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Autoimmune disease.pptx

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Autoimmune disease.pptx

  1. 1. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES Submitted by: Nirab Chakroborty 4th year, 1st semester Roll: 160301 Reg.no:1603086
  2. 2. CONTENTS: • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis • Primary myxedema • Thyrotoxicosis • Pernicious anemia • Autoimmune atrophic gastritis • Addison's disease • Premature menopause • Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus • Stiff-man syndrome • Goodpasture's syndrome • Myasthenia gravis • Male infertility • Pemphigus vulgaris • Pemphigoid • Sympathetic ophthalmia • Phacogenic uveitis • Multiple sclerosis • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura • Idiopathic leukopenia • Primary biliary cirrhosis • Active chronic hepatitis • Cryptogenic cirrhosis • Ulcerative colitis • Atherosclerosis • Sjogren's syndrome • Rheumatoid arthritis • Dermatomyositis • Scleroderma • Mixed connective tissue disease • Anti-phospholipid syndrome • Discoid lupus erythematosus
  3. 3. HASHIMOTO’S THYROIDITIS: Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder in which immune system creates antibodies that damage thyroid gland. Doctors don't know what causes our immune system to attack thyroid gland. Some scientists think a virus or bacterium might trigger the response, while others believe a genetic flaw may be involved. Symptoms: Fatigue and sluggishness ,Increased sensitivity to cold Constipation, Pale, dry skin, A puffy face, Brittle nails, Hair loss etc. Treatment : • Radioactive Iodine • Antithyroid medication • Iron supplement • Calcium supplement • Synthetic thyroid hormone Fig: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  4. 4. PRIMARY MYXEDEMA: Myxedema is another term for severely advanced hypothyroidism. This is a condition that occurs when body doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone. The thyroid is a small gland that sits right at the front of our neck. It releases hormones that help our body regulate energy and control a wide variety of functions. Myxedema is the result of having undiagnosed or untreated severe hypothyroidism. Symptoms: Decreased breathing, lower than normal blood sodium levels, Hypothermia, confusion or mental slowness, shock, low blood oxygen levels, high blood carbon dioxide levels, coma, seizures etc. Treatment: • Administrating thyroid hormone • Steroid treatment • T4 thyroxin hormone treatment etc.
  5. 5. THYROTOXICOSIS: Thyrotoxicosis means an excess of thyroid hormone in the body. Having this condition also means that, have a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH, in bloodstream, because the pituitary gland senses have “enough” thyroid hormone. If someone are thyrotoxic, he/she may feel nervous or irritable, because all of their body’s functions are speeding up. Symptoms: Nervousness, Irritability, Fatigue, Fast heartbeat, Weight loss, Insomnia, Hair loss, Thin skin etc. Treatment: • Antithyroid drugs • Radio active iodine • Surgery Fig: Thyrotoxicosis
  6. 6. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA: Pernicious anemia (per-NISH-us uh-NEE-me-uh) is a condition in which the body can't make enough healthy red blood cells because it doesn't have enough vitamin B12. People who have pernicious anemia can't absorb enough vitamin B12 from food. This is because they lack intrinsic factor, a protein made in the stomach. A lack of this protein leads to vitamin B12 deficiency. Symptoms: Shortness of Breath, Extreme Fatigue, Brain Fogs, Clumsiness/Lack of coordination, Brittle, flaky nails & Dry Skin etc. Treatment: • vitamin B-12 injections that are slowly decreased over time. • complete blood counts to measure vitamin B-12 and iron levels in blood serum. • blood tests to monitor replacement treatments.
  7. 7. AUTOIMMUNE ATROPHIC GASTRITIS: Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis – is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the immune system mistakenly destroys a special type of cell (parietal cells) in the stomach. Parietal cells make stomach acid (gastric acid) and a substance our body needs to help absorb vitamin B12 (called intrinsic factor). The progressive loss of parietal cells may lead to iron deficiency and finally vitamin B12 deficiency. The clinical signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include tiredness, pale complexion, and heart problems such as exercise intolerance and palpitations. B12 deficiency may lead to pernicious anemia as well as gastrointestinal and neurological problems. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis may also be associated with an increased risk of certain types of stomach cancers. Symptoms: unusual or unintended weight loss, vomiting, lack of appetite, nausea, iron deficiency anemia, pain in the stomach, ulcers etc. Treatment: • Vitamin B12 supplement • Surgery • Use of antibiotics (in bacterial case).
  8. 8. ADDISON'S DISEASE: Addison's disease, also called adrenal insufficiency, is an uncommon disorder that occurs when body doesn't produce enough of certain hormones. In Addison's disease, adrenal glands, located just above kidneys, produce too little cortisol and, often, too little aldosterone. Addison's disease occurs in all age groups and both sexes, and can be life-threatening. Treatment involves taking hormones to replace those that are missing. Symptoms: Abdominal pain, Abnormal menstrual periods, Craving for salty food, Dehydration, Depression, Diarrhea, Irritability, Loss of appetite, Low blood glucose, Low blood pressure, Muscle weakness, Nausea etc. Treatment: • Hormone supplement • Hydrocortisone pills to replace cortisol • Fludrocortisone acetate to replace aldosterone etc.
  9. 9. PREMATURE MENOPAUSE: When menopause occurs before the age of 40, it is referred to as premature menopause. One medical cause of premature menopause is premature ovarian failure. Other causes of premature menopause include damage to the ovaries by chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments, or surgical removal of the ovaries. Premature menopause can be a symptom of an autoimmune disease such as thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakes a part of the body for an invader and attacks it. Inflammation caused by some of these diseases can affect the ovaries. Menopause begins when the ovaries stop working. Symptoms: menstrual cycle changes, including changes to the usual bleeding pattern, particularly irregular bleeding, hot flushes, sweats, sleep disturbance, urinary problems, vaginal dryness, aches and pains etc. Treatment: There is no treatment that can reverse or prevent premature menopause. However, women who have reached menopause do have treatment options that can help control unpleasant symptoms.
  10. 10. INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS: Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. This diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It happens when body attacks pancreas with antibodies. The organ is damaged and doesn't make insulin. Genes might cause this type of diabetes. It could also happen because of problems with cells in pancreas that make insulin. Many of the health problems that can come with type 1 happen because of damage to tiny blood vessels in eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). People with type 1 also have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. Symptoms: Increased thirst, Frequent urination, Extreme hunger, Unintended weight loss, Irritability and other mood changes, Fatigue and weakness, Blurred vision etc. Treatment: • Taking insulin • Carbohydrate, fat and protein counting • Frequent blood sugar monitoring • Eating healthy foods • Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight.
  11. 11. STIFF-MAN SYNDROME: Stiff person syndrome is a rare autoimmune movement disorder that affects the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). People with this condition first experience a stiffening of the muscles of their trunk followed, over time, by the development of stiffness and rigidity in the legs and other muscles in the body. Stiff person syndrome, also called Moersch-Woltman syndrome and formerly stiff man syndrome, can also cause painful muscle spasms. The muscle spasms occur randomly or can be triggered by noise, emotional distress and light physical touch. Symptoms: Limb stiffness, stiff muscles in the trunk, posture problems from a rigid back muscles, painful muscle spasms, walking difficulties, excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) etc. Treatment: There’s no cure for SPS. However, treatments are available to help manage symptoms. • Muscle relaxer drugs • Pain medication • Autologous stem cell transplant • Intravenous immunoglobin etc.
  12. 12. GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME: Goodpasture syndrome is a group of acute illnesses that affects the lungs and kidneys. It involves an autoimmune disorder. Normally, the immune system makes antibodies to fight off germs. But with Goodpasture syndrome, the immune system mistakenly makes antibodies that attack the lungs and kidneys. This condition can quickly progress to an inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis) and kidney failure. It can be fatal if not quickly diagnosed and treated. Symptoms: Fatigue, weakness, lethargy, nausea or vomiting, loss of appetite, unhealthy, pale appearance, dry cough, coughing up blood (hemoptysis), shortness of breath or difficulty breathing etc. Treatment: • Immunosuppressive medication • Corticosteroid medications • Plasmapheresis • Plasma exchange
  13. 13. MYASTHENIA GRAVIS: Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune, neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in the skeletal muscles that worsens after periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. These muscles are responsible for functions involving breathing and moving parts of the body, including the arms and legs. The name myasthenia gravis, which is Latin and Greek in origin, means “grave, or serious, muscle weakness.” Symptoms: Trouble talking, problems walking up stairs or lifting objects, facial paralysis, fatigue, hoarse voice, drooping of eyelids, double vision etc. Treatment: There is no known treatment to cure this disease, but some drugs/therapy are used to dominate the symptoms. These are: • Drugs to treat inflammation • Radiation therapy or drugs to change immune response • Intravenous immune globulin etc.
  14. 14. MALE INFERTILITY: Male infertility is defined as a male’s inability to cause a pregnancy after having regular intercourse (sex) with a fertile female without birth control for one year. A complete lack of sperm is the cause of infertility in about 15% of men who are infertile. When a man does not produce sperm, it is called azoospermia (pronounced ay- zoh-uh-SPUR-mee-uh). A hormone imbalance or a blockage of sperm movement can cause azoospermia. Cause of infertility: Abnormal sperm production, lack of sperm, Problems with the delivery of sperm, Overexposure to certain environmental factors ( Obesity, smoking, radiation, infection, genital injuries etc). Treatment: One in eight infertile men have a treatable condition, and after treatment, couples can become pregnant naturally. In some cases, doctor will recommend assisted reproductive treatment (used to achieve pregnancy), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). These methods don’t cure or treat the cause of infertility, but they can help to get pregnant, even if sperm count is very low.
  15. 15. PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS: Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune, intraepithelial, blistering disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is mediated by circulating autoantibodies directed against keratinocyte cell surfaces. A potentially life-threatening disease, it has a mortality rate of approximately 5-15%. The primary lesion of pemphigus vulgaris is a flaccid blister filled with clear fluid that arises on healthy skin or on an erythematous base. Symptoms: • painful blisters that start in the mouth or skin areas • skin blisters near the surface of the skin that come and go • oozing, crusting, or peeling at the blister site Treatment: • Corticosteroids and immune-suppressing drugs • Antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals • Plasmapheresis etc.
  16. 16. PEMPHIGOID: Pemphigoid is a rare autoimmune disorder that can develop at any age, including in kids, but that most often affects the elderly. Pemphigoid is caused by a malfunction of the immune system and results in skin rashes and blistering on the legs, arms, and abdomen. Pemphigoid can also cause blistering on the mucous membranes. In the case of pemphigoid, immune system creates antibodies to attack the tissue just below outer layer of skin. This causes the layers of skin to separate and results in painful blistering. Symptoms: • A red rash develops before the blisters • The blisters are large and filled with fluid that’s usually clear, but may contain some blood • The blisters are thick and don’t rupture easily • The skin around the blisters may appear normal, or slightly red or dark • Ruptured blisters are usually sensitive and painful. Treatment: • IVIG therapy • Nicotinamide • Dapsone • Skin emollients or moisturizers to reduce itchiness • Pain-relief medications, such as Tylenol or aspirin.
  17. 17. SYMPATHETIC OPHTHALMIA: Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a rare eye condition that can develop after an eye injury or within days or weeks after eye surgery. This condition presents itself as a type of uveitis (eye inflammation), and it occurs because the body’s immune system attacks the healthy eye. The healthy eye is called the "sympathizing eye” because it shows sympathy to the injured one and becomes inflamed. Sympathetic ophthalmia is vision- threatening if not treated quickly. Symptoms: Pain and redness in the sympathizing eye, Headache, Decreases in visual acuity, Increased sensitivity to light, Vision loss, Retinal detachment in severe cases, Eye floaters etc. Treatment: Actually there are no developed process or drugs to treat this disease, but some drugs are used as a immune suppressant to control the injury. • Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants • Sometimes removal of eye
  18. 18. PHACOGENIC UVEITIS: Phacogenic uveitis is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with production of autoantibodies which produce a break in the lens capsule. Among the triggering factors in phacogenic uveitis is retained lens material following cataract extraction. Phacogenic uveitis is always an acute ocular inflammatory process. Symptoms: Pain, Photophobia, Floaters and Blurred Vision, Ciliary Injection, Keratic Precipitates, Changes in lens, Iris Atrophy etc. Treatment: • Prolonged corticosteroid therapy • Periocular corticosteroids • Intensive corticosteroid therapy also be employed.
  19. 19. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between our brain and the rest of our body. Eventually, the disease can cause permanent damage or deterioration of the nerves. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms. Symptoms: Fatigue, difficulty walking, vision problems (such as blurred vision), problems controlling the bladder, numbness or tingling in different parts of the body, muscle stiffness and spasms, problems with thinking, learning and planning etc. Treatment: • Short courses of steroid medicine to speed up recovery • Specific treatments for individual MS symptoms etc.
  20. 20. AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare red blood cell disorder and an immune disorder. It happens when the body produces antibodies that destroy the red blood cells. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), or immune hemolytic anemia, happens when the immune system does not work properly. It mistakes red blood cells for unwanted substances and attacks them, causing them to die early. This leaves a person without enough red blood cells. Symptoms: Increasing Weakness, Shortness Of Breath, Rapid Heartbeat, Pale Or Yellow-colored Skin, Muscle Pain, Nausea, Vomiting, Dark-colored Urine, Headache, Abdominal Discomfort, Bloating, Diarrhea etc. Treatment: • Steroids (Bisphosphonates, Vitamin D, Calcium, Folic Acid) • Surgery • Immune- suppressing drugs.
  21. 21. IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is an immune disorder in which the blood doesn’t clot normally. This condition is now more commonly referred to as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). ITP can cause excessive bruising and bleeding. An unusually low level of platelets, or thrombocytes, in the blood results in ITP. People with ITP often have many purple bruises called purpura on the skin or mucous membranes inside the mouth. These bruises may also appear as pinpoint-sized red or purple dots on the skin called petechiae. Petechiae often look like a rash. ITP can occur in both children and adults. Symptoms: Bruising easily, Pinpoint-sized Petechiae, Spontaneous Nosebleeds, Blood in the urine, Blood In The stool, Abnormally heavy Menstruation, Prolonged bleeding from Cuts, Profuse bleeding during Surgery etc. Treatment: • Corticosteroids • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) • General immunosuppressants • Surgery etc.
  22. 22. IDIOPATHIC LEUKOPENIA: Leukopenia is a condition where a person has a reduced number of white blood cells. This increases their risk of infections. A person’s blood is made up of many different types of blood cells. White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, help to fight off infection. Leukocytes are a vital part of the immune system. People who have leukopenia have fewer white blood cells than they should. This makes them more likely to get infections. Symptoms: There are no specific symptoms of having a low white blood cell count. However, when someone has leukopenia, they are more likely to get infections. The symptoms of infection include: • Fever • Sweating • Chills etc. Treatment: • If a person has cancer and their chemotherapy is causing leukopenia, they may need to pause their treatment to allow their white blood cells to replenish. • Treatments that use growth factors, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, may help leukopenia. These are often used when chemotherapy is causing leukopenia or if the cause is genetic.
  23. 23. PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS: Primary biliary cholangitis, previously called primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic disease in which the bile ducts in liver are slowly destroyed. Primary biliary cholangitis is considered an autoimmune disease, which means body's immune system is mistakenly attacking healthy cells and tissue. Researchers think a combination of genetic and environmental factors triggers the disease. It usually develops slowly. Medication can slow liver damage, especially if treatment begins early. Symptoms: Fatigue, Itchy skin, Dry eyes and mouth, Pain in the upper right abdomen, Swelling of the spleen Bone, Muscle or joint (musculoskeletal) pain, Swollen feet and ankles (edema) etc. Treatment: There's no cure for primary biliary cholangitis, but medications are available to help slow the progression of the disease and prevent complications. Options include: • Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) • Obeticholic acid (Ocaliva) • Fibrates (Tricor) • Liver transplant.
  24. 24. ACTIVE CHRONIC HEPATITIS: Chronic hepatitis is an liver inflammation continues for at least six months. This condition may be mild, causing relatively little damage, or more serious, causing many liver cells to be destroyed. Some cases lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. Chronic hepatitis from infection is most often caused by viruses like as: Hepatitis B and C, Hepatitis D. Autoimmune hepatitis can also be occur. In this form of chronic hepatitis, the immune system mistakenly destroys the body's own liver cells. If left untreated, it's a progressive disease that can lead to cirrhosis. Symptoms: Mild upper abdomen discomfort, Loss of appetite, Nausea, Body aches, Jaundice, Abdominal swelling, Weight loss, Muscle weakness, Dark urine etc. Treatment: • Treatment of the cause (such as antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C) • Treatment of complications • Liver implantation.
  25. 25. CRYPTOGENIC CIRRHOSIS: Cryptogenic cirrhosis is a condition that impairs liver function. People with this condition develop irreversible liver disease caused by scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), typically in mid- to late adulthood. In the early stages of cryptogenic cirrhosis, people often have no symptoms because the liver has enough normal tissue to function. Signs and symptoms become apparent as more of the liver is replaced by scar tissue. Cryptogenic cirrhosis can lead to type 2 diabetes. Symptoms: Fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, swelling (edema), enlarged blood vessels, and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). Treatment: The definitive treatment for cryptogenic cirrhosis is transplantation. However, given the close association between cryptogenic cirrhosis, medical management until transplant may be beneficial. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, physical exercise, and a healthy diet are recommended.
  26. 26. ULCERATIVE COLITIS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD comprises a group of diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis occurs when the lining of large intestine (also called the colon), rectum, or both becomes inflamed. The inflammation causes your bowel to move its contents rapidly and empty frequently. As cells on the surface of the lining of your bowel die, ulcers form. The ulcers may cause bleeding and discharge of mucus and pus. Symptoms: Abdominal Pain, Bloody Stools, Diarrhea, Fever, Rectal Pain, Weight Loss, Malnutrition etc. Treatment: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition. The goal of treatment is to reduce the inflammation that causes symptoms so someone can prevent flare-ups and have longer periods of remission. • Medication (Mesalamine, Sulfasalazine, Balsalazide, Olsalazine). • Systemic corticosteroids etc.
  27. 27. ATHEROSCLEROSIS: Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from heart to rest of the body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to different organs and tissues. Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Atherosclerosis refers to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls (plaque), which can restrict blood flow. The plaque can burst, triggering a blood clot. Although atherosclerosis is often considered a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in your body. Atherosclerosis may be preventable and is treatable. Symptoms: Weakness, Difficulty Breathing, Paralysis, Extreme Anxiety, Chest Pain, Feeling Faint etc. Treatment: • Medications (Cholesterol medications, Beta blocker medications) • Surgical procedures (Bypass surgery, Endarterectomy, Angioplasty)
  28. 28. SJOGREN'S SYNDROME: Sjogren's (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a disorder of immune system identified by its two most common symptoms, dry eyes and a dry mouth. The condition often accompanies other immune system disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In Sjogren's syndrome, the mucous membranes and moisture-secreting glands of eyes and mouth are usually affected first, resulting in decreased tears and saliva. Symptoms: Dry eyes, Dry mouth, Joint pain, swelling and stiffness, Skin rashes or dry skin, Prolonged fatigue etc. Treatment: Treatment for Sjogren's syndrome depends on the parts of the body affected. But some people need prescription medications, or even surgical procedures. • Medications • Surgery • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) • Autologous eye serum etc.
  29. 29. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect more than just our joints. In some people, the condition can damage a wide variety of body systems, including the skin, eyes, lungs, heart and blood vessels. An autoimmune disorder, rheumatoid arthritis occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks own body's tissues. Symptoms: • Tender, warm, swollen joints. • Joint stiffness that is usually worse in the mornings and after inactivity. • Fatigue, fever and loss of appetite. Treatment: • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) • Corticosteroid medications • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) • Surgery etc.
  30. 30. DERMATOMYOSITIS: Dermatomyositis (dur-muh-toe-my-uh-SY-tis) is an uncommon inflammatory disease marked by muscle weakness and a distinctive skin rash. The condition can affect adults and children. In most cases, the cause of an inflammatory myopathy is unclear. For some reason, the body’s immune system turns against its own muscles and damages muscle tissue in an autoimmune process. In dermatomyositis, these cells attack the small blood vessels that supply muscles and skin. Symptoms: muscle pain, muscle tenderness, problems on swallowing, lung problems, fatigue, fever etc. Treatment: • Corticosteroid-sparing agents • Antimalarial medications • Therapy • Dietetic assessment • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) • Surgery etc.
  31. 31. SCLERODERMA: Scleroderma is classified as an autoimmune disease. This means that a person’s immune system works against itself. In scleroderma, cells start making collagen as if there were an injury that needs repairing. The cells do not turn off as they should and end up making too much collagen. The extra collagen in the tissues can prevent the body’s organs from functioning normally. Symptoms: Hair loss, calcium deposits, joint pain, shortness of breath, dry cough, diarrhea, constipation, esophageal reflux, abdominal bloating after meals etc. Treatment: • Corticosteroids • Immunosuppressants, such as methotrexate or Cytoxan • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs • Blood pressure medication • Medication to aid breathing • Physical therapy etc.
  32. 32. MIXED CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune disorder. It’s sometimes called an overlap disease because many of its symptoms overlap with those of other connective tissue disorders, such as lupus, scleroderma, and polymyositis. Some cases of MCTD also share symptoms with rheumatoid arthritis. There’s no cure for MCTD, but it can usually be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. It shouldn’t have much of an impact on life expectancy. Symptoms: • Puffy, swollen fingers. • White, numb fingertips – often in response to the cold. • Fatigue and feeling of being unwell. • Muscle and joint pain. • A red or reddish-brown patch on your knuckles. Treatment: • Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent your immune system from attacking your healthy cells. • Immunosuppressive drugs that to helps block the immune system and its attack on healthy tissue. • Other medications to treat or reduce the risk of certain complications of the disease.
  33. 33. ANTI-PHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (commonly called antiphospholipid syndrome or APS) is an autoimmune disease present mostly in young women. Those with APS make abnormal proteins called antiphospholipid autoantibodies in the blood. This causes blood to flow improperly and can lead to dangerous clotting in arteries and veins, problems for a developing fetus and pregnancy miscarriage. People with this disorder may otherwise be healthy, or they also may suffer from an underlying disease, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus. Symptoms: • Chest pain and shortness of breath, • Pain, redness, warmth, and swelling in the limbs • Ongoing headaches • Speech changes • Upper body discomfort in the arms, back, neck, and jaw • Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach). Treatment: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) has no cure. However, medicines can help prevent complications. The goals of treatment are to prevent blood clots from forming and keep existing clots from getting larger.
  34. 34. DISCOID LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: Discoid lupus (discoid lupus erythematosus) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin. It gets its name from the coin-shaped lesions it produces. This condition causes a severe rash that tends to get worse when exposed to sunlight. The rash can appear anywhere on the body, but you’re likely to see it on the scalp, neck, hands, and feet. Severe cases can lead to permanent scarring, hyperpigmentation, and hair loss. Symptoms: Round Lesions, Thick scales on the skin and scalp, Peeling, Thinning of the skin, Thickening of the scalp, Patches of hair loss, Brittle or bent fingernails, Ulcers inside the lips, Permanent scarring etc. Treatment: • Steroids • Non-steroidal topical creams and ointments • Anti-malarial medications • Immunosuppressive medications etc.

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