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Early Renaissance in 15th c. Italy
• Intellectuals in 15th c. Italy thought of
themselves as living in a NEW AGE.
• Believ...
Causes:
• Study of texts from Greece and Rome for
moral content and style (medieval
university—prized theology) but
Renais...
15th c. Republic of Florence (ala Roman Republic)
• Signoria—governing council—officials
elected from members of the guild...
Across the piazza from
the Florence Cathedral
facade was the
baptistery. Every child
born in Florence
(heathens excepted)
...
Guild-sponsored competition in 1401 east doors of the city’s
baptistery.
Ghiberti. Sacrifice of Isaac
1401Bronze relief
competition panel for east
doors, baptistery of Florence
Cathedral 1401-02
Brunelleschi. Sacrifice of Isaac.
Competition panel for east
doors, baptistery of Florence.
BRUNELLESCHI
• After losing the competition…Rome with
Donatello
• Studied ancient structures
• Discovered linear perspecti...
The Cathedral of Florence was begun in 1298. Santa Maria del Fiore
(our Lady of the Flower, the lily was a symbol of Flore...
Brunelleschi, dome of Florence
Cathedral, 1420-36
• Brunelleschi placed
dome over 140’
crossing by
designing a thin
double shell that
was ogival (pointed
arch) in section.
...
Brunesslechi, Hospital of the Innocents, 1421…1st Ren. bldg.
Patron: Silk Merchants Guild and Goldsmiths
The commission en...
Details:
Loggia—covered walkway
Arcade—series of columns spanned by arches
Pedimented windows—triangular treatment
balance...
Andrea della Robbia - Glazed terra-cotta reliefs of
swaddled babes
Interior of the church
begun 1436
-
Santo Spirito, Florence
• Simplicity
• Proportion
• symmetry
Mathematical ratios and
graceful rhythm embody the
new Renaissance style of
architect...
Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, begun after 144 (Brunelleschi).
Pazzi Chapel Int.
• Attributed to
• Michelozzo di Bartolomeo,
• Palazzo Medici-Riccardi,
Florence, begun 1446
• Courtyard
with
sgraffito
(decoration
produced
by
scratching
through
plaster or
glaze).
Or San Michele, Florence (early 14th c.)
1406—dictum to fill niches
1414—K. Ladislaus, Naples threatened Florence
1423—nic...
Nanni di Banco. Four Saints.
Or San Michele, Florence,
c.1410-16
Four martyred sculptors who
refused and order from the
Ro...
Donatello, St Mark, 1411, Marble, 7’9”
As Giotto had succeeded
his master Cimabue, so
Ghiberti produced a student
whose fa...
Donatello.
S. George. Or San Michele.
Florence, c.1417
Guild of Armorers’ and Swordmakers’
Continues Gothic tradition (dep...
Two years later Donatello was commissioned to install this relief…marks
a turning point in Renaissance sculpture…painterly...
Donatello. Feast of Herod, baptismal font of the Siena Cathedral. c.1425
Reflects Brunelleschi’s linear perspective and re...
Donatello
Equestrian
monument of
Gattamelata a
recently
deceased
Venetian
condottiere
(military leader of
mercenary
troops...
Erasmo da Narni (nicknamed Gattamelata)
Venice honored him for his military successes.
Donatello recalled the Equestrian s...
• Donatello spent most of his career in
Florence and worked for important families
like the Medici.
GHIBERTI
1378-1455
LORENZO GHIBERTI,
GATES OF PARADISE,
BAPTISTRY OF SAN GIOVANNI,
1425-52
Ghiberti, Lorenzo (1378-1455),
one of the most important early
Renaissance sculptors of
Florence; his work and writings
fo...
Adam/Eve and Cain/Abel
Noah and Abraham
Jacob/Esau and Joseph/Bros.
Moses/Sinai and Joshua/Promised Land
David/Goliath and Soloman/Q of Sheba
Ghiberti. PANEL ON THE DOOR, GATES
OF PARADISE. 1425-52
Story of Jacob and Esau
PANEL ON THE DOOR, GATES OF PARADISE
Story of Jacob and Esau
Discovery of the Golden Cup
The Medici recognized Donatello’s great talent and
commissioned him to sculpt a statue of David.
The Florentines identifie...
Medici as
Patrons
Verrocchio. David. C.1465-1470.
bronze
One of the most important sculptors in
the 2nd half of the century…reaffirms
the Me...
Another Medici appropriation of civic imagery can be seen in a small table
bronze of Hercules and Anteus made for the Medi...
Antonio del Pollaiuolo.
Hercules and Antaeus.
C.1475 bronze, 18”
Mythological themes…
Medici Neo-Platonic
school…reflects ...
ANDREA EL VERROCCHIO.
EQUESTRIAN MONUMENT
OF BARTOLOMMEO
COLLEONI(Venetian
condottiere)
The condottiere and his horse
have...
Andrea del Verrocchio.
Doubting Thomas.
Or San Michele.
PAINTING
MASSACCIO. TRINITY WITH
THE VIRGIN, SAINT JOHN THE
EVANGELIST AND
DONORS, fresco, 1425- 27/28
Sta. Maria Novella, Florence...
• Holy Trinity provides a vivid example of a
pyramid or triangular composition. Rather
than placing his figures along a ho...
INTERIOR OF THE BRANCACCI CHAPEL. Sta. Maria del Carmine, Florence
TRIBUTE MONEY, fresco
Masaccio’s figures represent a revolutionary step in Western art—solid three-
dimensional figures, a...
MASACCIO.
THE EXPULSION FROM PARADISE,
fresco
The colors in true fresco (boun fresco) are
much paler than those in oil pai...
MASACCIO.
THE EXPULSION FROM PARADISE, fresco
Masaccio based his Eve on this ancient statue of the Modest Venus
• The Church of San Marco
• Fra Angelico, Annunciation.
In the 1440's, a Dominican Friar, Fra Angelico painted the interior of the
Monastery San Marco in Florence with frescoes. ...
The works of Fran Angelico reveal elements of both Gothic and Renaissance.
Lacks symbolic objects…no book
Figures are pain...
ANDREA DEL CASTANGO. LAST SUPPER, fresco, 1447
Trompe l’oeil effect is evident in the illusion of the room cut into the wa...
Madonna and Child (1440-1445)
Filippo Lippi, (1406 – 1469)
National Gallery of Art, Washington,
DC.
Carmelite friar
Paolo Uccello. Battle of San Romano. C.1455 tempera on wood
SANDRO BOTTICELLI
PAINTER 1445—1510
• During the second half of the 15th century, the
republic of Florence flourished under the
leadership of Lorenzo de’ Medi...
• Born in Florence
• Apprenticed at age 14 to a goldsmith
• Apprenticed in 1462 to Fra Filippo Lippi
Medici Patronage
Botticelli lived at the time of the city’s
greatest intellectual and artist
flowering, which coincides wi...
• Botticelli’s style evolved into one that was
very distinct. His portraits seemed to have a
melancholy or sad characteris...
SANDRO BOTTICELLI. PRIMAVERA, 1482, tempera
Neo-platonism was a court style, reflecting the advanced ideas of a small grou...
Patron: cousin of Lorenzo Medici, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco. Painted as a
celebration of his marriage in 1482.
Celebrates t...
Note the emotion on the face
of Chloris as she begins her
transformation into Flora,
Goddess of Flowers
In this allegory of
life, beauty and
knowledge united by
love, Botticelli catches
the freshness of an early
spring morning...
SANDRO BOTTICELLI. THE BIRTH OF VENUS, 1484- 86, tempera
For the first time in a 1000 years, we see a painted a life-size ...
• On Venus' right is Zephyrus, God of Winds, he
carries with him the gentle breeze Aura and
together they blow the Goddess...
Botticelli, Simonetta Vespucci
Model for Venus is though to be
Simone Cattaneo de Vespucci, a
favorite of the Medici Court
Aura and Venus based on Simonetta who died young and Botticello asked to be
buried at her feet.
Like Masaccio Venus is based on this antique statue.
But unlike Masaccio, Botticelli kept the pagan subject.
However, this...
Botticelli divieates from Renaissance characteristics.
Masaccio (like Giotto) natural weighted bodies, atmospheric perspec...
Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Portrait d'un vieillard et d'un
jeune garçon (Vers 1490)
Fra Bartolomneo:
Fra Girolamo Savonarola
about 1497
• Savonarola becomes Prior of
the Dominican monastery of
San Marco in ...
The Princely Courts
URBINO
Federico da Montefeltro (condottiere)
One of the two great patrons of the 15th c.
Piero della Francesca
PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA.
BATTISTA SFORZA and FREDERICO DA MONTEFELTRO, oil
• Frederico was
an outstanding
military leader
and served
both the
papacy and
Lorenzo de’
Medici as a
mercenary.
• He lost...
Piero della Francesca.
Enthroned Madonna and
Saints Adored by Federico
da Montefeltro
(Brera Altarpiece) c.1472
oil on woo...
Resurrection
1463 (220 Kb);
Mural in fresco and
tempera
Mantua
Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga
(condottiere)
Alberti’s Sant’ Andrea
Andrea Mantegna
Alberti, façade of S.
Andrea in Mantua.
Alberti, church of Saint’Andrea
NAVE, CHURCH OF SAINT’ANDREA
S. Andrea in Mantua, nave
Arch of Augustus.
Rimini, Italy. 27
bce
ANDREA MANTEGNA. FRESCOES IN THE CAMERA PICTA, 1465-74
Palazzo Ducale, Mantua
First completely consistent illusionistic fr...
Mantegna, Room of the Newlyweds, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua. fresco
Mantegna The Dead Christ
Mantegna. St. Sebastian.
Mantegna. S. James Led
to Martyrdom. Ovetari
Chapel, Ch. Of the
Eremitani, Padua, fresco
Rome and the Papal States
Perugino
Luca Signorelli
Perugino. Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to S. Peter. Sistine
Chapel, Vatican, 1481-83. fresco (patron Pope Six...
Luca Signorelli. Damned Cast into Hell.
Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, 1499-1504. fresco
patron Pope Alexander VI
Evok...
Venice
Major art center in the last quarter
of the 15th c.
Bellini Workshop
Venice
Gateway to the Orient
Venetians saw themselves as
superior to Rome and Florence
Their Byzantine heritage
encouraged...
Giovanni Bellini 1430-1516
• Revolutionized Venetian painting, moving
it towards a more sensuous and coloristic
style.
• S...
• He brought painting to a new degree of
realism
• He is remembered for the realistic
landscapes and the harmony of light,...
St. Francis in the Desert, c.1489, tempera and oil on poplar panel
• This monumental portrays the
medieval saint who renounced
earthly riches to embrace a life of
poverty, humility, simplic...
The End
On to High Renaissance
Leonardo and Michelangelo
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EARLY RENAISSANCE

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EARLY RENAISSANCE

  1. 1. Early Renaissance in 15th c. Italy • Intellectuals in 15th c. Italy thought of themselves as living in a NEW AGE. • Believed they could improve their culture by reviving the best features of antiquity…Greek and Roman culture. • Rebirth of classical learning, literature and art.
  2. 2. Causes: • Study of texts from Greece and Rome for moral content and style (medieval university—prized theology) but Renaissance humanism aimed for practical use—for lawyers, bureaucrats, politicians, diplomats and merchants • Humanists’ analytical approach and empirical observations inspired new thinking in many fields
  3. 3. 15th c. Republic of Florence (ala Roman Republic) • Signoria—governing council—officials elected from members of the guilds and mercantile families. • Milan threatened to invade in 1401…Florence was able to defy Milan…a comparison was made between Athens defeat of the Persians…praised for piety and devotion…Renaissance humanists wished to reconcile the lessons of antiquity with their Christian faith.
  4. 4. Across the piazza from the Florence Cathedral facade was the baptistery. Every child born in Florence (heathens excepted) was baptized into the Church there. It was decided that the baptistery needed new doors. The city fathers of Florence held a competition to solicit plans for the dome's completion and for door designs in bronze. Florence Baptistery Competition
  5. 5. Guild-sponsored competition in 1401 east doors of the city’s baptistery.
  6. 6. Ghiberti. Sacrifice of Isaac 1401Bronze relief competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral 1401-02
  7. 7. Brunelleschi. Sacrifice of Isaac. Competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence.
  8. 8. BRUNELLESCHI • After losing the competition…Rome with Donatello • Studied ancient structures • Discovered linear perspective • Won competition for dome of Florence cathedral—wool merchants guild
  9. 9. The Cathedral of Florence was begun in 1298. Santa Maria del Fiore (our Lady of the Flower, the lily was a symbol of Florence) was the third cathedral built on the site. Brunelleschi submitted the winning plan for the dome in 1420. He combined his knowledge of Roman engineering principles with innovative building techniques to construct a 100’ dome w/o any visible means of support.
  10. 10. Brunelleschi, dome of Florence Cathedral, 1420-36
  11. 11. • Brunelleschi placed dome over 140’ crossing by designing a thin double shell that was ogival (pointed arch) in section. • The dome’s weight is borne by 8 marble ribs that span the dome form base to lantern. These ribs are supplemented by 16 concealed ribs radiating from the center.
  12. 12. Brunesslechi, Hospital of the Innocents, 1421…1st Ren. bldg. Patron: Silk Merchants Guild and Goldsmiths The commission enabled him to apply the principles of: balance, harmony and proportion he discovered during his study of ancient Roman buildings.
  13. 13. Details: Loggia—covered walkway Arcade—series of columns spanned by arches Pedimented windows—triangular treatment balance, harmony and proportion
  14. 14. Andrea della Robbia - Glazed terra-cotta reliefs of swaddled babes
  15. 15. Interior of the church begun 1436 - Santo Spirito, Florence
  16. 16. • Simplicity • Proportion • symmetry Mathematical ratios and graceful rhythm embody the new Renaissance style of architecture. Brunelleschi applied these principles to the interior of Santo Spirito.
  17. 17. Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, begun after 144 (Brunelleschi).
  18. 18. Pazzi Chapel Int.
  19. 19. • Attributed to • Michelozzo di Bartolomeo, • Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, begun 1446
  20. 20. • Courtyard with sgraffito (decoration produced by scratching through plaster or glaze).
  21. 21. Or San Michele, Florence (early 14th c.) 1406—dictum to fill niches 1414—K. Ladislaus, Naples threatened Florence 1423—niches filled
  22. 22. Nanni di Banco. Four Saints. Or San Michele, Florence, c.1410-16 Four martyred sculptors who refused and order from the Roman emperor Diocletian to carve a pagan deity. Early example of Renaissance artists’ attempt to liberate statuary form its architectural setting. Patron: Wood and Stone Carvers Guild
  23. 23. Donatello, St Mark, 1411, Marble, 7’9” As Giotto had succeeded his master Cimabue, so Ghiberti produced a student whose fame exceeded his own: Donatello. Donatello was the great master of the Early Renaissance. His skills as a sculptor were unsurpassed until Michelangelo appeared almost a century later. He completed many commissions for the city of Florence. His St. Mark was commissioned by the Linen Weaver’s Guild.
  24. 24. Donatello. S. George. Or San Michele. Florence, c.1417 Guild of Armorers’ and Swordmakers’ Continues Gothic tradition (depicting warrior saints on church facades) but here it plays a civic role…ready to defend Florence.
  25. 25. Two years later Donatello was commissioned to install this relief…marks a turning point in Renaissance sculpture…painterly approach…atmospheric effect…a window onto an infinite vista.
  26. 26. Donatello. Feast of Herod, baptismal font of the Siena Cathedral. c.1425 Reflects Brunelleschi’s linear perspective and recalls his architecture— rounded arches and fluted columns and pilasters.
  27. 27. Donatello Equestrian monument of Gattamelata a recently deceased Venetian condottiere (military leader of mercenary troops) 1444-53 Bronze on marble plinth 340 cm Piazza del Santo, Padua
  28. 28. Erasmo da Narni (nicknamed Gattamelata) Venice honored him for his military successes. Donatello recalled the Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius Donatello’s horse is so large that the rider must dominate by force of person rather than size.
  29. 29. • Donatello spent most of his career in Florence and worked for important families like the Medici.
  30. 30. GHIBERTI 1378-1455
  31. 31. LORENZO GHIBERTI, GATES OF PARADISE, BAPTISTRY OF SAN GIOVANNI, 1425-52
  32. 32. Ghiberti, Lorenzo (1378-1455), one of the most important early Renaissance sculptors of Florence; his work and writings formed the basis for much of the style and aims of the later High Renaissance.
  33. 33. Adam/Eve and Cain/Abel
  34. 34. Noah and Abraham
  35. 35. Jacob/Esau and Joseph/Bros.
  36. 36. Moses/Sinai and Joshua/Promised Land
  37. 37. David/Goliath and Soloman/Q of Sheba
  38. 38. Ghiberti. PANEL ON THE DOOR, GATES OF PARADISE. 1425-52
  39. 39. Story of Jacob and Esau
  40. 40. PANEL ON THE DOOR, GATES OF PARADISE
  41. 41. Story of Jacob and Esau
  42. 42. Discovery of the Golden Cup
  43. 43. The Medici recognized Donatello’s great talent and commissioned him to sculpt a statue of David. The Florentines identified with David. As David had conquered Goliath, so had Florence overcome the boastful Duke of Milan when he attempted to conquer their city in 1402. Donatello’s David marked a milestone in Early Renaissance art. He chose to portray David as a nude youth…the first freestanding, life-size nude statue cast since antiquity. The Medici installed David in the courtyard of their Florence palace.
  44. 44. Medici as Patrons
  45. 45. Verrocchio. David. C.1465-1470. bronze One of the most important sculptors in the 2nd half of the century…reaffirms the Medici family’s identification with Florence. His David contrasts strongly in its narrative realism with the quiet classicism of Donatellos’s…he knew the psychology of brash young men.
  46. 46. Another Medici appropriation of civic imagery can be seen in a small table bronze of Hercules and Anteus made for the Medici by Antonio del Pollaiuolo (1433-98). Hercules had been represented on the state seal of Florence since the end of the thirteenth century—"to signify that Hercules, who was a giant, overcame all tyrants and evil lords as the Florentines have done.”
  47. 47. Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Hercules and Antaeus. C.1475 bronze, 18” Mythological themes… Medici Neo-Platonic school…reflects humanist preference…stress and strain of human figure in violent action. The Medici desired to associate their family with Florence’s symbolic heroes. They identified with the Greek hero and even placed his image on their state seal. Antaeus…giant and son of Earth goddess
  48. 48. ANDREA EL VERROCCHIO. EQUESTRIAN MONUMENT OF BARTOLOMMEO COLLEONI(Venetian condottiere) The condottiere and his horse have become the embodiment of will power, and a purposeful and ruthless machine.
  49. 49. Andrea del Verrocchio. Doubting Thomas. Or San Michele.
  50. 50. PAINTING
  51. 51. MASSACCIO. TRINITY WITH THE VIRGIN, SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST AND DONORS, fresco, 1425- 27/28 Sta. Maria Novella, Florence • Renaissance interests: • Realism based on observation • Application of mathematics to pictorial organization of perspective • Where is the vanishing point?
  52. 52. • Holy Trinity provides a vivid example of a pyramid or triangular composition. Rather than placing his figures along a horizontal line, Masaccio linked them in a series of interlocking pyramids. • First used by Masaccio, the pyramid configuration became one of the hallmarks of Renaissance art.
  53. 53. INTERIOR OF THE BRANCACCI CHAPEL. Sta. Maria del Carmine, Florence
  54. 54. TRIBUTE MONEY, fresco Masaccio’s figures represent a revolutionary step in Western art—solid three- dimensional figures, all standing in balanced contrapposto. A constant light source creates a realistic blend of light and shade. This chiaroscuro give each figure the illusion of volume.
  55. 55. MASACCIO. THE EXPULSION FROM PARADISE, fresco The colors in true fresco (boun fresco) are much paler than those in oil painting.
  56. 56. MASACCIO. THE EXPULSION FROM PARADISE, fresco Masaccio based his Eve on this ancient statue of the Modest Venus
  57. 57. • The Church of San Marco • Fra Angelico, Annunciation.
  58. 58. In the 1440's, a Dominican Friar, Fra Angelico painted the interior of the Monastery San Marco in Florence with frescoes. He decorated each of his fellow monks' cells with a holy image for their contemplation (the Dominicans were committed to work and prayer). At the top of the stairs leading to their quarters he painted this large-scale Annunciation.
  59. 59. The works of Fran Angelico reveal elements of both Gothic and Renaissance. Lacks symbolic objects…no book Figures are painted shallowly, harking back to pre-Renaissance The whole scene is a masterpiece of quiet understatement.
  60. 60. ANDREA DEL CASTANGO. LAST SUPPER, fresco, 1447 Trompe l’oeil effect is evident in the illusion of the room cut into the wall. Castango was influenced by Masaccio and Donatello. Castango was to influence later artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
  61. 61. Madonna and Child (1440-1445) Filippo Lippi, (1406 – 1469) National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Carmelite friar
  62. 62. Paolo Uccello. Battle of San Romano. C.1455 tempera on wood
  63. 63. SANDRO BOTTICELLI PAINTER 1445—1510
  64. 64. • During the second half of the 15th century, the republic of Florence flourished under the leadership of Lorenzo de’ Medici, grandson of Cosimo. • Lorenzo established the Platonic Academy of Philosophy, consisting of scholars, poets, and artists. This intimate circle included Botticelli. • Botticelli was apprentice under Pollaiuolo. He was known of his grace and rhythm.
  65. 65. • Born in Florence • Apprenticed at age 14 to a goldsmith • Apprenticed in 1462 to Fra Filippo Lippi
  66. 66. Medici Patronage Botticelli lived at the time of the city’s greatest intellectual and artist flowering, which coincides with the reign of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Medici Family, a very powerful and political dynasty which not only ruled Florence but also produced four popes
  67. 67. • Botticelli’s style evolved into one that was very distinct. His portraits seemed to have a melancholy or sad characteristic. He stressed line and detail…to bring his characters alive. • He included Neo-Platonism in his work. This meant that he would bring together in one painting ideas that belong to both Christianity and pagan ideas which may have included mythology. • He was invited to Rome to take part in the painting of the Sistine Chapel
  68. 68. SANDRO BOTTICELLI. PRIMAVERA, 1482, tempera Neo-platonism was a court style, reflecting the advanced ideas of a small group of well-educated and sophisticated people. The audience was elite. Based on the teachings of Plato, they believed that the pagan gods could be reconciled with Christian values. The gods and goddesses were given spiritual qualities that made them representatives of Christian virtues like—innocence, love, spiritual and intellectual as well as physical beauty.
  69. 69. Patron: cousin of Lorenzo Medici, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco. Painted as a celebration of his marriage in 1482. Celebrates the arrival of spring—filled with mythological symbolism. Venus (love) in orange grove; Left—Flora (flowers/spring); Chloris (pursued by Zephyrus (wind). Based on a poem by Ovid. Right—Three Grace (companions of love); Mercury (messenger) inspects and protects grove from intruders. Overhead—Amor (Eros/Cupid)
  70. 70. Note the emotion on the face of Chloris as she begins her transformation into Flora, Goddess of Flowers
  71. 71. In this allegory of life, beauty and knowledge united by love, Botticelli catches the freshness of an early spring morning, with pale light shining through the tall, straight trees, already laden with their golden fruit; oranges or the mythical golden apples of the Hesperides (nymphs of the evening)?
  72. 72. SANDRO BOTTICELLI. THE BIRTH OF VENUS, 1484- 86, tempera For the first time in a 1000 years, we see a painted a life-size female nude. She is Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, whom the Romans called Venus. Arisen from the waves and born by the wind Zephyrus, she glides to shore on a shell. The shell is a symbol of baptism and rebirth.
  73. 73. • On Venus' right is Zephyrus, God of Winds, he carries with him the gentle breeze Aura and together they blow the Goddess of Love ashore. The Horae, Goddess of the Seasons, waits to receive Venus and spreads out a flower covered robe in readiness for the Love Goddess' arrival.
  74. 74. Botticelli, Simonetta Vespucci Model for Venus is though to be Simone Cattaneo de Vespucci, a favorite of the Medici Court
  75. 75. Aura and Venus based on Simonetta who died young and Botticello asked to be buried at her feet.
  76. 76. Like Masaccio Venus is based on this antique statue. But unlike Masaccio, Botticelli kept the pagan subject. However, this is a complex allegory. Venus is symbolic of the Neo-Platonic way of looking at beauty. Beauty as an idea—conceived in the mind. Beauty as divine beauty. Just as we cannot have direct experience with the divine connection to God. We cannot have direct experience with divine beauty. In Neo-Platonic thought, the Biblical character Eve was identified with Venus.
  77. 77. Botticelli divieates from Renaissance characteristics. Masaccio (like Giotto) natural weighted bodies, atmospheric perspective Botticelli—stylized, elongated and weightless, no atmospheric perspective
  78. 78. Domenico Ghirlandaio. Portrait d'un vieillard et d'un jeune garçon (Vers 1490)
  79. 79. Fra Bartolomneo: Fra Girolamo Savonarola about 1497 • Savonarola becomes Prior of the Dominican monastery of San Marco in Florence. • He sparks a renaissance of religious fervor and preaches against the corruption of the Papacy and enunciates a personal responsibility for the care of ones soul. • This runs counter to Church policy of having to buy forgiveness from sin from the Vatican. • He sees Revelations being acted out in the political events leading up to the end of the millennium.
  80. 80. The Princely Courts
  81. 81. URBINO Federico da Montefeltro (condottiere) One of the two great patrons of the 15th c. Piero della Francesca
  82. 82. PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA. BATTISTA SFORZA and FREDERICO DA MONTEFELTRO, oil
  83. 83. • Frederico was an outstanding military leader and served both the papacy and Lorenzo de’ Medici as a mercenary. • He lost his right eye in battle.
  84. 84. Piero della Francesca. Enthroned Madonna and Saints Adored by Federico da Montefeltro (Brera Altarpiece) c.1472 oil on wood Where is Battista Sforza?
  85. 85. Resurrection 1463 (220 Kb); Mural in fresco and tempera
  86. 86. Mantua Marquis Ludovico Gonzaga (condottiere) Alberti’s Sant’ Andrea Andrea Mantegna
  87. 87. Alberti, façade of S. Andrea in Mantua.
  88. 88. Alberti, church of Saint’Andrea
  89. 89. NAVE, CHURCH OF SAINT’ANDREA
  90. 90. S. Andrea in Mantua, nave
  91. 91. Arch of Augustus. Rimini, Italy. 27 bce
  92. 92. ANDREA MANTEGNA. FRESCOES IN THE CAMERA PICTA, 1465-74 Palazzo Ducale, Mantua First completely consistent illusionistic fresco decoration of an entire room
  93. 93. Mantegna, Room of the Newlyweds, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua. fresco
  94. 94. Mantegna The Dead Christ
  95. 95. Mantegna. St. Sebastian.
  96. 96. Mantegna. S. James Led to Martyrdom. Ovetari Chapel, Ch. Of the Eremitani, Padua, fresco
  97. 97. Rome and the Papal States Perugino Luca Signorelli
  98. 98. Perugino. Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to S. Peter. Sistine Chapel, Vatican, 1481-83. fresco (patron Pope Sixtus IV)
  99. 99. Luca Signorelli. Damned Cast into Hell. Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, 1499-1504. fresco patron Pope Alexander VI Evokes the fiery passion of the sermons of Savonarola
  100. 100. Venice Major art center in the last quarter of the 15th c. Bellini Workshop
  101. 101. Venice Gateway to the Orient Venetians saw themselves as superior to Rome and Florence Their Byzantine heritage encouraged an art of rich patterned surfaces emphasizing light and color. Venetians were the first Italians to use oils for painting on both wood panel and canvas.
  102. 102. Giovanni Bellini 1430-1516 • Revolutionized Venetian painting, moving it towards a more sensuous and coloristic style. • Slow-drying oil paint…created deep, rich tints and detailed shadings. • Sumptuous color…fluent atmospheric landscapes had a great influence on Venetian painting, esp. Giorgione and Titian.
  103. 103. • He brought painting to a new degree of realism • He is remembered for the realistic landscapes and the harmony of light, color and mood.
  104. 104. St. Francis in the Desert, c.1489, tempera and oil on poplar panel
  105. 105. • This monumental portrays the medieval saint who renounced earthly riches to embrace a life of poverty, humility, simplicity, and prayer. Francis founded the mendicant religious order still flourishing today. In 1224 he was honored with the stigmata, the imprint of the five wounds of Christ's Crucifixion. Bellini's figure appears to be in a state of mystical transport. He strides barefoot from his simple shelter into a rock-strewn wilderness; with hands extended and lips parted, he is transfigured by a supernatural radiance that emanates from the clouds at the upper-left corner of the scene.
  106. 106. The End On to High Renaissance Leonardo and Michelangelo

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