖ or ―multi-rapid dyeing centrifuging machines‖ since these machines can perform scouring, dyeing, centrifuging and conditioning successively with automated controls. The goods are treated in a perforated inner drum housed within an outer drum (dyeing tank). [2]
  40. 40. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 40 of 49 Features of modern rotary-dyeing Machine[1] 1. Lower liquor ratio 2. Gentle movement of goods and liquor (minimizes surface abrasion) 3. Rapid heating and cooling 4. Centrifugal extraction 5. Variable drum speed with reversal capability (adaptable to a wide variety of goods) 6. Continuous circulation of goods (improves migration control) 7. Ease of sampling 8. Variable water levels with overflow rinsing capabilities 9. Large diameter feed and discharge lines (minimizes filling and draining time) 10. Microprocessor controls 11. Lint filters 12. Pressure dyeing 13. Auto-balancing drums Working Features of Rotary Machine[1]  The goods are treated in a perforated inner drum housed within an outer drum (dyeing tank).  Inner drums without dividing walls are provided with ribs that carry the goods along for a certain time, partially lifting them up out of the liquor.  These machines can operate at very low liquor ratios and can dye the goods up to 98 -140o C.   This is suitable for knits as well as other garments.  Liquor circulation can be intensified using additional jets.  Drums can be rotated in both the directions. High Temperature rotary dyeing machine for ready made garment
  41. 41. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 41 of 49 Inside of a Rotary Garments dyeing machine 2B. Tumbler Dyeing Machine [1]  These machines are being used for small garments either in loose form or in open mesh bags.  Design wise the tumbler dyeing machines are similar to the commercial laundering machines.  The principle of operation is to load the material into perforated inner SS tanks, which rotates round a horizontal shaft fixed at the back of the drum.  The drum is divided into compartments for moving the goods with rotation of drum.
  42. 42. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 42 of 49 General Parameters & Features of Tumbler Dyeing Machine[1]  A variety of tumbling machines have higher rotation speeds and can spin dry at the end of the cycle.  These are similar to dry-cleaning machines. Rotating drum machines are more efficient and cleaner to operate than paddle machines.  The more vigorous mechanical action often promotes more shrinkage and bulking, which may be desirable for some articles.  In order to handle higher quantities and large production of similar pieces the latest machines are provided with several automatic features and sophistications. 3. Toroid Dyeing Machine[1]  In these machines the garments circulate in the liquor in a toroidal path with the aid of an impeller situated below the perforated false bottom of the vessel.  Movement of the goods depends completely on the pumped action of the liquor.  High-temperature versions of this machine operating at 120 to 130°C were developed in the 1970s for dyeing fully-fashioned polyester or triacetate garments.  The liquor ratio of such machines is about 30:1.
  43. 43. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 43 of 49 Fig: Toroid Dyeing machines 4.Modified Pegg Toroid Whiteley garment dyeing machine[1]  This is an improved version of Toroid machines , the additional features are:  The machine is suitable for both atmospheric and pressure dyeing.  Full automation upto hydroextraction.
  44. 44. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 44 of 49  The design features, speed and performance is simplified to make the machine more versatile and free from operating problems. 5.The Gyrobox [1]  The machine has support in the form of a large wheel, which is divided into 12 independent non radial compartments.  The goods are placed in these compartments .  The wheel runs at a moderate speed of 2-6 rpm.  The main advantage of this machine are, 1.Reduced M:L 2.Different types of garments can be dyed simulteneously . 3.Flexible loading 4.Fully automatic operation. 6. The MCS Readymade garment dyeing machine  The rotodye machines are suitable for dyeing pure cotton, wool, polyester, cotton blends in the form of T shirts, sweaters, bath rugs and accessories, socks and stockings. 7. Leemetals epicyclic Paddle dyeing machine. Garment dyeing machine Machine Name STEFAB, Manufacturing Company-STEFAB Indial Limited
  45. 45. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 45 of 49 Specifications:  Capacity: 280 kg (1:10)  Inner cylinder: 1750 mm dial X 1180mm  Wash motor: 7.5 KW  Extract speed: 130 RPM  Main door opening: 1000 mm dial  Inspection door opening: 300 mm dial  Water connection consumption: 50 mm dial, 960 litres.  Drain: 115 mm dial, 2 ways out  Steam connection consumption: 25 mm dial, 200 Kg/hr.  Thermal fluid connection consumption: 1.5‖ X 1.5‖ BSP, 80000 KCAL/Hr.  Overall dimension: 1950mm(W) X 2500mm(D) X 2100mm(H) Features:  Single door, front-loading, open pocket.  Machine body and essential parts are made of stainless steel.  Automatic timed. Auto reverse. Automatic 5 water level & auto digital temperature control.  Electric solenoid water & steam valves.  Non-clog motorised drain valve.  Full electric protection. Garments Dyeing machine Features 1. Sizes: from sampling machines with a 50cm basket and a capacity of 90-110 litres to dye and finish small lots of garments, to manufacturing machines with 2.8 m basket and capacities ranging from 8,000 to 8,500 litres, but with similar liquor ratios (to facilitate reproducibility).
  46. 46. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 46 of 49 2. Baskets: with different shapes depending on the type of materials to be dyed and finished (jeans, linen garments, knitwear, etc.) and on the different effects (ageing, delavØ, enzymatic treatments for cotton, linen or Tencel) 3. Perforated steel sheet metals and beater covers to avoid damage to the basket when treating the fabrics with pumice (stone-wash, ageing). 4. Delta or star-shaped separators for treating very delicate garments. 5. Automatic systems for distributing and dissolving dyes and auxiliaries. 6. PLC to program, store and monitor the treatment cycles. 7. Loading and unloading systems provided with robotised shuttle or tilting optional devices. 8. Automatic pumice separation devices during the unloading stage Difference between the Garments Dyeing and Fabric Dyeing Garments Dyeing Fabric Dyeing 1. When garments are made from grey fabric and then the garments are dyed in required color and shade called garments dyeing. 1. Fabric dyeing is the method after weaving, knitting or non woven to make fabric. This is a very popular method of dyeing of the dyed fabrics will be processed further to garments industries very easily. 2. Less time is required. 2. More time is required. 3. Comparatively low cost of production. 3. Comparatively higher cost of production then garments dyeing process. 4. For direct dyeing M: L ratio maintained between 1: 10 4. For reactive dyeing M: L ratio maintained between 1: 8 5. Wales per centimeter is not increases after dyeing process. 5. Wales per centimeter increases after dyeing process. Because during dyeing fabric is continuously revolved. Therefore fabric gets lengthwise tension & it causes increases of WPCM. 6. GSM is increase after dyeing. 6. GSM is also increase after dyeing. 7. Generally Belly machine is used for garments dyeing. 7. Generally Jet/Jigger/Pad/ Winch dyeing machine are used 8. Less production than Fabric Dyeing. 8. Higher production than Garments Dyeing. 9. Comparatively lower space is needed. 9. Comparatively higher space is needed. 10. No possibility of shade variation. 10. It has possibility of shade variation. 11. For direct dye pH is needed 4-7. For reactive dye pH is needed 9-11. 12. Sewing thread used for making the garments should be of same fiber like the garments fabric, otherwise color difference may occur between garments fabric and sewing thread. 12. No need of sewing thread. 13. After dyed garments no need processed further to garments industries. 13. After dyed fabrics must be processed further to garments industries. [5]
  47. 47. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 47 of 49 Problems Related to Garment Dyeing Though garment dyeing has attracted many processors to look forward, the process is attached with many stringent requirements related to seams, elasticated areas, waist band, cuffs and problems often occur due to shrink behaviour, chafe marks / creases, accessories, sewing threads, foreign substances, interlining and care labeling. Processing problems related to the garment size control and appearance normally result from variations in yarn size / twist, ends per inch, picks per inch or courses per inch in the knitted fabrics. Preparation is an area of textiles in which the least attention is paid to correct procedures. Most of all dyeing problems can be traced to improperly prepared cloth. Natural impurities in the cotton vary among the various locations across the world. Shade non-uniformity and the related appearance problems arise due to the differences in fabric preparation processes like, desizing, scouring and bleaching. Retention of shade, in the case of rayon fabrics, is unstable than that of cotton fabrics. All these problems are further aggravated, if there is any inconsistency in the garment assembly. Though garment dyeing has been reviewed by many authors, the problems arising in the garment dyeing are discussed in detail. [7] Some of the problems that are difficult to correct after dyeing include: poor fabric preparation, improper tension of the sewing threads that may lead to seam puckering, garments prepared with panels taken from differently or inconsistently prepared fabrics and discoloration of button and closures caused by dyes and chemicals used in the process. Consistent shade replication depends on material to liquor ratio, salt concentration, heating rate, alkali concentration, fixation time and temperature. Chlorine emitted from bleaching or ice wash can lead to white specks. Also, the residual hydrogen peroxide in the bleached materials can interfere with dyes and spoil the colours. Different machines used in the fabric preparation can result in differences due to the time and temperature differences. While sewing, it is necessary to keep sewing tensions minimum on lock stitch and chain stitch operations. About 90 – 95% of the garments that the dyer receives are cut and sewn from previously prepared cloth. Oils, softeners used in knitting needs to be removed. The various problems observed in the dyed garments include variation in shade / depth within the garment panels, between garments occurs due to mixing of panels cut from differently treated fabrics, white undyed / light seams happens mainly due to tight stitching, which further gets tighter due to the shrinkage during a higher temperature of dyeing, and prevents dye penetration on seams and underneath the stitches, variation in the shade and brightness differences within the garment panels happens due mixing fabrics treated with OBA and without OBA, finish, resin and etc has been added to the garments. Dimensionally stable thread with low elongation will help prevent seam puckering after dyeing. The dimensional stability of the stitching thread should be tested prior to stitching and thread with low elongation can prevent seam puckering after dyeing. Core spun thread also give excellent results. In the case of knitted fabrics, pre relaxation is employed to avoid the problems of seam pucker and garment distortion and such fabrics can also be used along with woven fabrics as fabric cut and sewn garment designs.[7] Size of the filaments also affects the depth of the shade, due to the fact that coarser filaments absorb more light than finer filaments. As the cross section of fibres becomes more and more non-circular, the fibres light scattering power increases. Trilobal fibres need about 50% extra dye than circular fibres for same depth. However, bulked multi-lobal fibres in the yarn ―trap the light‖ within the body of the textile and increases the depth of the colour. Therefore, light scattering or light trapping can alter the depth as decided by cross section. [7] The randomness of orientation of the dyed fibres in a textile material strongly influences the depth of
  48. 48. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 48 of 49 the colour. The apparent colour of yarns made from filaments tends to be highly dependent on the angle of viewing, whereas such sensitivity is not obvious in the case of staple fibre yarns. In the fabrics containing raised surfaces like velour, velvet, corduroy, difference in the side and end arise mainly due to the optical origin, which is traceable to the path length traversed by the light in the longitudinal and transverse directions in fibres. More light is absorbed in the longitudinal direction than in the cross sectional direction. Side and end effects can give rise to non-uniform colour appearance in the garments. Significant darkening of the fabrics occurs after subjecting it to calendaring because of the increased optical contact and reduced light scattering power. Similarly oil or water present in the fabrics also brings significant darkening effects in the fabrics.[7] Elasticated areas, waist bands and cuffs must be fairly slack and seams should not be too much bulky or tightly. Shrinkage behaviour becomes more important where knitted and woven fabrics are mixed. Pre-relaxed knitted fabrics, pretreated woven fabrics should be fully preshrunk through suitable process. The various patterns present in the garments must be adjusted to compensate for shrinkage during dyeing process. It has been suggested many times to make sample garments before initiating large scale production to determine the adjustments required in the patterns. Establishing dyeing procedures for each garments style, dye system and set-controls can help to address the variations in load, water volume, temperature and cycle time. Garment to garment shade differences can be minimized with machine loads containing garments made from the same lot of fabric. Chafe marks / creases are, particularly, related to drum dyeing machines and in many circumstances, garments are turned inside out and dyed with non-foaming lubricants. Tendency to entangle can be reduced by tacking and eliminated by bagging the articles which in turn reduces the abrasion, wear and tear of interior metallic surface. Once formed, a crease may then remain throughout the finishing processes. They lead to unlevel treatment and dyeing effect and of irreparable surface damages to the goods from. Swollen cellulosic fibres are especially sensitive to mechanical friction, while thermoplastic synthetic fibres tend to form permanent creases. Fibre type (natural / thermoplastic) fabric construction (tightly woven crease prone), loading (higher loading-higher creases), addition of lubricant (special lubricants reduces friction) are some of the parameters that influence chafe marks.[7] The majority of the problems in dyeing of garments are attributed to pretreatment of garment prior to dyeing, quality and type of materials used in the making of garments viz fabric construction, sewing thread, buttons, zippers, pocket lining etc., dyeing process and the machine used for dyeing. Problems related to electrolysis of ionic processing solutions resulting from galvanic action of bimetallic garment accessories have been discussed in the past. Anionic organic inhibitors are used to protect metal accessories such as button, zippers made of non-ferrous, white metals (non-aluminium) from oxidation and tarnishing. The relative merits and demerits of the garment processes have been well discussed in the past and include the following aspects. [7]
  49. 49. Latest technology of Garment dyeing Azmir Latif, MSc Engr. (Textile) Page 49 of 49 Conclusion: Garment dyeing is the cost effectiveness of mass producing identical garments of particular colors. A major drawback with this approach is the risk associated with carrying a large inventory of a particular style or color in today's dynamic market. Garment dyeing has been slowly emerging as a process to meet the ephemeral fashion trends adopted by the consumers and new machines and methods have made this process to wear a brighter future for it. However, the garment dyeing is not coming without any strings attached to it; the cautions are often pronounced in terms of fabrics and their preparation, accessories used in the garments for safe operation. Along with raw stock dyeing, yarn dyeing and piece dyeing, garment dyeing has also taken its place as another form of dyeing textiles. In the case of garment dyeing, the volume of popular and unpopular colors can be increased or decreased as envisaged from the market requirements. The problems faced in dyeing of fabrics in terms of economy of operations and other cost factors can be, largely, optimized and reduced in the garment dyeing. At the surface level, the garment dyeing appears to be very much attractive nevertheless stringent conditions are essential while making the garments to address the problems related to the seams, closures, interlining and the pleated areas. Garment dyeing has changed the industry by allowing retailers and distributors to respond quickly to the rapid changes in color, styles and finishes demanded by today's market. "Just in time dyeing", is the process by which manufacturers produce batches of standard garments, prior to identifying seasonal color trends. This process allows distributors and retailers to quickly respond to fashion trends, without being stuck with outdated inventory. We get the look and feel desired for resort wear, corporate casual wear, and children's wear. So consider above all garment dyeing become popular. By garment dyeing get some extra benefit that is look and feel of garment dyed clothing is better than fabric dyeing garment. Reference: 1. http://www.slideshare.net/prabukrishnaa/garment-dyeing-techniques?qid=ea2993db-0989- 4751-9417-00bff5cc322d&v=qf1&b=&from_search=1 2. http://www.slideshare.net/sheshir/garments-dying-machine 3. http://www.dyehouseltd.com/garmentdye.html 4. http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2011/03/description-of-garment- dyeing_6882.html#ixzz3YLAi9kaW 5. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol. 3, Issue. 4, Jul - Aug. 2013 pp-2434-2441 ISSN: 2249-6645 6. http://www.tiedyehunter.com/swatcheswindow.htm 7. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/textile-industry-articles/dyeing-of- garments/dyeing-of-garments1-7.asp 8. http://www.coatsindustrial.com/en/information-hub/apparel-expertise/sewing-post-dyed- garments 9. Md. Mahamudul Hasan(Wash Technician) of Ayesha Washing Ltd.(A Sister Concern of Palmal Group) in Jamgora, Ashulia, Savar,Dhaka., Cell: +8801747284925, +8801672130171, Email: mahamudul.hs@gmail.com, awl.pdn@palmalgarments.com ……………..00000000000000000000……………..

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