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Introduction to immune system

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Introduction to immune system

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNE SYSTEMINTRODUCTION TO IMMUNE SYSTEM PRESENTER Shakira Ghazanfar PhDScholar Shakira_sulehri@yahoo.com ‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫اللة‬ ‫بسم‬‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫اللة‬ ‫بسم‬
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Immunity : Defence capacity of the body to combat diseases  counter infection. Immune System: Molecules, cells, tissues and organs which provide non-specific and specific protection against, Microorganisms, Microbial toxins, Tumor cells.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Their collective and coordinative response to introduction of foreign substance represent the immune response. Specific definition : Immunity is a reaction to foreign substances including microbes, as well as macromolecules (proteins, polysacharides). The reactions include cellular and molecular types (events).
  4. 4. Immunology lingo * Antigen * Any molecule that binds to immunoglobulin or T cell receptor * Pathogen * Microorganism that can cause disease * Antibody (Ab) * Secreted immunoglobulin * Immunoglobulin (Ig) * Antigen binding molecules of B cells
  5. 5. NATURALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY * Active * Antigens enter body naturally with response of * Innate and adaptive immune systems * Provides long term protection * Passive * Antibodies pass from mother to * Fetus across placenta * Infant in breast milk * Provides immediate short term protection
  6. 6. ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY * Active * Antigens enter body through vaccination with response of * Innate and adaptive immune systems * Provides long term protection * Passive * Antibodies from immune individuals injected into body * Referred to as * Immune serum globulins (ISG) * Immune globulins (IG) * Gamma globulins * Provides immediate short term protection
  7. 7. PRINCIPAL FUNCTION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM * To protect humans from pathogenic microorganisms * Pathogenic microorganisms (Pathogens) * Microorganisms capable of causing infection and/or disease * Infection * Ability of pathogen to enter host, multiply and stimulate an immune response * Disease * Clinical manifestations associated with infection
  8. 8. BACTERIA, VIRUSES, FUNGI, PARASITES—OH MY! * Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus) * Klebsiella pneumoniae * Mycobacterium tuberculosis * Ebola virus * Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) * Aspergillus fumigatus * Candida albicans * Cryptococcus neoformans * Cryptosporidium parvum * Stronglyoides stercoralis * Ascaris lumbricoides * Plasmodium falciparum
  9. 9. DEFENSE MECHANISMS OF THE HUMAN HOST * Innate Mechanisms (Innate immunity) * First line of defense * Non-specific * Adaptive Mechanisms (Adaptive immunity) * Second line of defense * Highly specific with memory * Cooperation between mechanisms
  10. 10. ORIGIN OF CELLS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM * Derived from common progenitor cell in bone marrow * Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell * Progenitor Stem Cells * Erythroid lineage * Erythrocytes and Megakaryocytes * Myeloid lineage * Monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cells, PMN’s, mast cells * Lymphoid lineage * Small and large lymphocytes
  11. 11. CELLS OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY * Myeloid Lineage * Neutrophil * Principal phagocytic cell of innate immunity * Eosinophil * Principal defender against parasites * Basophil * Functions similar to eosinophils and mast cells * Referred to as * Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN’s) * Nuclei are multilobed (2 to 5) * Granulocytes * Cytoplasmic granules
  12. 12. CELLS OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY * Myeloid lineage * Monocytes * Leukocytes with bean shaped or brain-like convoluted nuclei * Circulate in blood with half life of 8 hours * Precursors of tissue macrophages * Macrophages * Mononuclear phagocytic cells in tissue * Derive from blood monocytes * Participate in innate and adaptive immunity